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Seaweeds and People
Raincoast Education Society
Tofino, B.C. Canada
Tofino, B.C. Canada
Tofino, B.C. Canada
Dr. Bridgette ...
What is a
seaweed?
What is a
seaweed?
•aquatic
•marine
•multicellular
•attached
•make their own food
Brainstorm: how do people use seaweed?
Brainstorm: how do people use seaweed?
• beer bong / piping
• skipping ropes
• medicine–iodine supplement
• antiseptics
• ...
A global perspective Images: Google search
Monte Verde, Chile Images:
http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/10/2011/t
Japan and Nori
• harvested since 6th century
• for many centuries, nori fishers
simply gathered what could find
at low tid...
Japan and Nori
• harvested since 6th century
• for many centuries, nori fishers
simply gathered what could find
at low tid...
However, yields remained modest and
crops unreliable from year to year…until…
A connection was made between the
Porphyra crop and the work of a scientist
Seaweeds used in many cultures…
contemporary uses of seaweeds
Photo: algaebase.org
When did you last
use seaweed?
1.In the last 24 hours.
2.In the last week.
3.More than a month
ago.
4.Ew, never.
seaweeds have many uses…
Can we categorize our list of uses?
food, a.k.a. “sea vegetables”
Which is the sushi seaweed?
Photo: algaebase.orgPhoto: algaebase.org
Pyropia yezoensis, a.k.a. nori
Photo: algaebase.org
B.C. First Nations Group and
(or) language family (territory) Name for seaweed (usually Porphyra)
ed, dried, compressed, redried, chopped, stored,
Europe
• Porphyra/Pyropia eaten in
Wales, Scotland, Ireland, N.
England, Norway, Finland.
• Called “laver” or “sloke”
• Po...
Seaweed nutrition: minerals, Calcium
Dry weight (8g typical
serving)
•Ulva 37% RNI*
•Cheddar cheese 5% RNI
* RNI = UK vers...
Seaweed nutrition: minerals, Iron
* RNI = UK version of recommended daily intake
Dry weight (8g typical serving)
•6.4mg Pa...
fatty acids
fatty acids
• Humans require omega-3 and
omega-6 fatty acids in diet.
• Seaweeds up to 2% dry weight
of lipids...
vitamins
vitamins
• Have fat-soluble and water-
soluble vitamins
• Produced by seaweed to
protect against damage caused
by...
protein
protein
• Some species relatively high in
protein
• Porphyra/Pyropia can be up to
47% protein (dry weight)*
• Bioa...
chemical extracts
Photo: algaebase.org
chemical extracts
Photo: algaebase.org
chemical extracts
chemical extracts
Photo: algaebase.org
chemical extracts
Materials
• Bull kelp stipes used by
some First Nations for
fishing lines, ropes, bulbs
as containers.
• Tough stipes of s...
Where does all the seaweed come from?
Most is farmed, Nori by far the largest crop
Wild harvest too, but on smaller scale
Photo: algaebase.org
seaweeds as inspiration
art – Euthora timburtonii example
art
design
biophilia
What about biofuels?
Which examples are new to you?
Which is the most interesting to you?
Which is the most interesting to you?
Future uses and the connection to conservation
Important to collect sustainably
• If required, get a license
(Alaska, Washington,
California)
• Know your limits (10lbs /
day wet weight in
California)
Ho...
How to collect
seaweeds
sustainably
• Don’t pick whole
seaweed
• Take from blades well
above growing zone
(meristem)—on a ...
How to collect
seaweeds
sustainably
• Don’t pick whole
seaweed
• Take from blades well
above growing zone
(meristem)—on a ...
• Collect only a little across
the whole bed
• Collect only what you
need
• Leave holdfasts
• Be aware of what you’re
walk...
• Collect only from clean
sites
• Be respectful of
traditional First Nations’
land
How to collect
seaweeds
sustainably
Gui...
Thank you.
Questions?
Seaweeds and People and of the Canadian West coast by Bridgette Clarkston
Seaweeds and People and of the Canadian West coast by Bridgette Clarkston
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Seaweeds and People and of the Canadian West coast by Bridgette Clarkston

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A short intro to seaweeds and their relationship to people (history, uses) for a public workshop in Tofino, B.C. in 2014 for Raincoast Education Society

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  • What’s the use? game. images of products with seaweeds—what is the seaweed doing or how is it used?
