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Specific Responsibilities of Instructional Leaders


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Instructional Leadership, General Role of Instructional Leaders, Specific Responsibilities of School Leaders

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Specific Responsibilities of Instructional Leaders

  2. 2. (Wilma Smith and Richard Andrews ,1989; Marzano, Walter and McNulty 2012, Hoy and Hoy 2013) Four Dimensions or Roles of an Instructional Leader
  3. 3. As a visible presence the principal engages in frequent classroom observations and is highly accessible to faculty and staff (Smith and Andrews, 1989) GENERAL ROLE OF SCHOOL LEADERS
  4. 4. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS 1. Knowledge and Involvement of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment (Stein and D'Amico , 2000) Instruction Curriculum Assessment The principal should attends conference, seminars featuring new research on instructional practices. Both the superintendent and the principals should regularly visit classrooms with the goal of learning to recognize and describe good teaching and to provide better instructional feedback to The principal personally evaluates student work and participates in collaborative scoring sessions in which the percentage agreement by the faculty is measured and posted.
  5. 5. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS Knowledge of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment (Stein and D'Amico ,2000; Reeves ,2004) Specific behaviors and characteristics associated with the responsibilities: Curriculum Assessment Instruction Being directly involved in helping teachers address instructional issues
  6. 6. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS 2. Intellectual Stimulation (Avolio and Bass, 2002; Bass and Riggio, 2006) Intellectual stimulation refers to the extent to which the school leader ensures that faculty and staff are aware of the most current theories and practices regarding effective schooling Direct assistance to teachers in their day-to- day activities Using Instructional research to make decisions Using the principles of adult learning when dealing with teachers.
  7. 7. • Schedule an orientation for beginning teachers. • Develop a mentoring system for beginning teachers. • Have beginning teachers meet regularly with their mentors to identify and share problems before they become serious. • Provide opportunities for new teachers to observe master teachers at work. • If possible, provide a light load for beginning teachers. For example, keep the number of preparations for new high school teachers one to two at most. • Make sure that extracurricular duties are not overly demanding for beginning teachers. Protect your beginning teachers. • Coaching relationships among teachers. Direct assistance to teachers in their day-to-day activities
  8. 8. PRINCIPAL /TEACHERS Intellectual Stimulation (Fullan, 2001) Specific behaviors and characteristics associated with the responsibilities: Knowledge Building Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Creation Knowledge
  9. 9. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS 3. Change Agent (Yukl, 2013, Marzano, 2005) Change agent refers to leaders disposition to challenge school practice that have been in place for a long time and promoting the value of working at the edge of one’s competence.
  10. 10. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS 3. Change Agent (Yukl, 2013, Connor, 1995) Each group will give one reason WHY PEOPLE RESIST MAJOR CHANGES IN ORGANIZATION
  11. 11. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS 3. Change Agent (Yukl, 2013, Connor, 1995) There are a number of different reasons why people resist major changes in organizations 1. Lack of trust. Distrust of the people who propose it. 2. Belief that change is not necessary . There is no clear evidence of serious problems that require major change. 3. Belief that the change is no feasible. Even when problems are acknowledged, a proposed change may be resisted because of the failure of earlier change programs. 4. Economic threats. The fear of personal loss of income, benefits, or job security. 5. Relative high cost. Change will always entails some costs, which may he higher than the benefits.
  12. 12. 3. CHANGE AGENT (Yukl, 2013, Connor, 1995) 6. Fear of personal failure. Change makes some expertise obsolete and requires learning new way of doing the work. 7. Loss of status and power. New strategies often requires expertise not possessed by some of the people currently enjoying high status as problem solvers. 8. Threat to values and ideals. Change that appears to be inconsistent with strong values and ideals be resisted. 9. Resentment of interference. Some people resist change because they do not want to be controlled by others.
  13. 13. PRINCIPAL being an OPTIMIZER Speak positively about the innovation, Provide examples of other schools that have successfully implemented the innovation. Express a continued belief that the innovation will enhance student achievement. Identify roadblock and challenges to the innovation, PRINCIPAL S 3. Change Agent (Inside School Organization) (Yukl, 2013, Marzano, 2005) Optimizer refers to the extent to which the leader inspires others and is the driving force when implementing a challenging innovation. (Blase and Kirby ,2000) TEACHERS Model a "can do" attitude; formulate agreements about supporting initiatives, such as "no badmouthing the change" Analyze change initiatives to determine implications for different stakeholders.
  14. 14. PRINCIPAL S 3. Change Agent (Yukl, 2013, Marzano, 2005, Cotton, 2003) Encourage and facilitate learning by individuals and teams. School Principal should keep subordinates informed about relevant learning an opportunities (e.g., workshops, training programs, college courses) Self-Managed Work Teams (Teachers) Involve members in planning strategies for attaining the objectives, and empowering the members to find creative solution to problems. Principal To coordinate and facilitate the process of making and implementing team decisions (e.g., conduct meetings, prepare work schedules and administrative paperwork) Inside School Organization (Koter ,1982).
  15. 15. OFFICIALS IN GOVERNME NT AGENCIESPARENTS SUPPLIERS COLLEGUES IN THE SAME PROFESSION IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE COMMUNITY BOARD OF DIRECTORS Indirect Subordinate PRINCIPAL Direct Subordinate PRESIDENT DepEd Officials Peers Religious Group 3. Change Agent (Outside School Organization) (Koter, 1982)
  16. 16. Principal use different parts of their network for different purposes and extend the network as needed to accomplish a particular objective (Kaplan, 1988). 3. Change Agent (Outside School Organization) (Koter, 1982) Good network relationships in the organization are associated with greater influence over subordinates. (Bono & Anderson, 2005) What are the ways of developing or widening our networks?
