CARBON CAPTURE & SEQUESTRATION   - Options for India Abstract:  The presentation will try to answer a few key questions re...
CONTENTS –  carbon capture and sequestration <ul><li>Characteristics – Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain </li></ul>...
CCS Building Characteristics - Worldwide  +  indicates category is sufficiently established to incentivise commercial CCS ...
CCS Supply Chain – How does it works ? Power Generations Heavy Industry <ul><li>IGCC – Hydrogen/ syngas turbines </li></ul...
CO 2  Capture Technologies <ul><li>Estimated increase in the Total Plant Cost for retrofitting w/o capture to w/ capture: ...
<ul><li>90% of CO 2  pipeline  networks is in the United States  </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers, designers, installers, a...
CO 2  Storage Sites  <ul><li>•  In India, ONGC has proposed CO 2  -EOR for Ankleshwar Oil Field in Western India. At, Hazi...
Can EOR provide cost for CCS ? <ul><li>EOR  - Enhanced Oil recovery,  ECBM  - Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery. </li></u...
Estimates of the costs (US $/tonne) Carbon  Clean   Solutions  ( C C S )  Author: Aniruddha Sharma  Source: Green Investin...
2031 Scenario and Recommendations  Carbon  Clean   Solutions  ( C C S )  Author: Aniruddha Sharma  Total energy requiremen...
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Carbon Capture &amp; Storage - Options For India

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The presentation will try to answer a few key questions related to the cost, technology, scalability and risks involved in widespread deployment of the carbon capture and sequestration technology.