  • Will focus on uses of seaweeds
    brief recap of what seaweeds are for any new audience (have stus explain)
    Photo of Louis Druehl, Canadian Kelp Resources, not sure of source or date, probably around 2003.
  • Brainstorm bunch of examples of how seaweeds used either today or historically. Try to be specific. Make list (to be categorized later during contemporary use section)
  • Brainstorm bunch of examples of how seaweeds used either today or historically. Try to be specific. Make list (to be categorized later during contemporary use section)
  • Seaweeds are found throughout the world's oceans and seas and are used in varying degrees by every culture with access to the oceans.
    If, like me, you’re from a more Western background then this might be surprising— you might think of seaweeds as being used for only sushi or other food. Or you might think it is only a contemporary phenomenon, a new “fad”.
    This is not the case, as we’ll explore, the relationship between people and seaweeds is much richer and deeper than you might expect. In fact, people have been using seaweeds for thousands of years….
  • Most seaweeds have no hard parts that preserve well—those that do aren’t edible by people—as such, hard to find evidence of seaweed use by people from pre-historic times. However, are a few examples.
    May have influenced migration of peoples into Americas, a so-called “kelp highway”
    – people entered Americas via land bridge “beringia” ~16000 yrs ago
    – not known if route used was coastal, inland or both.
    – one hypothesis that coastal people used coastal resources—fish, seaweeds, shellfish—and similar resources along long distances expedite migration south.
    – idea that peoples travelled along coast, using river basins to migrate inland, explore inland as they travelled. Once established, many groups subsisted on mix of coastal/inland resources even if living many km from coast. Also travelled these routes to trade with other groups.
    – evidence for this in South American site Monte Verde, Chile. Extremely well-preserved site, 14,600 yrs old (upper layer).
    – distance is HOW MANY KM? from beringia, yet people here in less than 2000 yrs.
    – 10 spp. seaweeds recovered here, site is 90km from coast and 15km from inland marine bay.
    – species found include mazzaella, macrocystis, porphyra species we have in canada (support for similar spp. easier to migrate)
    – also non-edible species like sargassum (we have in canada), suggesting used for medicinal as well as food purposes
    – flecks of mazzaella, porphyra on blades indicates they were chopped, worked in some ways.
    – evidence some were dried, probably for storing or travel back to coast
    – evidence used seaweeds year round (drying) and seasonal availability of species
    – people in this area accustomed to using coastal resources year-round, together with interior food, coastal seaweeds important for their survival.
    – site is a peat bog so acidity of soil prevented bacterial decay.
    kelp highway” Dillihey monte verde paper
    Resources:
    – dillihey paper
    – pictures: http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/10/2011/the-seaweed-trail-peopling-the-americas
    – Unesco site: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1873/
  • – have harvested porphyra/pyropia in wild for production of nori since 6th century.
    – cultivation began in 16th century (500 years ago)
    – for many centuries, cultivation output was modest. Everything done manually (harvest, cultivation, prep of seaweed into sheets of nori)
    – for many centuries, nori fishers gathered what they could find at low tide.
    – in 1821, innovation by Jinbei Ohmiya who invented the pole method. Poles placed in shallow sandbanks and success depended on spores of porphyry settling and growing.
    – in 1930’s, began suspending nets between poles, improving surface area on which spores could settle, better access to light. Lead to a 10x increase in yield
    – remained low-yield until 1960’s when work of scientist Kathleen Drew
    RESOURCES:
    – info from Mouritson book
    – Image from Utagawa Hiroshige (1857) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_Hundred_Famous_Views_of_Edo
  • – have harvested porphyra/pyropia in wild for production of nori since 6th century.
    – cultivation began in 16th century (500 years ago)
    – for many centuries, cultivation output was modest. Everything done manually (harvest, cultivation, prep of seaweed into sheets of nori)
    – for many centuries, nori fishers gathered what they could find at low tide.
    – in 1821, innovation by Jinbei Ohmiya who invented the pole method. Poles placed in shallow sandbanks and success depended on spores of porphyry settling and growing.
