Spartans Members… Bari Prashant Bhupesh Kumar Bhuwan Bhashkar Gaurav Mangal Kumar Mayank Deepak Sharma Inder Joshi Mayank Bhargava Gagan deep Singh Karam Bangur
Founded in 1975
The G-8 comprises 7 of the world’s leading industrialized nations and Russia.
The G8 was set up as a forum for economic and trade matters.
G - 8
Countries in G-8
History of France
Located in France is an independent nation in Western
Europe and the center of a large overseas administration.
It is the third largest European nation (after Russia and
Its present name is derived from the Latin word Francia, meaning "country of the Franks,”
It became a separate country in the 9th century.
France has played a major role in European and world events.
FRENCH GUIANA in South America
GUADELOUPE and MARTINIQUE in the West Indies.
MAYOTTE, an island formerly part of the Comoros located.
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON, islands off the east coast of Canada.
Six Overseas Departments
Geo & Demographic view of France
Located in western Europe but also has number of territories in north and South America.
Capital = Paris
Area=547030 square kilometer.
Area with its territories=647843 square KM.
Population = 65.1 million.
Language = French
Metropolitan France & its Neighbours
Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic.
She is an allegorical figure of liberty and the Republic and first appeared at the time of the French Revolution.
France is a secular country.
Majority = Christians
Fifth largest economy in the world.
France joined the 11 EU member to launch EURO in
1999 and replace FRANC completely in early 2002.
Relevance in World Political & Economy
France is a member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the U.N. Security Council with veto rights.
It is also a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in the Ivory Coast and Chad.
Relevance to India
France established diplomatic relations with the newly-independent India in 1947.
France was one of the few nations who did not condemn India's nuclear tests in 1998.
Supported India's bid to become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council as well as G-8.
India has purchased much military equipment from France, especially the French Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft and the Scorpène class submarines.
France is one of the largest suppliers of nuclear fuel to India.
Japan – An Overview
Area: 3,77,835 square kilometers in eastern region of Asia.
Population growth rate: 0.15%
Neighboring countries: North Korea, South Korea, China
It comprises several thousands of islands out of them major islands are Honshu, Hokkiodo, kyushu and shikoku.
Areawise Japan is equivalent to that of Germany and California of the US.
Japan is politically structured into 8 regions and 47 prefectures.
More than 50 percent of country is mountaneous and covered by forests
Culture of Japan
Culture of Japan is evolved from prehistoric Jomon culture which combines influence from Asia, Europe, and North America.
The language spoken mainly in Japan is an agglutinative language ( words formed by joining phonemes together).
Visual arts are the major part of Japanese culture.
Japanese have developed sophisticated and refined cuisines. Dishes such as Sushi, Tempora, and Teriyaki are commonly known.
Sports of Japan
History of Japan
Kofun period (AD 250)
Asuka period (538-710)
Nara period (8th century)
Hein period (794-1185)
Kamakura period (1185-1333)
Muromachi period (1336-1573)
Azuchi momoyama period (1568-1600)
Edo period (1603-1868)
Economy of Japan
Second largest economy of world after the united states at around US$5 trillion in terms of nominal GDP.
Workers of Japan ranked number 18th in the world in GDP Per hour worked as of 2006.
According to Big Mac index wages in Tokyo is the highest among principal countries in the world.
Japan’s service sector accounts for about three quarters of its total economic output.
Judiciary of Japan
In 1947, constitution provides for the complete independence of the judiciary. All judicial power is vested to the courts.
There are 438 summary courts, 1 district court, 8 high courts and Supreme court.
In addition, there is also family court tied to district courts as well as in over 200 branch office throughout the world.
Although, juries have not been used in Japan since 1943, a new Quasi - Juri system was passed into law in may 2004 to be implemented
Relevance to World Economy and Politics
Japan is both major trading nation and one of the largest international investors in the world.
Imports and exports totaling is equivalent of nearly US $522 billion in 1990.
Japan is the member of the united nations, IMF, Organization for economic co-operation and development.
Japan is the major exporter of machine tools, iron, steel that are exported to countries such as US and south korea.
