Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
AR+S   The Role Of Abstraction In Human Computer Interaction
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

AR+S The Role Of Abstraction In Human Computer Interaction

875
views

Published on

Ali Riza SARAL's presentation on the role of Abstraction in HCI based on his experiences in German Karlsruhe UIR Air Traffic Control center as a Senior Analyst Programmer

Ali Riza SARAL's presentation on the role of Abstraction in HCI based on his experiences in German Karlsruhe UIR Air Traffic Control center as a Senior Analyst Programmer


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
875
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.
    • The Role of Abstraction
    • in Human Computer Interaction Design
    © Ali R+ SARAL 200 8 Graduate Seminar (IE 579) on 06/09/09 Slide Istanbul Bogaziçi University Faculty of Indutrial Engineering
  • 2. Acknowledgement
    • This presentation has been made possible
    • under the auspices of Prof. Dr. Ali Tamer ÜNAL
    • & his colleagues interalia at
    • Industrial Engineering Department of the Engineering Faculty
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
  • 3. Acknowledgement
    • Herr EHRENBERGER,
    • The DFS air traffic controllers’ representative to EUROCONTROL Software Team Karlsuhe has provided the inspiration
    • to work on HCI
  • 4. Objectives
    • To introduce the role of abstraction in human cognition, specificly in human computer interaction
    • To maintain a mathematical point of view in HCI
  • 5. Objectives
    • To introduce discrete stages models, workload analysis, Miller theorem, multiple resources
    • To give a sense of recent developments in HCI such as situation awareness
  • 6. Topics covered
    • Definition & Modelling of abstraction
    • The role of abstraction in human cognition
    • Multiple resources
    • Miller Theorem
    • Workload
    • The role of abstraction in HCI design
    • Discrete stages model – DSM
    • Critics of DSM and intro to Situation Awareness – SA
    • A few application suggestions for HCI designs
  • 7. Abstraction
            • Merriam-Webster
            • Main Entry:
            • ab·strac·tion
            • Pronunciation: ab- ’ strak-shən, əb-
            • Function: noun
            • Date: 1549
            • 1 a:   the act or process of abstracting :  the state of being abstracted
  • 8. Definition of Abstraction
            • ab·stract ab- ’ strakt, ‘ab-’ ( adjective)
            • Etymology: Medieval Latin abstractus, past participle of abstrahere to drag away, to pull, draw, (14th century)
          • 1 a:  disassociated from any specific instance <an abstract entity>
          • b:  difficult to understand :   abstruse < abstract problems>
          • c:  insufficiently factual :   formal <possessed only an abstract right>
          • 2:  expressing a quality apart from an object <the word poem is concrete, poetry is abstract >
          • 3 a:  dealing with a subject in its abstract aspects :   theoretical < abstract science>
          • b:   impersonal , detached <the abstract compassion of a surgeon — Time >
          • 4:  having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content < abstract painting>
  • 9. A Close Look at the Definition of Abstraction
          • 1 a:   disassociated from any specific instance
            • <an abstract entity>
            • b:  difficult to understand :   abstruse
            • < abstract problems>
            • c:  insufficiently factual :   formal
            • <possessed only an abstract right>
          • 2:   expressing a quality apart from an object
            • <the word poem is concrete, poetry is abstract >
  • 10. A Close Look at the Definition of Abstraction
          • 3 a:   dealing with a subject in its abstract aspects :   theoretical
            • < abstract science>
            • b:   impersonal , detached
            • <the abstract compassion of a surgeon — Time >
          • 4:   having only intrinsic form with little or no attempt at pictorial representation or narrative content
            • < abstract painting>
  • 11. Abstraction Exercise 1
    • Please form 5 teams of two
    • Team formation:
      • A tester (pilot)
      • A reporter (copilot)
    • Task:
      • The tester will feel-test the object
      • The tester will tell the result of the test to the reporter quietly
      • The reporter will write the result to a paper
      • All the reporters will read the results one by one
      • Pith: Abstraction helps us to identify things that we do not now.
  • 12. Abstraction Example 1 – SWISS mid-air collision
    • The reasons of the accident
    • Maintenance activities at an Air Traffic Control(ATC) Center
    • Collective feeling of the current sitution
    • Like holding a small stone and feeling a pebble
  • 13. Abstraction Exercise 2
    • Task: Make an abstraction of stone pictures
      • Discuss the process
      • Create a team organisation
  • 14. A Possible Solution: STONES, archeological, carved Fragility Ornamentation Sculpture Time
