History Of Copmuter


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History Of Copmuter

  1. 1. Muhammad Atif BBE/607Danish Mushtaq BBE/610
  2. 2. A “Brief” History Abacus considered first mechanical computing device. Used beads and rods to count numbers. Developed around 3000 B.C.
  3. 3. Mechanical Calculator 1612 – John Napier used floating point arithmetic and invented the logarithm. 1622 – William Oughtred created the slide rule based on Napier’s logarithms. This was the primary calculator used by engineers until the 1960’s.
  4. 4.  1642 – Blaise Pascal created a machine that could add and subtract, automatically carrying numbers. 1673 – Gottfried Leibnitz built a calculator that could multiply and divide as well.
  5. 5.  1790 – Joseph Marie Jacquard invented an automatic loom using punched cards to control patterns in the fabrics. Punched cards were used to allowed some of the rods to pass through
  6. 6.  Jacquards invention emphasized three important concepts: Storage: Coding of information by punching holes on the cards. Programming: Linking of the cards in series to provide instruction in sequence. Program Execution: Job would be performed automatically as the program run.
  7. 7. Charles Babbage 1786 – J.H Muller proposed a calculating machine called a Difference Engine. 1812 – Charles Babbage conceived idea of difference engine. He designed new machine called Analytical Engine.
  8. 8.  Analytical Engine consisted of FIVE units. Store: Storing the data. Mill: Process the data. Control: Control the flow of data. Input: Enter the data. Output: Display the data.
  9. 9.  Babbage’s Analytical Engine could not completed due to under development of technology. But laid foundation of digital computer. Also called FATHER of computer.
  10. 10. Electro-Mechanical Machines 1890 Hollerith won competition for developing data processing equipment for the US Census Bureau. Founded Hollerith Tabulating Company which became IBM in 1924.
  11. 11. Computer Generations Generation Technology Approx Dates First Vacuum Tube 1942-1959 Second Transistors 1959-1964 Third ICs 1964-1973 SSI/MSI Fourth Microprocessor 1973-1991 LSI/VLSI Fifth ULSI/AI 1991 onwards
  12. 12. First Generation 1942-1959 First Generation Electronic Computers used Vacuum Tubes. Invented in 1906. Vacuum tubes are glass tubes with circuits inside. Vacuum tubes have no air inside of them, which protects the circuitry.
  13. 13.  1943 Work started on ENIAC at University of Pennsylvania under John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert with Herman Goldstein. Used 18,000 vacuum tubes. U shaped, 25m long, 2.5m high, 1m wide, consumed 150 kw and weighed more than 30 tons.
  14. 14.  Disadvantages: Very big in size Slow in speed (40,000 operation in seconds) Low reliability Large power consumption Difficult maintenance
  15. 15. Second Generation 1959-1964 Transistor was invented in 1948. Made up of from Silicon. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors.
  16. 16.  Comparing with Transistors: Immediate functioning, no time for heating necessary. Smaller and low weight. Process up to 200,000 ois. Less power consumption. Low susceptibility to trouble and long lifetime
  17. 17. Third Generation 1964-1973 Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips). Invented in 1947. Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”. Replaced Transistor with ICs
  18. 18.  Comparing with Transistors: Very small in scale. Cheaper than transistors. More reliable. Process up to 1000,000 ois.
  19. 19. Fourth Generation 1973-1991 It contains micro chip. A small piece of semiconductor material carrying many integrated circuits (Transistors, resistors, and capacitors). Very Large Scale Integrated. 4004 had 2,250 transistors The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words.
  20. 20. Fifth Generation 1991 onwards It contains all best combination. Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology. Ultra Large Scale Integrated circuits. Giving computer the ability to think. Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems.