Endocrine system 2

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The endocrine system

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Endocrine system 2

  1. 1. By Darth Benjamanus
  2. 2. Signals in Animals <ul><li>Hormones: Chemical signals that convey information between organs </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromones: chemical signals between different individuals </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Mating attractions </li></ul>
  3. 3. HORMONES <ul><li>Only target cells receive message </li></ul><ul><li>They elicit a specific response </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50 known hormones in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid hormones (including sex hormones) are lipid molecules the body makes from cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Bind to specific protein receptors inside pm </li></ul><ul><li>Non-steroid hormones bind to specific receptors outside plasma membrane </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hormones Bind to Specific Receptors! <ul><li>Hormones act at very low concentrations </li></ul><ul><li>Signal transduction pathway: sequence of steps that enable a hormone to produce an intracellular change </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid receptors are specialized proteins within the cells </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chemical signals are relayed and amplified by 2 nd messengers and protein kinases <ul><li>Earl W. Sutherland- pioneer for endocrine system, received Nobel prize 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>CAMP- Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signals <ul><li>Signal transduction involving cAMP: </li></ul><ul><li>binding of a hormone to surface receptor activates G protein (relay) </li></ul><ul><li>Activates anenylyl cyclase (effector) to produce cAMP, </li></ul><ul><li>Which activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase, enzyme that phosphorylates proteins </li></ul>
  7. 7. Invertebrate control systems integrate both endocrine and nervous system functions. <ul><li>Diverse hormones regulate different aspects of homeostasis in invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones controlling reproduction and development have been extensively researched </li></ul>Different job, different hormone.
  8. 8. Target Cells <ul><li>Specific hormones target specific cells </li></ul><ul><li>While one cell may be affected by a hormone, its neighbors may remain untouched </li></ul>(Target cell)
  9. 9. Pheromones (again) <ul><li>Carry messages in between different individuals of a species, as in mate attraction </li></ul>DARK MARK, YO!
  10. 10. Local Regulators <ul><li>Growth Factors: peptides and proteins that stimulate cell proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>Nitric Oxide: Highly reactive, triggers changes in a target cell w/in a few seconds of contact and then breaks down; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functions as a neurotransmitter, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kills cancer cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relaxes muscles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins (PGs)- modified fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate contractions in the smooth muscles in the wall of the uterus, during both intercourse and labor </li></ul></ul>REGULATE THIS!!
  11. 11. Vertebrate Endocrine System
  12. 12. Hypothalamus <ul><li>In brain, controls other glands </li></ul>Like a boss!
  13. 13. Pituitary gland <ul><li>Promotes kidney water retention </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth(especially bones) and metabolic functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production of sperm/ova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ovaries and testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thyroid gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids </li></ul></ul>I’m the boss!
  14. 14. Pituitary gland= the boss!
  15. 15. Parathyroid Glands: <ul><li>Stimulate and maintain metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers blood calcium level </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxin- Hormone that controls metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Raise blood calcium level (homeostasis) </li></ul>Thyroid Gland:
  16. 16. Pancreas <ul><li>Insulin: Lowers blood glucose level </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon: Raises blood glucose level </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Raise blood glucose level </li></ul><ul><li>Increase metabolic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Constrict certain blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Promote re-absorption of sodium and excretion of potassium in kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Epinephrine or norepinephrine </li></ul>Fight or Flight!!
  18. 18. Testes <ul><li>Secrete Testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Support sperm formation </li></ul><ul><li>Promote development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics </li></ul>Ovaries <ul><li>Secrete Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate uterine lining growth </li></ul><ul><li>Promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics </li></ul>(Gonads)
  19. 19. Pineal Gland <ul><li>Secretes Melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in Biological Rhy thms </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thymus Gland <ul><li>Stimulates T Lymphocytes </li></ul>
  21. 21. NOW GET OUT THERE, AND PUNCH THAT TEST IN THE FACE!!!
  22. 22. Who’s your DADDY??? This has been….. a Darth Benjamanus Production

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