  17. 17. Networks are developed in a variety of ways, such as: (Bono & Anderson, 2005) • Talking before, during, and after meetings, ceremonies, and social events in the organization; • Serving on special committees, interest groups, and task forces; • Joining civic groups, advisory boards, and social clubs; and • Attending workshops, trade shows, and meetings of professional associations. • Keeping in touch, and showing appreciation for favors received, especially those requiring a significant effort on the part of the person doing it. 3. Change Agent (
  18. 18. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS CHANGE AGENT (Yukl, 2013, Marzano, 2005) Specific behaviors and characteristics associated with the responsibilities: Consciously challenging the status quo Systematically considering new and better ways of doing things Being willing to lead change initiatives with uncertain outcomes
  19. 19. As a communicator the principal has clear goals for the school and articulates those goals to faculty and staff. GENERAL ROLE OF SCHOOL LEADERS Seek first to understand and then to be understood Involves establishing strong lines of communication by listening to and understanding the needs of those within the organization.
  20. 20. AFFIRMATION • Communication of accountability. • The school leader has the responsibility to praise and celebrate but yet must still have the courage to address negatives. CONTINGENT REWARDS the extent to which the school leader recognizes and rewards individual accomplishments. Principal demonstrates the responsibility of Contingent Rewards when he singles out and praises a teacher who has put in extra time to achieve a
  21. 21. PRINCIPAL/TEACHERS COMMUNICATION/ AFFIRMATION/CONTINGENT REWARDS Elmore , 2000; Fullan, 2001; Specific behaviors and characteristics associated with the responsibilities:Communication: Being easily accessible to teachers Affirmation: Systematically and fairly celebrating the accomplishments of students and teachers. Also, recognizing failures of the school as a whole. Contingent Rewards: Using hard work and results as the basis for rewards and recognition
  22. 22. CULTURE (Hanson ,2001; Hoy & Miskel, 2008; Leithwood and Riehl, 2003). Schools also have their own unique cultures that are shaped around a particular combination of values, beliefs, and feelings and its gives its distinctive identity.
  23. 23. LEVEL OF CULTURE (Schein, 1992 , 1999) Tacit assumptions 1. Human nature 2. Nature of interactions 3. Nature of reality 4. Nature of knowledge 5. Relationship to colleagues Core Values Trust Authenticity Teamwork Collaboration Shared Norms Never criticize colleagues. Stick together as a group Handle your own discipline Help students after school. Artifacts Stories Myths and legends Icons Rituals
  24. 24. Establishing policies that enable others to be effective. Discussing the underlying purpose and mission of the school with the faculty and staff. Establish school wide rules and procedures for general behavior Establish a system that allows for the early detection of students who have high potential for violence Establish a program that teaches sell discipline and responsibility to students? The principal celebrates the achievements of students and faculty, especially the academic ones. Give emphasis on the honor roll, and extraordinary academic accomplishments that foster academics. CULTURE
  25. 25. As a resource provider the principal ensures that teachers have the materials , facilities, and budget necessary to adequately perform their duties. GENERAL ROLE OF SCHOOL LEADERS
  26. 26. Allocate resources based on instructional priorities. Be transparent in this work. Determine annual priorities for faculty learning. Provide staff development opportunities that are coordinated with the Respond to issues and concerns raised by staff in a direct, open, and transparent manner. Develop mechanisms to support teachers through the change process. Examine leadership team practices and make necessary changes. TEACHER Support the principal when situation require a more directive style of leadership. FLEXIBILITY Flexibility refers to the extent to which leaders adapt their leadership behavior to the needs of the current situation and are comfortable with dissent. It is associated with transformational leadership as well as the theories of Bennis(2003).
  27. 27. RELATIONSHIP Relationships refers to the extent to which the school leader demonstrates an awareness of the personal lives of teachers and staff to foster this responsibility, Elmore (2000) TEACHER Work hand in hand with the principal n acknowledging professional accomplishments of staff; celebrate the awarding of advanced degree: professional honors, and so on. Recognize significant events in the lives of staff, such as birthdays and anniversaries. Promote a caring culture and procedures that support staff in facing personal challenges and meeting obligations outside of school such as those related to families and children.
  28. 28. Resource: Ensuring that teachers have the necessary materials and equipment. Flexibility: Adapting leadership style to the needs of specific situations. Relationship: Being aware of personal needs of teachers
  29. 29. As an instructional resource the principal actively supports day-to-day instructional activities and programs by modeling desired behavior , participating in service training, and consistently giving priority to instructional concerns GENERAL ROLE OF SCHOOL LEADERS
  30. 30. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES 1. Protect the instructional time available to teachers . 2. Provide teachers with an instructional framework for planning units that employs research-based strategies. 3. identify and communicate the content considered essential for all students 4. Ensure that teachers address the essential content 5. Ensure that the essential content can be addressed in the amount of time available for instruction CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Have teachers articulate and enforce a comprehensive set of classroom rules and
  31. 31. REFERENCES Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B J (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Connor, D. R. (1995). Managing at the speed of change: How resilient managers succeed and prosper where others fail. New York: Villard Books. Yukl, G (2013). Leadership in organization, 7th Ed – New York: Pearson Leighwood, K., Day, C., Pam, S., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2006, November). Successful school leadership: What it is and how it influences pupil learning . Retrieved September 19, 2016, from Smith, W F, & Andrews. R. L. (1989). Instructional leadership: How principal make a difference. Alexandria, VA. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Hoy , A.W. & Hoy, Wk (2013). Instructional leadership: A research-based guide to learning in school, 7th ed. – London: Pearson. Marzano, R.J., Waters, T. & McNulty B.A (2005). School leadership that works: from research to results. Alexandria, V.A: ASCD.