  • 15. An Other Solution Time Utility Tomb Don’t forget to form levels Fragility Architecture Ornamentation Sculpture
  • 16. Abstraction Levels and Depth Time Utility Tomb Don’t forget to form levels
  • 17. A Mathematical Model of Abstraction
    • Obj = { o : o   real things}
    • Grp = { g : g = (o 1 , o 2 , …,o j ) & j = 1 …n & o j   Obj }
    • Inp = { i : i   Grp }
    • definedGrp = {defGrp(g,nameGrp) : g  Grp & nameGrp is a semantic name ??? }
    • Abs = { f(i, g) : i,g  Grp & g  definedGrp }
  • 18. JFK AIRPORT
  • 19. BOSTON LOGAN AIRPORT
  • 20. TOWER
  • 21. Tower Control Operations Room
  • 22. APPROACH
  • 23. Area Control Center
  • 24. Control Sector
  • 25. Area Control Operations Room
  • 26. Area & Approach Control Operations Room
  • 27. Operations Room Layout
  • 28. Radar
  • 29. Turkish Air Space Control Areas
  • 30. Turkish Air Space Routes
  • 31. Part of Karlsruhe UAC Area
  • 32. Ground Seperation
  • 33. Terminal Area Seperation
  • 34. Abstraction - view - metaphore - analogy
    • Operations(Planning, Communication, Radar)
    • Technical Support (Hardware-Software)
    • Seperation
    • Safety
    • Organization
    • Accounting
    • Keep the safety of people in the air above everthing.
  • 35. Multiple resources and performance prediction
    • CHRISTOPHER D. WICKENS
    • University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Institute of Aviation Willard Airport, Aviation Human Factors Division, Aviation Research Laboratory
    • the origins and history of multiple resource theory in accounting for differences in dual task interference.
    • the 4-dimensional multiple resources model,
    • there will be greater interference between two tasks to the extent that
    • they share
    • stages (perceptual/cognitive vs response)
    • sensory modalities (auditory vs visual),
    • codes (visual vs spatial) and
    • channels of visual information (focal vs ambient).
  • 36. Multiple Resources
  • 37. Multiple resources and performance prediction
    • 1. Introduction
    • Driving along a crowded highway on a rainy evening, while trying to glance at the map and search the road side for the right turn off, the driver's cellular phone suddenly rings.
    • The driver feels compelled to answer it and engage in conversation with the caller. Will the driver be successful?
  • 38. Multiple resources and performance prediction
    • What is the likelihood that this added demand will seriously impair safety? Could a different interface on the phone make a difference?
    • Suppose the map was presented in a head up location? Will the benefits of not having to look downward be offset by the clutter costs of trying to see two overlapping images? (Tufano 1997, Fadden et al. 1998.)
  • 39. Miller : Seven Plus Minus Two
    • The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
    • George A. Miller
    • Harvard University
    • When only two or three tones were used the listeners never confused them. With four different tones
    • confusions were quite rare, but with five or more tones confusions were frequent. With fourteen different tones the listeners made many mistakes.
  • 40. Miller : Seven Plus Minus Two
    • The transmitted information increases linearly up to about 2 bits and then bends off toward an asymptote at
    • about 2.5 bits. This value, 2.5 bits, therefore, is what we are calling the channel capacity of the listener for absolute judgments of pitch.
  • 41. Workload
    • the hypothetical relationship between a group or individual human operator and task demands
    • problems such as workload bottlenecks and overload
    • The assessment of operator workload has a vital impact on the design of new human-machine systems
  • 42. Discrete Stages Model MOTOR RESPONSE COGNITION (match, decide, memory transfer) PERCEPTION (transfer to working memory) Short-term Sensory Store Long-Term Memory Visual Image Store Auditory Image Store ATTENTION RESOURCES dVIS=1500[900-3500] msec muVIS=5[4.4-5.2] letters kVIS=Physical dAIS=200[70-1000] msec muAIS=17[7-17] items kAIS=Physical dLTM=infinity muLTM=infinity kLTM=Semantic Working Memory muWM=3[2.5-4.1]chunks muWM(1 chunk)=7[5-9] chunks dWM(3 chunks)=7[5-226] sec dWM(1 chunk)=73[73-226] sec dWM(3 chunks)=7[5-34] sec kWM=Acoustic or Visual R E S P O N S E S T I M U L I Tp=100[50-200]msec Tc=70[25-170]msec Tm=70[30-100]msec dVIS:decayVIS mu:storage amount k:storage format
  • 43. Abstraction in DSM : CHUNKS
    • The primary metric of information
    • Bit  chunk Miller(1956)
    • The chunk is a familiar unit of organised stimulus material.
    • Learning plays an important role in the formation of these chunks.
    • Chunks are key to the problem of information bottlenecks
  • 44. CHUNKS – MORSE ALPHABET SOS . . . - - - . . .
  • 45. Use of Abstraction in HCI Design
    • Menus (cascade)
    • Screen designs (Rational App Dev – BANKJAVA, BANKStruts(after the presentation), PPS example)
    • Desktop example
    • Information hiding
    • Reducing percieved complexity, temporarily dealing with one aspect only not the whole, ability to ignore