    – in 1930’s, began suspending nets between poles, improving surface area on which spores could settle, better access to light. Lead to a 10x increase in yield
    – remained low-yield until 1960’s when work of scientist Kathleen Drew
    RESOURCES:
    – info, images from Mouritson seaweeds sustainable, edible available book

  • RESOURCES:
    – info from Mouritson book
    – Image from Utagawa Hiroshige (1857) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_Hundred_Famous_Views_of_Edo
  • – until work of Drew, years when the porphyry crop failed and no one knew why.
    – What Drew discovered in her research, studied the related species porphyry umbilicus in europe
    RESOURCES:
    – deep sea news: http://deepseanews.com/2013/11/weed-of-the-week-the-phycologist-that-launched-a-billion-dollar-industry/
  • Modern nori aquaculture had its begin- nings in 1949 when the filamentous Conchocelis-phase in the life history of Porphyra was identified and characterized by the British phycologist Kathleen M. Drew-Baker (Drew 1949), which led to the seeding of ropes from artificially cultivated Conchocelis-phases. In the latter part of the 20th century, some 300000 tonnes wet weight of Porphyra
    nori growing in Japan is a multi-billion dollar industry — the single big- gest aquacultural enterprise being undertaken anywhere
    As well as simple growth and propagation, some genetic selec- tion of nori has been undertaken to produce longer fronds in which fertility is delayed, permitting a greater interval of growth before the onset of spore production and subsequent frond erosion
    (above from Turner 2003 paper)
    April 14th still celebrated as “Mother of the Sea” day.
    A great example of science for it’s own sake having an application after the fact.
  • – Many modern and ancient human populations with access to the seashore has used seaweeds in one way or another. Over 500 different species used in human history.
    – 2000 years, China; 400 years ago in Scotland
    – First Nations groups like the Coast Salish are well-documented as using seaweeds for many purposes. –
    – for three main purposes: fodder, chemicals and food.
    – Source: Graham & Wilcox
    Photos: Top left, Chondrus harvest in PEI (http://www.tourismpei.com/photo-contest-2010), lower left, Ecklonia harvest in South Africa (algaebase.org), right, Eucheuma harvest in Zimbabwe (algaebase.org)
  • CONTEMPORARY USE SECTION
    here have TPS to categorize the brainstormed list of ways seaweeds used contemporarily.
    - suitable for vegetarians: agarose instead gelatine, carageen as thickener in dairies
    - cosmetic and health: positive effect on e.g. psiorisas; I once listened to a beautyful speech in Lancaster, UK from Jane Teas (Jane.Teas@PalmettoHealth.org): seaweeds and cancer
  • Even if you have a very traditionally-Western diet – which does not make much direct use of seaweed as food – you’ve probably consumed something that contains at least an extract of seaweed in it recently.
  • Even though we still don’t fully understand seaweed biodiversity, we sure do make use of it! (though we could be using seaweeds much more than we currently do)
    This man here is my friend and mentor, Dr. Louis Druehl. He’s a world-expert on kelps and other browns and worked for many years at Simon Fraser University. He now lives in Bamfield, west coast of Vancouver Island, and with his wife, Rae, runs a successful seaweed farm there. Here he is pulling up a crop of kelp.
    Probably the most obvious use of seaweed by humans is as food. So let’s find out if you guys eat seaweed...
    Photo source: (Not sure, a fellow student at Bamfield in 2003. Maybe Hana Kucera or Rodney Withall)
  • 8g portion dry weight typical daily portion size in Asian cuisine.
    Seaweeds as a food group not typically ingested in unprocessed form in Western diets to any great extent.
    The single most important seaweed foods in the world are the Porphyra species.
    In mainstream North American society they are considered “health foods”, and are sold as specialty and ethnic products in grocery stores and health food stores.
  • Put in 3 more difficult examples.
  • Nori has been farmed in Japan for over 300 years.
    Since the 1940’s – when a seaweed biologist named Kathleen Drew Baker made a crucial discovery about the life history of Pyropia – nori farming has scaled up to become the biggest seaweed aquaculture industry in the world. The annual Pyropia harvest is estimated to be worth $2.5 billion dollars
    – Pyropia is a good source of digestible protein – 25–35% dry weight of the plant is protein, most of which is digestible by humans.