Relevance to Indian Economy
Japan is currently India’s third largest source of foreign direct investment.
Japanese companies have made cumulative investments of around $2.6 billion in India since 1991.
According to 2007 annual survey conducted by the Japan bank for international co-operation ranked India as most promising overseas investment destination for Japan.
In recent years Japan has assisted India in infrastructural development such as Delhi metro rail project.
Relevance to Indian Economy
Recently Japan has agreed to give financial support to India of $5 billion to build rail corridor between New Delhi and Mumbai and Delhi to Howrah to speed up infrastructure.
Introduction of SAARC (South Asian Association of Regional Co-Operation)
It was established on December 8,1985.
Origin of SAARC
The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was first mooted in May,1977 by Bangladesh.
The foreign secretaries of seven countries met for first time in Colombo in April,1981.
A committee meeting in Colombo in August,1981 identified 5 broad areas for regional cooperation.
Objective of SAARC
To promote the welfare of the people of South Africa & to improve their quality of life.
To promote & strengthen collective self reliance among the countries of South Asia.
To contribute to mutual trust, understanding & appreciation of or another’s problem.
To accelerate economic growth, social progress and culture development in the region.
With an area of about 144,000 sq km, Bangladesh is situated between latitudes 20~34' and 26~38' north and latitudes 88~01' and 92~41' east.
The country is bordered by India on the east, west and north and by the Bay of Bengal on the south.
There is also a small strip of frontier with Burma on the southeastern edge.
Bangladesh is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma (Myanmar) to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south.
Together with the Indian state of West Bengal, it makes up the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal.
Despite her small size, Bangladesh does have certain geographical advantages that make her important to regional and extra regional powers which may drag her into a complex strategic scenario created due to rivalries between big powers.
Bangladesh may be seen as a key player in strategic game plans of India, Pakistan, the U.S.A. and China.
Bangladesh is a tropical country, situated mainly on the deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas.
The Brahmaputra River, known locally as the Jamuna, unites with part of the Ganges to form the Padma, which, after its juncture with a third large river, the Meghna, flows into the Bay of Bengal.
Near the Myanmar border, in the extreme southeast, is the Keokradong, which at 1,230 m (4,034 ft) is the highest peak in Bangladesh.
Remnants of civilization in the greater Bengal region date back four thousand years, when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, and Austro-Asiatic peoples. The exact origin of the word "Bangla" or "Bengal" is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from Bang , the Dravidian-speaking tribe that settled in the area around the year 1000 BC.
Recent (2005-2007) estimates of Bangladesh's population range from 142 to 159 million, making it the 7th most populous nation in the world.
With a land area of 144,000 square kilometers, ranked 94th, the population density is remarkable.
Despite continuous domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation.
Its per capita income in 2006 was US$1400 (adjusted by purchasing power parity) compared to the world average of $10,200.
Military of Bangladesh
Emphasis on manpower than technology.
Has about 2,00,000 Personnel.
Has six parts:
Rapid action batallion
Bangladesh national cadet core.
Is highest contributor to U.N peacekeeping operations.
It also help in internal affairs.
spend 1.8% of G.D.P.
Military of Bangladesh
Language - Bangla
Bangla folk music
Films - About 80 films produced in year
Kabbadi is the national game of Bangladesh, Football and Cricket are more popular with Cricket being the most popular sport in Bangladesh followed very closely by Football.
The Bangladeshi cricket team won the ICC Trophy in 1997 against Kenya which enabled them to participate in the 1999 Cricket World Cup. In their very first World Cup, Bangladesh beat Pakistan and Scotland in first round.
In 2011, Bangladesh is going to host the ICC Cricket World Cup jointly with India and Sri Lanka.
Relevance to World Political and Economy
Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational diplomacy, especially at the United Nations.
In 1974 Bangladesh joined both the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations and has since been elected to serve two terms on the Security Council in 1978–1979 and 2000–2001.
In the 1980s, Bangladesh played a lead role in founding the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in order to expand relations with other South Asian states.
