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Challenging Aspects of Modern Project Management

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Challenging Aspects of Modern Project Management

Challenging Aspects of Modern Project Management

  1. 1. Challenging Aspects of Modern Project Management Yamanta Raj Niroula, PMP, PMI-SP Planning and Project Controls Manager International Organization for Migration (IOM) yamanta.raj@gmail.com
  2. 2. Project Management:  Project Defined: – PMBOK Guide, Fifth Edition : “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.” – A complex, non-routine, one-time effort limited by time, budget, resources, and performance specifications designed to meet customer needs.  Major Characteristics of a Project: – Has an established objective. – Has a defined life span with a beginning and an end. – Requires across-the-organizational participation. – Involves doing something never been done before. – Has specific time, cost, and performance requirements. Success and failure is no longer within the total control of that project
  3. 3. Project Management:  Project Management Defined: – PMBOK Guide, Fifth Edition : “Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.” – Project Management : a well-understood discipline. – Produce predictable, repeatable results.  Project Management Processes: – A project management process is the management process of planning and controlling the performance or execution of a project. – According to PMI, project management is accomplished through the appropriate application and integration of the 47 logically grouped project management processes, which are categorized into five Process Groups - Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing.
  4. 4. Project Management Process: Initiation Complete & Assess Tracking & Control Reporting Review Planning Initiation Plan Detailed Plan Status Report Post Project Review Report
  5. 5. The Project Life Cycle:  A representation of the phases that a project typically goes through.  General, but representative of the common flow of activities on a project.  The phases represented at the bottom of the graphic below describe the way in which a project typically progresses.
  6. 6. Project Success: The 'Golden Triangle of Project Success Objectives Time Cost Project success occurs when we have: I I I I A delighted client (expectations met) Delivered the agreed objectives Met an agreed budget - resources etc. Within an agreed time frame and I Done it all professionally & safely
  7. 7. Project Failure: • I've been involved in several projects that; - went over budget, - were delivered late, and - didn't make the customer happy. • But I've never heard any of them actually called "failures". • What is Project Failure?  A project is considered a failure when it has not delivered what was required, in line with expectations.  In US, more than $250 billion dollars is spent each year on IT application development in approximately 175,000 projects.
  8. 8. Project Failure: • Summary of 2009 Standish Group CHAOS report: • This result shows a marked decrease in project success rates.
  9. 9. Why Do Projects Fail?: The number of reasons can be infinite. However, if we apply the 80/20 rule the most common reasons for failure can be found in the following list:  Poor sponsorship  Unclear requirements  Unrealistic timescales or budgets  Scope creep  Poor risk management  Poor processes/documentation  Poor estimating  Poor communication/stakeholder engagement  Poor business case  Inadequate/incorrectly skilled resources
  10. 10. Project Management Maturity Model No formal consistent process Adhoc (1) Foundation (2) Consistent, basic approach to project execution Managed (3) Consistent, comprehensive approach Integrated (4) Institutionalized & integrated Into planning Optimizing (5) Project-centered organization • A common method of determining the current level of project management capability and maturity is to use the project management maturity model illustrated by five distinct levels of maturity as shown in the following diagram:
  11. 11. Level 1 – Adhoc:  No formal, consistent process to execute a project.  Many, incomplete, informal approaches.  Project outcomes unpredictable.  Little organizational support for project management.  Lesson learned are not gathered and passed on to other projects.  Projects happen without correct initiation.  Communication is poor.  Interdependencies are not managed.  Standards, if any, are poorly defined or unenforced. Adhoc (1) Success rate less than 20%
  12. 12. Level 2 – Foundation:  Consistent, basic approach to project execution is adopted.  Managed support for project management.  Repeatable processes are applied to basic project management steps  Project outcomes are more predictable  Use of common tools and techniques for key project management processes Foundation (2) Success rate of 20% to 40%
  13. 13. Level 3 – Managed:  Consistent, comprehensive approach to project execution  Senior management support for project management  Organization can efficiently plan, manage, integrate and control single projects  Repository of previous project experience is maintained and utilized  Team members and project managers trained in project management  Consistent use of tools and techniques for project management processes Managed (3) Success rate of 40% to 60%
  14. 14. Level 4 – Integrated:  Project portfolio management is institutionalized and integrated into the organization’s business planning process.  Active senior management support for integration of business planning and project execution.  Organization can efficiently plan, manage, integrate and control multiple projects  Database of previous project data is maintained and utilized (Organizational Process Assets). Success rate of 60% to 80% Integrated (4)
  15. 15. Level 5 – Optimization:  Project-centered organization with an established approach to continuous improvement of project  Management.  Project management environment improvement is actively encouraged.  Flexible, project-centered organization structure.  Career program for project managers.  Project management training is a key component in staff development. Success rate better than 80% Optimization (5)
  16. 16. Why Should We Care?:  To answer following questions: - Where does your organization fit today? How important are successful projects to your business? - Based on the level of business importance is your organization at the appropriate level? For example, if the successful delivery of projects is important to your business success then you will likely want to be at level three or greater. If you have a software development company, consulting company or engineering firm that is totally based on projects then you will likely want to be at level four or five. - Each organization is different and must carefully analyze their position in terms of the impact projects have on their own bottom-line.