    – The economic success of crop seaweeds depends on detailed knowledge of the seaweeds themselves.
    Photos: Pyropia specimen (Dan McDevit), nori farm (http://www.edenfoods.com/articles/view.php?articles_id=159), nori sheets (http://huntgatherlove.com/content/super-super-bowl-snack-ajitsuke-nori)
  • There are a few types of seaweeds that have been important to many cultures and nori is one of them. More correctly it’s called Pyropia, that’s the scientific name for Nori (nori being the final processed food).
    On the Pacific Coast of North America, indigenous peo- ples have enjoyed a similarly long relationship with Porphyra species. The health and nutritional benefits pro- vided by Porphyra are widely appreciated by Northwest Coast indigenous peoples.
    Table shows just sampling of names for Pyropia and related algae eaten by First Nations of BC
    Gives a sense of how important was as a food source.
  • Fig. 3. Porphyra abbottae dried and ready to eat as a nutritious snack. Fig. 4. Porphyra abbottae cooked with salmon eggs, ready to be served, with cut squares of herring eggs on giant kelp (Macrocystis integrifolia Bory) (right).
  • – seaweeds are primary source of omega-3-fatty acids (all other marine orgs derive theirs from these and other algae). Are vital requirement for dev’t of complex brain and nervous system. (Mouritsen book, pg. 5) and affect cellular functions involved in ensuring a normal heart rate and coronary blood flow (nih site)
  • Minerals (table from MacArtain paper)
    –The composition of seaweeds is known to vary according to the season and to the sampling techniques used; thus, the average values of components as reported in the available literature were used.
    – Seaweeds exposed to many trace minerals due to marine habitat and are high in minerals compared to terrestrial sources of food.
    – amount absorbed varies by species and location.
    – important minerals like calcium and iron much higher in seaweeds than many terrestrial spp.
    – calcium: ulva 8g portion dry weight contains 37% of daily intake calcium for adult male (UK standards)
  • Minerals (table from MacArtain paper)
  • – seaweeds are primary source of omega-3-fatty acids (all other marine orgs derive theirs from these and other algae). Are vital requirement for dev’t of complex brain and nervous system. (Mouritsen book, pg. 5) and affect cellular functions involved in ensuring a normal heart rate and coronary blood flow (nih site)
  • p.539: The habitat of seaweeds varies from species to species but many of them spend large amounts of time exposed to direct sunlight in an aqueous environment. As a result, seaweeds contain many forms of antioxidants, including vitamins and protective pigments. -- Highlighted oct 20, 2012
  • Reds, browns and greens each have compounds in their cell walls that protect their cells and help the seaweed stay upright in and out of the water. Globally, by far the main industrial use of seaweeds is in extracting these compounds from just a few different species of reds and browns. Used for commercial use as gelling agents to stiffen solutions and also as preservatives.
    Agar from a few different types of red algae, like Gelidium.
    Info source for chemical extracts: seaweeds.ie, Graham, Graham & Wilcox. 2009. The Algae. 2nd Edition. Pearson.
    Photo source: Gelidium (algaebase.org). Agar plate: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Salmonella_sp._on_DC-agar_from_Flickr_69017875.jpg
  • From red algae the compounds extracted called carrageenans come from relatively few types of red seaweeds, like Chondrus crispus (important historically in Canada, but today other genera used more for carrageenans, like Kappaphycus).
    Photos: Chondrus (algaebase.org), powder (http://zailingtech.en.made-in-china.com)
  • From red algae the compounds extracted called carrageenans come from relatively few types of red seaweeds, like Chondrus crispus (important historically in Canada, but today other genera used more for carrageenans, like Kappaphycus).
    Photos: Chondrus (algaebase.org), powder (http://zailingtech.en.made-in-china.com)
  • Photo: Saccharina japonica (algaebase.org), alginate (http://www.dalchem.com.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=392&Itemid=346)
  • Compounds extracted from seaweeds – alginates, carrageenans, agars – too complex to synthesize.
    – since we only make use of a few dozen species for chemical extracts, huge potential of chemical uses yet to be discovered.