Relevance to Asia
Bangladesh's diplomacy is characterized by its essentially reactive nature. It recognises China as a strategic partner, India as a difficult Neighbour and Muslim countries as potential source of support. It has a good relationship with Japan, Srilanka, Pakistan etc.
China's major imports from Bangladesh are raw materials like leather, cotton textiles, fish, etc. And major exports are: textiles, machinery and electronic products, cement, fertilizer, tyre, raw silk, maize, etc.
Relations with India Areas of Agreement Areas of Dispute
Areas of Agreement
India gave larger amount of aid to Bangladesh at the time of economic crisis after independence.
In 1972, both the countries signed a “Treaty of friendship and Peace”. An Indo-Bangladesh Trade Pact was also signed.
Areas of Dispute
The most important for India are some security-related issues, whereas the most important issues on the Bangladeshi side are sharing of the waters of the joint rivers and the river linking project, trade, and a variety of border-related concerns, including smuggling.
Early History :-
Existence of Kashmir
Some Early Issues 1947 :- At the time of partition the British allow several rulers to choose whether they want to stay in India or want to go to Pakistan. But they does not make a choice. 1948 :- existence of the of line of control. 1972 :- sign a peace agreement known as shimla agreement.
1990:- Violence intensifies in Kashmir. Islamic militants carry out ethnic cleansing in the Kashmir Valley, terrorizing non-Muslims, mainly Kashmiri pundits, causing large Numbers of people to flee, mainly to Jammu. 2001 :- A terrorist attack on the Kashmir state legislature in Srinagar. 38 people are killed. Some Early Issues
Hero given farewell
Kashmiri Pandits being called to the valley again
Taking India to the world
Kashmir Hindu Foundation
Hero Given farewell
September 9, 2009 Major Akash Singh Samyal, who attained martyrdom after killing two militants at the time of preventing an infiltration bid by a group of heavily armed militants
Thousands descended on Shakti Nagar cremation ground late Wednesday afternoon to bid farewell to the army officer.
The moment the Indian tricolour wrapped coffin of Major Singh arrived at the cremation ground, people jostled to touch it.
Martyr Major Akash Singh
The city was agog with the rumours that informers were being hounded out, put to death. For the past fifty years the Valley had not known of even a single death but now four or five killings every day had become the order of the day.
People started questioning themselves 'Does my name appear in the list of informers?'...'Do they suspect me of connection with security forces?’
Everyone was working out plans to escape the inevitable death.
Kashmiri Pandits being called to the Valley again
The Finance Minister Abdul Rahim had offered liberal incentives to the migrant Kashmiris for return and resettlement at their homes and hearths in the valley, which they were forced to leave in 1990 and later
The minority Hindus and Sikhs were subjected to selective killings, looting of their property, desecration of their religious places, their women folk gang raped and honour of many plundered, besides holding of threats to them by the mischievous anti national and anti social elements.
the Revenue Minister, Raman Bhalla, who heads the Apex Committee, constituted to facilitate the return of the migrants to the valley said "we are not going to forcibly carry migrants back to the valley” those who were not willing to return would be entitled to cash relief and free ration
He also said that government has decided to give jobs to those pandit youths who returned to Kashmir
Taking India to the World
The young internationally acclaimed Santoor maestro and music composer Abhay Rustum Sopori has been awarded the prestigious ‘Bharat Shiromani Award’ for the year 2008 – 09.
The award is given in recognition of outstanding achievements and contribution made at international level to luminaries of Indian origin in different categories
Abhay Rustum Sopori, the eminent Santoor maestro and music composer, has the credit for creating a Cultural Revolution in the Jammu and Kashmir State bringing the youth together through music.
Kashmir Hindu Foundation
Kashmir Hindu Foundation (KHF) has been launched today in the USA, with an ambitious plan to create a Kashmiri Cultural Center, the first such center outside India.
The Kashmiri Cultural Center will provide home to the expression of arts and culture, where the richness of Kashmiri Hindu heritage will be showcased.
It will provide an opportunity to the world to learn and experience the culture of Kashmir, with its spiritual gurus, soulful poetry and music, Kashmir Shaivism, arts, history and the humanities. This center will house a library with potentially the largest collection of books on Kashmir.