  17. 17. Project Management - Key Challenges:  Key challenges of today's project managements are: - Increased magnitude of project complexities. - Uncontrollable changes. - Communication and liaison with team members and stakeholders. - Managing and dealing with multiple people from different regions / countries (in global projects). - Obtaining resources with right skills or characteristics. - Managing high risk projects. - Non-centralized communication flow. - Padding of estimates (Parkinson's Law).
  18. 18. Management Techniques: To increase the likelihood of project success you must manage:  Stakeholders  Risks  Issues  Change
  19. 19. ProjectAcademic & Business Units Who Are Stakeholders? Outside Groups (Vendors) Team Members Information Technology Steering Committee Clients & UsersSenior Mgmt Interdependent Projects
  20. 20. How to Manage Stakeholders:  Project stakeholders are individuals, groups, or organizations who may affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project.  Every project will have stakeholders who are impacted by or can impact the project in a positive or negative way. They exert influence over the project and its deliverables and could cause the success or failure of the project.  The ability to correctly identify and manage these stakeholders in an appropriate manner can mean the difference between success and failure.  Stakeholder management is all about engagement. Engagement is about involvement. Involvement means communication, but it also means participation. Get your stakeholders to participate in the project and you can manage them better.  Get them involved; Keep them informed; Gain their endorsement
  21. 21. Stakeholder Management Overview:  Identify Stakeholders  Plan Stakeholder Management  Manage Stakeholder Engagement  Control Stakeholder Engagement
  22. 22. Risk Management:  What is “risk”?  An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives such as scope, schedule, cost, and quality.  To be successful, an organization should be committed to address risk management proactively and consistently throughout the project.  Risk Management Overview:  Identify Risks  Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis  Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis  Plan Risk Responses  Control Risks
  23. 23. Issues Management:  Unresolved issues will drive a project towards failure and consume a significant part of a project manager’s time.  Stakeholders play key role in issues management and resolution - Establish Issues log, review, escalation process
  24. 24. Change Management:  Uncontrolled changes to a project will probably account for up to 30% of a project’s total effort.  If these changes are not managed, the project will be viewed to be over time and over budget. - Establish a Change management process
  25. 25. Project Management Best Practices:  Project planning : the project definition, the work plan, and the project management procedures.  Plan the work by utilizing a project definition document.  Create a planning horizon : detailed work plan, including assigning resources and estimating the work.  Define project management procedures up front.  Look for warning signs.  Ensure that the sponsor approves scope-change requests.  Guard against scope creep.  Identify risks up front.  Continue to assess potential risks throughout the project.  Resolve issues as quickly as possible.
  26. 26. The Project Management Certification:  Certification allows for industry wide recognition.  It is an excellent way for new graduates to gain the attention of the companies they apply for and work in.  Shows dedication and knowledge in industry.  Represents experience on the job.  Aids employers in the management of costs, time and quality.
  27. 27. The Project Management Certification:  Better control of financial, physical, and human resources  Improved customer relations  Shorter development times  Lower costs  Higher quality and increased reliability  Higher profit margins  Improved productivity  Better internal coordination  Higher worker moral.
  28. 28. The Project Management Institute (PMI):  Founded in 1969. Largest Not-for-Profit Organization for Project Management Professionals.  Truly global membership with representation in 190+ countries.  PMI has 12 standards for project, program and portfolio management and they are most widely recognized standards in the profession.  Credentials, Research, Standards, Promotion of Project Management Profession.  PMI offers 6 global certifications – PMP, CAPM, PgMP, PMI-SP, PMI-RMP, PMI-ACP  More than 250 chapters, and 30 industry or interest- based communities of practice.  More than half million members and credential holders worldwide.
  29. 29. PMP – Certification Benefits:  A truly global certification. Provides professional and personal recognition.  Expedites professional advancement.  Creates job growth and opportunities within an organization.  Provides a framework for standardized project management requirements.  Increases an employee’s value to the organization.  PMI Certified Project Managers are a preferred lot by any organization worldwide.  High Demand due to short supply of Certified Project Managers.  Increase in compensation within the organization.
  30. 30. PMP Journey:  PMP Prerequisites: Secondary Diploma + 5 Years Experience in Project Management + 7500 Hours + 35 Hour PM Education Or 4 years degree + 3 Years Experience in Project Management + 4500 Hours + 35 Hour PM Education
  31. 31. PMP Costs of Certification:  Registration fees for 35 Contact Hours program through a R.E.P.  PMI Membership Fees for General Candidates: $129  PMP Examination Fees - Non-Members : USD 555 - PMI Members : USD 405  Re-Examination Fees - Non-Members USD 375 - PMI Members USD 275
  32. 32. Nine steps in the Journey towards PMP: 1. Become a PMI member. 2. Mandatory training/PM education for 35 hours of credits (chapter, university, institute or REP). 3. Prepare for Exam 4. Submit PMP examination Application (You get 90 days to complete application). 5. Receipt of PMP examination eligibility notice from PMI. 6. Submit Fees (Cost: US$ 405). 7. Application Audit (if selected). 8. Get Eligibility Letter. Schedule Exam. 9. Execute, Succeed & Celebrate
  33. 33. Post Successful PMP Certification:  Certificate is valid for 3 years.  Within three years, individual need to earn 60 PDUs.  Go to www.pmi.org for registering 60 PDUs & paying 60$ (current fee)  Your certificate will be renewed for next three years.
  34. 34. Thank You

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