1. Describe effective Leadership
2. Give the expectations of a school
3. Identify the core functions of
leadership in schools.
4. Formulate strategies to develop
effective leadership skills in
5. Enumerate the various roles of a
school heads in achieving
6. Describe the three personal
7. Identify and discuss the domains
of school head’s responsibility.
Leadership has been defined in many
ways., but the classic definition that
encompasses the critical dimension of
leadership is that offered by
Tannenbaum, Weschler and Massarik
( 1961): “ Interpersonal influence directed
through the communication process
toward the attainment of some goal or
• Group the teachers into four.
• Each group will give expectation of a
• Grouping are as follows:
• Group 1. As parents.
• Group 2. As teacher.
• Group 3. As students.
• Group 4. As community stakeholder
• - Lead schools in a way that places student and adult learning at
• - Set high expectation and standards for the academic and social
development of all students and the performance of adults.
• - Demand content and instruction that ensure student achievement
of agreed-on academic standard.
• - Create a culture of continuous learning for adults tied to student
learning and other school goals.
• - Use multiple sources of data as diagnostic tools to assess, identify
and apply instructional improvement.
• - Actively engage the community to create shared responsibility for
student and school success.
• - STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP- Promoting vision, mission
and goals- and developing the means to reach them.
• - INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP- Ensuring quality of
instruction, modeling teaching practices, supervising
curriculum and ensuring quality of teaching resources.
• - MANAGERIAL RESOURCES- Overseeing the
operation of the school ( its budget, schedule, facilities,
safety and security, and transportation.)
• - HUMAN RESOURCES LEADERSHIP- Recruiting,
hiring, firing, inducting, and mentoring teachers and
administrator,; developing leadership capacity and
professional development opportunities.
• - CULTURAL LEADERSHIP- Tending to the symbolic
resources of the school ( its traditions, climate and
• - MICROPOLITICAL LEADERSHIP- Buffering and
mediating internal interest while maximizing resources.
( financial and human)
• - EXTERNAL DEVELOPMENT LEADERSHIP-
Representing the school in the community, developing
capital, tending to public relations, recruiting students,
buffering and mediating external interest and advocating
for the school’s interest.
• 1. The principal is seldom seen at the office; He / She is
• 2. An annual instructional program is being implemented
and monitored periodically by a committee chaired by a
• 3. Regular meeting with staff are held. These aim to
address problems encountered during program
• 4. The school plan for supervision is prepared
cooperatively by the staff and monitored by the principal.
• 5. There is an active documentation of instructional
practice and materials that teacher considered worthy of
• Aside from the aforementioned characteristics, These
are other indicators of active instructional leadership:
• - Mission and vision of the school are clearly stated.
• - Curriculum and plans are aligned with school goals.
• - A monitoring plan is established and implemented.
• - The monitoring plan meet needs.
• - Teacher observation and feedback are regularly
• - Resources are accessible.
• - Development needs of teachers are address.
• - Data-based decisions are made.
• - Strategies that recognize individual differences are in
• - Consultation regarding instruction are held.
• - Activities that result in student achievement exist.
• - School staff are able to practice effective classroom
• A variety of supervisory model is employed.
• - Technology is effectively integrated in teaching-learning
process to improve student learning.
• - Multiple opportunities to learn are given to students.
• - The school climate promotes learning.
• - Multiple criteria and assessment are used.
• - Parents are viewed as partners.
• - High expectations of teaching staff is the norm.
• 1. RESPONDER:
• - See their role as mainly administrative.
• - Allow teachers and others to lead in decision making.
• - perceived teacher as professional.
• - Do not interfere with teacher’s instructional role.
• - Strive for strong personal relation with staff.
• - Make decisions in terms of immediate issues.
• - Do not consider long term goals and plans.
• - Flexible and willing to make changes at short notice to
solve immediate problems.
• Provide basic support to staff
• Informative and transparent
• Sensitive and dependable
• Have respect on policies and regulations.
• Have clear decisive long-range policies and goals for
• Hard Working.
• Have effective decision making.
• Have strong expectations from students, teachers, and
• Well prepared.
• - leading the organization
• - Change of plans
• Good implementers.
- Central Directions
- Regional Directions
- Policies and Regulations
1. School Management
- Ordering of Supplies
- Hiring and Assignment of Teachers
- Gathering Information
- Basic Record Keeping
2. School Communications
- Coordination with ministry of
education and community
3. School Community Relation.
- Working with community councils
- Joining community development
- Involvement in PTCA/PTA and local
4. Instructional Supervision
- All functions directly related to providing teaching
and learning within schools.
- Involves activities that help attain educational goals.
Domains of a School Head’s