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  1. 1. CARBON CAPTURE & SEQUESTRATION - Options for India Abstract: The presentation will try to answer a few key questions related to the cost, technology, scalability and risks involved in widespread deployment of the carbon capture and sequestration technology. By : Aniruddha Sharma IIT Kharagpur +91 - 9735496919 [email_address] [email_address] Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  2. 2. CONTENTS – carbon capture and sequestration <ul><li>Characteristics – Worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Capture Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Transport Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Can EOR bring the cost to zero ? </li></ul><ul><li>2031 Scenario & Recommendations </li></ul>Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  3. 3. CCS Building Characteristics - Worldwide + indicates category is sufficiently established to incentivise commercial CCS development - indicates category area is not established +/- indicates steps have been taken, but are either not yet established or do not sufficiently incentivise CCS development Source: New Energy Finance, 2008. Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma Fossil Demand Reduction Targets Legislation Projects Funding AU + + + + +/- CA + + +/- - - CN + +/- - + +/- EU + + + + +/- US + - - + +/-
  4. 4. CCS Supply Chain – How does it works ? Power Generations Heavy Industry <ul><li>IGCC – Hydrogen/ syngas turbines </li></ul><ul><li>(pre-combustions carbon capture) </li></ul><ul><li>Super critical/ ultra-critical boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Oxy-fuel boilers </li></ul><ul><li>(post-combustion carbon capture) </li></ul><ul><li>Steel furnaces </li></ul><ul><li>Low carbon cement klins </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical processes </li></ul>Carbon Capture <ul><li>Physical Solvent based </li></ul><ul><li>capture </li></ul><ul><li>Amine-based chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane Technology </li></ul>Transportation <ul><li>Offshore Pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Onshore Pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Rail Road Tankers/ Ships </li></ul>Storage <ul><li>EOR </li></ul><ul><li>ECBM </li></ul><ul><li>Saline aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Sea </li></ul>Reuse <ul><li>Carbon to cement </li></ul><ul><li>Use with Algae for bio-diesel </li></ul>70-80% of the Total Cost <ul><li>193 projects across 28 countries; Current CO 2 injection rate 18MtCO 2 e/yr </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration Projects: AES, BP, GE, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Rio Tinto, RWE, Reliance, Shell, Statoil, Total </li></ul><ul><li>Large Scale Projects: 4 all over the world [Sleipner and Snohvit in Norway, Salah in Algeria both are natural gas based and North Dakota in U.S. is syngas based] </li></ul>Source: Jefferies- Clean technology premier, 2008; Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  5. 5. CO 2 Capture Technologies <ul><li>Estimated increase in the Total Plant Cost for retrofitting w/o capture to w/ capture: </li></ul><ul><li>Pre – combustion ~ 32% , Post – combustion ~ (54 - 74)% and Oxyfuel ~ Unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of technology reduces by nearly 17.5% upon doubling the power generation capacity of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Max. CO 2 capture = 90%, best suited process = pre-combustion </li></ul>Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma Source: World Resource Institute, 2008; MIT; New Energy Finance, 2008. Pre - combustion (Economically feasible under specific conditions) Oxyfuel (Demonstration phase) Post – combustion (Economically feasible under specific conditions) Physical solvent based carbon capture Advanced oxy-fuel boilers and process heaters Dry regenerable CO 2 sorbents Membranes for CO 2 capture Oxygen firing in coal-fired boiler CO 2 scrubbing with regenerable sorbents Hydrated, Sorbents for CO 2 absorption Oxygen-enriched pet coke-fired boiling system with CO 2 sequestration Chemical based (Amine) carbon capture Sorbents for CO 2 separation and removal High-temperature polymer membranes
  6. 6. <ul><li>90% of CO 2 pipeline networks is in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers, designers, installers, and operators include companies such as Corinth Steel (GR), McJunkin Red Man (US), and Kinder Morgan (US) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S . pipelines extend 2,591km and transport 49.9 MtCO2/y </li></ul><ul><li>Developing CO 2 transport infrastructure in India shall become easy with proper financing structure as expertise is already there. </li></ul>CO 2 Transport Infrastructure & its scalability Source: IPCC- CO 2 transportation Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  7. 7. CO 2 Storage Sites <ul><li>• In India, ONGC has proposed CO 2 -EOR for Ankleshwar Oil Field in Western India. At, Hazira, ONGC has planned CO 2 injection @ 600,000m 3 /d from its gas processing complex </li></ul><ul><li>• Incremental oil recovery of ~ 4 % over the project life of 35 yrs; potential to sequester 5 -10 million tons of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery) potential of India ~ 1000 Billion cubic meters </li></ul>Currently Injecting Source: IPCC- CO 2 transportation; India - DGH, Annual Report, 2005-06; Suresh Kumar, Abstract, IWCCS-07 Planned Sites Completed Injection/ Cancelled Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  8. 8. Can EOR provide cost for CCS ? <ul><li>EOR - Enhanced Oil recovery, ECBM - Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Results for, 500 MW IGCC pant that produces 10,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Plant Cost = $ 3.25 Billion, CO 2 transportation + storage + O&M cost = $ 300 Million. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional oil recovery = 150 Million barrels over a period of 20 years. </li></ul>Source: The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO 2 storage, Friedman et al.; Realistic cost of carbon capture, Mohammed Al-Juaied Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma
  9. 9. Estimates of the costs (US $/tonne) Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma Source: Green Investing – WEF, 2009; IEA,2008; Timesonline; BCG (http://www.bcg.com/about_bcg/media_center/press_releases.jsp?id=2686), 2008; Realistic cost of carbon capture, Mohammed Al-Juaied; IPCC , Fourth Assessment Report <ul><li>For India, cost of CCS may be towards the higher end due the quality of coal used </li></ul><ul><li>High growth sectors involved: Power Generation, Iron & Steel, Cement and Chemical producers </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of CCS technologies require major investments in India </li></ul>SOURCE TODAY FUTURE World Economic Forum $ 115 $ 30 - $ 60 IEA (International Energy Agency) $ 45 - $ 90 $ 25 - $ 30 Shell $ 130 $ 65 or below Boston Consulting Group $ 70 $ 35 - $ 45 Harvard Kennedy School $ 90 - $ 135 $ 25 - $ 50 IPCC, Fourth Assessment Report - $ 22 - $ 42
  10. 10. 2031 Scenario and Recommendations Carbon Clean Solutions ( C C S ) Author: Aniruddha Sharma Total energy requirement increase 7.5 times Coal Consumption: Power sector ≈ 56%, Industry ≈ 24% Source: Green Investing – WEF, 2009; World Bank; Potential for CCS in India: Opportunities and Barriers, Dadhich TERI - 2008; CO 2 Emissions: Coal ≈ 62%, Oil ≈ 32% If no steps are taken, climate change will effect 700 million people in India Year 2031, BAU scenario (8% GDP growth rate) Not Known Problems Policy Recommendations Performance of CO 2 capture technologies at commercial scale Identification and permission for CO 2 injection Legislations and clarity on reduction targets Stability of CO 2 at storage sites Pipeline network Inclusion of CO 2 in carbon trading system Monitoring devices and methods Financing Capital support for pilot demonstrations

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