Projects and Project Managers Project – a [temporary] sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by specific time, within budget, and according to specification. Project manager - the person responsible for supervising a systems project from initiation to conclusion
What is Project Management?Project management is the application ofknowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities tomeet project requirements.
Project Management and Process Management Project management – the process of scoping, planning, staffing, organizing, directing, and controlling the development of an acceptable system at a minimum cost within a specified time frame. Process management – the activity of documenting, managing, and continually improving the process of systems development.• The more you know about your project, the better you are able to manage it.
Why Projects Fail?• changing customer requirements• ambiguous/incomplete requirements• an unrealistic deadline is established• an honest underestimate of effort• predictable and/or unpredictable risks• technical difficulties• miscommunication among project staff• failure in project management
Major Causes of Project Success• A constructive goal-oriented culture• Technically competent team• Effective (and committed) team• Excellent communication• Trust
10 Hints for Project Leadership 1. Be Consistent. 2. Provide Support. 3. Don’t Make Promises You Can’t Keep. 4. Praise in Public; Criticize in Private. 5. Be Aware of Morale Danger Points. 6. Set Realistic Deadlines. 7. Set Perceivable Targets. 8. Explain and Show, Rather Than Do. 9. Don’t Rely on Just Status Reports. 10. Encourage a Good Team Spirit.4-7
Project Management Functions• Scoping – setting the boundaries of the project• Planning – identifying the tasks required to complete the project• Estimating – identifying the resources required to complete the project• Scheduling – developing the plan to complete the project• Organizing – making sure members understand their roles and responsibilities• Directing – coordinating the project• Controlling – monitoring progress• Closing – assessing success and failure
ScopeScope defines the boundary of the project. A project manager must scopeproject expectations and constraints in order to plan activities, estimatecosts and manage expectation.PlanningPlanning identifies the tasks required to complete the project. This basedon the manager’s understanding of the project scope and themethodology used to achieve the goal.EstimatingEach task that is required to complete the project must be estimated. Howmuch time will be required? How many people will be needed? What skillswill be needed? What tasks must be completed before other tasks arestarted? Can some of the task overlap? How much will it cost? These are allestimating issues.
SchedulingGiven the project plan, the project manager is responsible for schedulingall project activities. The project schedule should be developed with anunderstanding of the required task, task duration and task pre-requisites.OrganizingThe project manager should make sure the members of the project teamunderstand their own individual roles and responsibilities as well as heirreporting relationship to the project manager.DirectingOne the project has begun, the project manager must direct the team’sactivities. Every project manager must demonstrate people managementskills to coordinate, delegate, motivate advise, appraise and reward teammembers.
ControllingThe manager’s most difficult and important function is controlling theproject. Few plans will be executed without problems and delays. Theproject manager must monitor and report progress against goals.ClosingGood project managers always assess successes and failures at theconclusion of the project. They learn from their projects and plan forcontinuous improvement of the system development process.
Project Management Tools & TechniquesPERT chart – a graphical network model used to depict theinterdependencies between a project’s tasks.Gantt chart – a bar chart used to depict project tasks against acalendar.
Project Management Life Cycle1. Negotiate scope2. Identify tasks3. Estimate Task Durations4. Specify Intertask Dependencies5. Assign Resources6. Direct the Team Effort
Project Management Life Cycle..(cont) 7. Monitor and control progress 8. Assess project results and experiences
NEGOTIATE SCOPE Scope defines the boundaries of the project– the parts of the business that are to be studied, analyzed, designed, constructed, implemented and ultimately improved the answers of five basic questions influence the negotiation of project scope. Product : What do you want? Quality : How good do you want it to be? Time : When do you want it? Cost : How much you are willing to pay for it? Resources : what resources are you willing or able to bring to the tableIDENTIFY TASKS The next activity is to identify project tasks. Tasks identify the work to be done. We need to break down information system int oactivities and tasks until each task represents an manageable amount of work that can be planned, scheduled and assigned.
ESTIMATE TASK DURATION The project manager must estimate duration for each task. Duration of any task includes such as: • The size of the team • Number of users • Availability of users • Aptitude of users • Complexity of the business systems • Time committed for projectsSPECIFY INTERTASK DEPENDENCIES The start or completion of individual tasks may depend on the start or completion of other tasks. There are four types of intertask dependencies. • Finish-to-Start (FS) • Start-to-Start (SS) • Finish-to-Finish (FF) • Start-to-Finish (SF)
ASSIGN RESOURCES Resources includes the following categories People : includes all the system owners, users, analysts, designers, builders. Services : includes services such as quality review Facilities and Equipment : includes all rooms and technology that will be needed to complete the projectMONITOR AND CONTROL PROGRESS While executing the project, the project manager must control the project, that is, monitor its progress against the scope, schedule and budget. The manger must report progress and when necessary , adjust scope, schedule and resources.
ASSESS PROJECT RESULTS AND EXPERIENCES Project managers must learn from their mistakes. They should embrace continuous process improvements. This final activity involves soliciting feedback from project team members (including customers) concerning their project experiences and suggestions aimed at improving the project and process management of the organizations. • Did the final product meet or exceed user expectations? – Why or why not? • Did the project come in on schedule? – Why or why not? • Did the project come in under budget? – Why or why not?
Activity 4 – Specify Intertask Dependencies• Finish-to-start (FS)—The finish of one task triggers the start of another task.• Start-to-start (SS)—The start of one task triggers the start of another task.• Finish-to-finish (FF)—Two tasks must finish at the same time.• Start-to-finish (SF)—The start of one task signifies the finish of another task.
Scheduling StrategiesForward scheduling – a project scheduling approach that establishes aproject start date and then schedules forward from that date.Reverse scheduling – a project scheduling strategy that establishes aproject deadline and then schedules backward from that date.
Activity 5 – Assign Resources• People – includes all system owners, users, analysts, designers, builders, external agents, and clerical help involved in the project in any way.• Services – includes services such as a quality review that may be charged on a per use basis.• Facilities and equipment – includes all rooms and technology that will be needed to complete the project.• Supplies and materials – everything from pencils, paper, notebooks to toner cartridges, and so on.• Money – includes a translation of all of the above into budgeted dollars!
Activity 7 – Monitor and Control Progress• Progress reporting• Change management
Change ManagementChange management – a formal strategy in which a process is establishedto facilitate changes that occur during a project.
Project Manager Competencies• Business awareness • Anticipation of impact• Commitment to quality • Resourceful use of influence• Initiative • Motivating others• Information gathering • Communication skills• Analytical thinking • Developing others• Conceptual thinking • Monitoring and controlling• Interpersonal awareness • Self-confidence• Organizational awareness • Stress management • Concern for credibility • Flexibility