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презентация1 презентация1 Presentation Transcript

  • Jerome David Salinger,American novelist and short story writer, wasborn in New York in 1919 to a prosperous Jewishimporter of Kosher cheese and his Scotch-Irishwife. He attended prep schools during hischildhood and was later sent to Valley ForgeMilitary Academy, which he attended from 1934-1936. He attended NYU and Columbia Universityand began submitting short stories forpublication. By 1940 he had done so, publishinghis stories in several periodicals including theSaturday Evening Post and Story.
  • Raised in Manhattan, Salinger began writing shortstories while in secondary school, and published severalin Story magazine in the early 1940s before serving inWorld War II. In 1948 his critically acclaimed story "APerfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New Yorkermagazine, which became home to much of his laterwork. In 1951 his novel The Catcher in the Rye was animmediate popular success. His depiction of adolescentalienation and loss of innocence in the protagonistHolden Caulfield was influential, especially amongadolescent readers. The novel remains widely read andcontroversial, selling around 250,000 copies a year.
  • The success of The Catcher in the Rye led topublic attention and scrutiny: Salinger becamereclusive, publishing new work less frequently. Hefollowed Catcher with a short story collection,Nine Stories (1953), a volume containing anovella and a short story, Franny and Zooey(1961), and a volume containing two novellas,Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters andSeymour: An Introduction (1963). His lastpublished work, a novella entitled "Hapworth 16,1924", appeared in The New Yorker on June 19,1965.
  • JD Salinger was a Jewish Catholic by birth,but as an adult did not follow any of thesefamily faiths. He was more interested inScientology, Hinduism and Buddhism.Deeply touched by the religious scriptures ofthe East, he practiced Zen Buddhism, withits importance on removing ego to gainpersonal detachment and experience theoneness of creation ."Hinduism seems tohave been especially important in his life."
  • Salinger & Ramakrishna ParamhamsaSalinger became particularly attracted toHinduism after reading Swami Nikhilanandaand Joseph Campbells translation of TheGospels of Sri Ramakrishna, a profoundinsight into the various facets of life asdescribed by the Hindu mystic. He was highlyinfluenced by Sri RamakrishnaParamahamsas explanation of AdvaitaVedanta Hinduism advocating various Hindubeliefs with emphasis on karma,reincarnation, celibacy for the seekers truthand enlightenment, and detachment fromworldliness.
  • Salingers Sense of MortalitySalinger, who passed away on January 28,2010 at the age of 91, perhaps wished hisbody cremated, almost like Hindus do inVaranasi, rather than buried under atombstone. He said, "Boy, when youre dead,they really fix you up. I hope to hell when I dodie somebody has sense enough to justdump me in the river or something. Anythingexcept sticking me in a goddam cemetery.People coming and putting a bunch offlowers on your stomach on Sunday, and allthat crap. Who wants flowers when youredead? Nobody." Sadly, Salingers epitaphwont have any mention of this wish!
  • Hinduism is the predominant religionof the Indian subcontinent, and oneof its indigenous religions. Hinduismincludes Shaivism, Vaishnavism andŚrauta among numerous othertraditions. It also includes historicalgroups, for example the Kapalikas.Among other practices andphilosophies, Hinduism includes awide spectrum of laws andprescriptions of "daily morality"based on karma, dharma, andsocietal norms. Hinduism is aconglomeration of distinctintellectual or philosophical points ofview, rather than a rigid common setof beliefs.
  • Hinduism is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder. Among its direct roots is the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India and, as such, Hinduism is often called the "oldest living religion" or the "oldest living major religion" in the world. One orthodox classification of Hindu texts is to divide into Śruti ("revealed") and Smriti ("remembered") texts. These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, rituals and temple building among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas, Upanishads, Purāṇas,Hinduism, with about one billion followers, is Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa,the worlds third largest religion, after Bhagavad Gītā and Āgamas.Christianity and Islam.
  • Concept of God God in Hinduism Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism among others; and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to asThe Rig Veda, the oldest scripture and the henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to amainstay of Hindu philosophy does not take single god while accepting the existence ofa restrictive view on the fundamental others), but any such term is anquestion of God and the creation of overgeneralization.universe. It rather lets the individual seekand discover answers in the quest of life.Nasadiya Sukta (Creation Hymn) of the RigVeda thus says:Who really knows? Who will here proclaim it? Whence was it produced? Whence is thiscreation? The gods came afterwards, with thecreation of this universe. Who then knows whence it has arisen?
  •  Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul — the true "self" of every person, called the ātman — is eternal.[88] According to the monistic/pantheistic theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is ultimately indistinct from Brahman, the supreme spirit. Hence, these schools are called non- dualist . The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realize that ones ātman is identical to Brahman, the supreme soul. The Upanishads state that whoever becomes fully aware of the ātman as the innermost core of ones own self realizes an identity with Brahman and thereby reaches moksha (liberation or freedom)
  • RitualsThe vast majority of Hindus engage inreligious rituals on a daily basis. MostHindus observe religious rituals at home. butobservation of rituals greatly vary amongregions, villages, and individuals. DevoutHindus perform daily chores such asworshiping at dawn after bathing (usually ata family shrine, and typically includeslighting a lamp and offering foodstuffsbefore the images of deities), recitation fromreligious scripts, singing devotional hymns,meditation, chanting mantras, recitingscriptures etc. A notable feature in religiousritual is the division between purity andpollution
  • . Religious acts presuppose some degree ofimpurity or defilement for thepractitioner, which must be overcome orneutralized before or during ritualprocedures. Purification, usually withwater, is thus a typical feature of mostreligious action. Other characteristicsinclude a belief in the efficacy of sacrificeand concept of merit, gained through theperformance of charity or good works, thatwill accumulate over time and reducesufferings in the next world. Vedic rites offire-oblation (yajna) are now only occasionalpractices, although they are highly revered intheory. In Hindu wedding and burialceremonies, however, the Yana and chantingof Vedic mantras are still the norm. Therituals, upacharas, change with time. Forinstance, in the past few hundred yearssome rituals, such as sacred dance andmusic offerings in the standard SodasUpacharas set prescribed by the AgamaShastra, were replaced by the offerings ofrice and sweets.