    Photo: Saccharina japonica (algaebase.org), alginate (http://www.dalchem.com.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=392&Itemid=346)
  • Coastal First Nations of northwestern North America, as well as using Porphyra species as food, have many other applications for macroscopic marine algae. Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana (Mert.) Postels & Rupr.) stipes were cured for fishing lines, and the hollow floats were used as vessels for storing liquids such as seal oil. The tough stipes of some species were used to make beach hockey sticks and the holdfasts carved into hard, round balls for this game.
  • Brief tps to answer question.
    Aquaculture vs. wildcaught info
  • The last human use I want to touch on is one that’s quite personal to me – the aesthetic of seaweeds, the sheer pleasure I get from the beauty of their form and how that beauty inspires me. They may look simple And I’m not the only one...
    Photo: Macrocystis (algaebase.org)
  • I think that when you’re inspired by something – the way I’m inspired and invigorated by the beauty of seaweeds – that inspiration can ripple out and affect those around you in positive ways. As an example, the species I was so excited to describe, E. timburtonii, inspired my sister Meghan Clarkston to make this painting, and my friend Kathryn Roy to make these beautiful cupcakes (and, by coincidence, the fruit roll-up used on top likely contains seaweed!)
  • Example of seaweeds inspiring art, and seaweed used to make art.
    stamps: http://www.alga-net.com/
    designer sushi: http://www.designboom.com/weblog/cat/8/view/20710/lasercut-nori-for-designer-sushi.html
  • Not seaweeds!
  • Still so much we don’t know about the fundamental information of seaweeds: how many species, where they live, how to tell them apart. Until we do, cannot reliably assess the properties and potential use of most species (give example of mistaken identity, pic of two identical yet different taxa–ulva? with question marks on them)
  • They may look simple or uninteresting from far away or when they’re rotting, but take a look up close and in their element and I think you’ll be inspired too.
    END W/ CONSERVE ONLY WHAT WE LOVE QUOTE??
    Photo: Phycodrys (algaebase.org)
  • Transcript of "Seaweeds and People and of the Canadian West coast by Bridgette Clarkston"

    1. 1. Seaweeds and People Raincoast Education Society Tofino, B.C. Canada Tofino, B.C. Canada Tofino, B.C. Canada Dr. Bridgette Clarkston © Bridgette Clarkston 2014 (all images taken by B. Clarkston unless otherwise stated).
    2. 2. What is a seaweed?
    3. 3. What is a seaweed? •aquatic •marine •multicellular •attached •make their own food
    4. 4. Brainstorm: how do people use seaweed?
    5. 5. Brainstorm: how do people use seaweed? • beer bong / piping • skipping ropes • medicine–iodine supplement • antiseptics • cultivate lab organisms • food • catching herring spawn • baking supplements in place of gelatin • carrageenan for cooking • Turkish towel as toothbrush / washcloth • garden fertilizer • mattress stuffing • art / music
    6. 6. A global perspective Images: Google search
    7. 7. Monte Verde, Chile Images: http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index.php/archives/10/2011/t
    8. 8. Japan and Nori • harvested since 6th century • for many centuries, nori fishers simply gathered what could find at low tide. • cultivated since 16th century Utagawa Hiroshige’s “One hundred famous views of Edo”, #109 (1857)
    9. 9. Japan and Nori • harvested since 6th century • for many centuries, nori fishers simply gathered what could find at low tide. • harvest and processing into nori sheets done by hand • cultivated since 16th century • “pole” method invented 1821 • nets across poles 1930’s
    10. 10. However, yields remained modest and crops unreliable from year to year…until…
    11. 11. A connection was made between the Porphyra crop and the work of a scientist
    12. 12. Seaweeds used in many cultures…
    13. 13. contemporary uses of seaweeds Photo: algaebase.org
    14. 14. When did you last use seaweed? 1.In the last 24 hours. 2.In the last week. 3.More than a month ago. 4.Ew, never.
    15. 15. seaweeds have many uses…
    16. 16. Can we categorize our list of uses?
    17. 17. food, a.k.a. “sea vegetables”
    18. 18. Which is the sushi seaweed? Photo: algaebase.orgPhoto: algaebase.org
    19. 19. Pyropia yezoensis, a.k.a. nori Photo: algaebase.org
    20. 20. B.C. First Nations Group and (or) language family (territory) Name for seaweed (usually Porphyra)
    21. 21. ed, dried, compressed, redried, chopped, stored,
    22. 22. Europe • Porphyra/Pyropia eaten in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, N. England, Norway, Finland. • Called “laver” or “sloke” • Pounded, stewed to jelly or mixed with oats… • 200 tonnes collected annually in Wales until 1980’s (pollution)
    23. 23. Seaweed nutrition: minerals, Calcium Dry weight (8g typical serving) •Ulva 37% RNI* •Cheddar cheese 5% RNI * RNI = UK version of recommended daily intake Kombu/konbu Wakame Nori Dulse Irish moss Sea lettuce
    24. 24. Seaweed nutrition: minerals, Iron * RNI = UK version of recommended daily intake Dry weight (8g typical serving) •6.4mg Palmaria (dulse) •1.6mg steak (raw sirloin) •Bioavailability (absorption and retention unknown for most seaweeds) •One study found lower bioavailability in Porphyra sp. Kombu/konbu Wakame Nori Dulse Irish moss Sea lettuce
    25. 25. fatty acids fatty acids • Humans require omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in diet. • Seaweeds up to 2% dry weight of lipids, mostly fatty acids. • In fact, are the producers of the fatty omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in fish, shellfish.
    26. 26. vitamins vitamins • Have fat-soluble and water- soluble vitamins • Produced by seaweed to protect against damage caused by uv light • One of few plant sources of B12.
    27. 27. protein protein • Some species relatively high in protein • Porphyra/Pyropia can be up to 47% protein (dry weight)* • Bioavailability improved by “physical processes” or fermentation. *Varies by season and species
    28. 28. chemical extracts Photo: algaebase.org
    29. 29. chemical extracts Photo: algaebase.org
    30. 30. chemical extracts
    31. 31. chemical extracts Photo: algaebase.org
    32. 32. chemical extracts
    33. 33. Materials • Bull kelp stipes used by some First Nations for fishing lines, ropes, bulbs as containers. • Tough stipes of some species used to make beach hockey sticks. Holdfasts carved into round hard balls.
    34. 34. Where does all the seaweed come from?
    35. 35. Most is farmed, Nori by far the largest crop
    36. 36. Wild harvest too, but on smaller scale Photo: algaebase.org
    37. 37. seaweeds as inspiration
    38. 38. art – Euthora timburtonii example
    39. 39. art
    40. 40. design
    41. 41. biophilia
    42. 42. What about biofuels?
    43. 43. Which examples are new to you? Which is the most interesting to you? Which is the most interesting to you?
    44. 44. Future uses and the connection to conservation
    45. 45. Important to collect sustainably
    46. 46. • If required, get a license (Alaska, Washington, California) • Know your limits (10lbs / day wet weight in California) How to collect seaweeds sustainably Guidelines from: Jennifer Hahn. 2010. Pacific Feast. Skipstone.
    47. 47. How to collect seaweeds sustainably • Don’t pick whole seaweed • Take from blades well above growing zone (meristem)—on a kelp, this is between stipe and blade • Use scissors or knife if possible meristem cut here Guidelines from: Jennifer Hahn. 2010. Pacific Feast. Skipstone.
    48. 48. How to collect seaweeds sustainably • Don’t pick whole seaweed • Take from blades well above growing zone (meristem)—on a kelp, this is between stipe and blade • Use scissors or knife if possible cut here Guidelines from: Jennifer Hahn. 2010. Pacific Feast. Skipstone.
    49. 49. • Collect only a little across the whole bed • Collect only what you need • Leave holdfasts • Be aware of what you’re walking on (don’t crush the animals!) How to collect seaweeds sustainably Guidelines from: Jennifer Hahn. 2010. Pacific Feast. Skipstone.
    50. 50. • Collect only from clean sites • Be respectful of traditional First Nations’ land How to collect seaweeds sustainably Guidelines from: Jennifer Hahn. 2010. Pacific Feast. Skipstone.
    51. 51. Thank you. Questions?
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