    • Metaphores and analogies
    • Symbols and memory locking
  • 46. Complex HCI design Example Rational Application Developer
  • 47. Discrete Stages Model MOTOR RESPONSE COGNITION (match, decide, memory transfer) PERCEPTION (transfer to working memory) Short-term Sensory Store Long-Term Memory Visual Image Store Auditory Image Store ATTENTION RESOURCES dVIS=1500[900-3500] msec muVIS=5[4.4-5.2] letters kVIS=Physical dAIS=200[70-1000] msec muAIS=17[7-17] items kAIS=Physical dLTM=infinity muLTM=infinity kLTM=Semantic Working Memory muWM=3[2.5-4.1]chunks muWM(1 chunk)=7[5-9] chunks dWM(3 chunks)=7[5-226] sec dWM(1 chunk)=73[73-226] sec dWM(3 chunks)=7[5-34] sec kWM=Acoustic or Visual R E S P O N S E S T I M U L I Tp=100[50-200]msec Tc=70[25-170]msec Tm=70[30-100]msec dVIS:decayVIS mu:storage amount k:storage format
  • 48. The contributions of the Wickens Model
    • 1. Perception does not happen in a single moment. On the contrary, human processes the inputs and a functional transformation (for ex. from visual to semantical) happens.
    • 2. Processing information requires time. The time that passes between the moment input comes and human responses is called the reaction time.
    • 3. The mental timing of events that happen in a single response process. The nomenclature of the stages, durations and the definition of operations or transformations done in each stage.
  • 49. The contributions of the Wickens Model
    • 4. Transformations related to the presentation of information.
    • 5. Limits that do exist in the time and quantity domains.
    • 6. The unit of information. Miller’s seven plus/minus two rule is alluded above in the working memory. This also points at the effect of the gained experience on the size of chunks and thus determines the perception speed.
  • 50. Critics of Discrete Stages Model
    • I am afraid,
    • Wickens Model
    • is being used in areas other than human response time analysis
    • Human mind is not as rigid and simple as Wickens depicts - Deviating Mind
    • Wickens ignores sub-conscious, automatic processes, embodiment etc. and
    • reduces the human operator to a simple push botton.
  • 51. Situation Awareness
    • Situation awareness is the continuous extraction of environmental information,
    • the integration of this information with previous knowledge to form a coherent mental picture,
    • and the use of that picture in directing further perception and anticipating future events (Dominguez et al. , 1994).
  • 52. Situation Awareness
    • Put simply, situation awareness (SA) means knowing what is going on around you.
    • More specifically, in the context of complex operational environments SA is concerned with the person’s knowledge of particular task-related events and phenomena.
    • For example, for a fighter pilot SA means knowing about the threats and intentions of enemy forces as well as the status of his/her own aircraft.
  • 53. Situation Awareness
    • For an air traffic controller, SA means (at least partly) knowing about current aircraft positions and flight plans and predicting future states so as to detect possible conflicts.
    • Therefore, in operational terms, SA means having an understanding of the current state and dynamics of a system and being able to anticipate future change and developments (EUROCONTROL - The Development of Situation Awareness Measures in ATM Systems).
  • 54. What is Situation Awareness?
    • I believe,
    • situation awareness
    • is an abstraction of reality,
    • namely an abstraction,an abstrahoctum (drag away from)
    • of the real situation that the systems operator is in. Ali R+ SARAL
  • 55. Where are we going to?
    • Blogspot userinterface
    • networking
    • sharing event logs
    • Air Traffic Control Workload Experiments
    • Monitoring performance
    • etc.
  • 56. Key points
    • Abstraction can be defined as grouping.
    • Abstraction serves as labeling in semantics. It serves as symbols in memory locking. It helps information hiding and simplifying complexity.
    • Human mind has various resources that are indicated in the multiple resources theory.
    • Human mind has perception, cognitive and motor limits and hence performance bottlenecks. Some of these are indicated by Miller theorem.
  • 57. Key points
    • Human brain undergoes mental loads while performing. The workload has to be calculated before and measured during the user performance.
    • Discrete Stages Model provides an abstraction of human as an operator. It provides a method to calculate human response time.
    • Situation awareness is an abstraction of the situation that the operator is in. It provides a technique for a better human performance.
  • 58. Further Reading
    • Ali Rıza SARAL ’s BLOG & e-mail http://largesystems-atc.blogspot.com
    • [email_address]
    • Recommended Articles from my BLOG:
    • Deviating Mind
    • On Embodiment and Man-Machine Interaction
  • 59. Thank You for you attention! 10:56:30 Life is precious in its own right regardless of identity.