Employee development

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  • Employee development

    1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 19ChapterEmployeeEmployeeDevelopmentDevelopment
    2. 2. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 2DevelopmentDevelopment refers to formal education,job experiences, relationships, andassessments of personality and abilitiesthat help employees perform effectively intheir current or future job and company.
    3. 3. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 3Comparison Between Training and DevelopmentComparison Between Training and DevelopmentTraining DevelopmentFocus Current FutureUse of workexperiencesLow HighGoal Preparation for current job Preparation for changesParticipation Required Voluntary
    4. 4. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 4Why is employee development important?Why is employee development important?Employee development is a necessary componentof a company’s efforts to:improve qualityretain key employeesmeet the challenges of global competition and socialchangeincorporate technological advances and changes inwork design
    5. 5. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 5Approaches to Employee DevelopmentApproaches to Employee DevelopmentFormalEducationAssessmentJobExperiencesInterpersonalRelationships
    6. 6. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 6Formal EducationFormal EducationFormal education programs include:off-site and on-site programs designed specifically forthe company’s employeesshort courses offered by consultants or universitiesexecutive MBA programsuniversity programs in which participants actually liveat the university while taking classes
    7. 7. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 7Examples of development programs at GEExamples of development programs at GEProgram Description Target Audience CoursesExecutiveDevelopmentSequenceEmphasis on strategicthinking, leadership,cross-functionalintegration, competingglobally, customersatisfactionSenior professionals andexecutives identified ashigh-potentialManager DevelopmentGlobal BusinessManagementExecutive DevelopmentCore LeadershipProgramDevelopment of functionalexpertise, businessexcellence, managementof changeManagers Corporate Entry LeadershipProfessional DevelopmentNew Manager DevelopmentExperienced ManagerProfessionalDevelopmentProgramEmphasis on preparationfor specific career pathNew Employees Audit StaffFinancial ManagementHuman ResourcesTechnical Leadership
    8. 8. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 8Important trends in executive education:Important trends in executive education:Increasing use of distance learning by manycompanies and universitiesCompanies and the education provider createshort, custom courses, with content designedspecifically to needs of the audienceSupplementing formal courses from consultantsor university faculty with other types of trainingand development activities
    9. 9. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 9Assessment involves collectinginformation and providing feedbackto employees about their behavior,communication style, or skills
    10. 10. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 10AssessmentAssessment (continued)(continued)Used most frequently to:identify employees with managerial potentialmeasure current managers’ strengths and weaknessesidentify managers with potential to move into higher-level executive positionswork with teams to identify members’ strengths andweaknesses, and factors that inhibit productivity
    11. 11. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 11Myers-Briggs TypeIndicator®(MBTI)Assessment CenterBenchmarksPerformanceAppraisals and360-Degree FeedbackSystemsPopular Assessment ToolsPopular Assessment Tools
    12. 12. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 12Assessment Tools:Assessment Tools: Myers-Briggs (MBTI)Myers-Briggs (MBTI)Most popular psychological test for employeedevelopmentUsed for understanding such things as:communicationmotivationteamworkwork stylesleadership
    13. 13. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 13Examples of MBTI Use:Examples of MBTI Use:Can be used by salespeople who want to becomemore effective at interpersonal communicationby learning things about their own personalitystyles and the way they are perceived by othersCan help develop teams by matching teammembers with assignments that allow them tocapitalize on their preferencesCan help employees understand how the differentpreferences can lead to useful problem solving
    14. 14. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 14Assessment Tools:Assessment Tools: Assessment CenterAssessment CenterThe assessment centerassessment center is a process in whichmultiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees’performance on a number of exercisesusually held at an off-site locationused to identify if employees have the abilities,personality, and behaviors for management jobsused to identify if employees have the necessary skillsto work in teams
    15. 15. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 15Examples of Skills Measured by AssessmentExamples of Skills Measured by AssessmentCenter ExercisesCenter ExercisesSKILLS In-basket SchedulingExerciseLeaderlessGroupDiscussionPersonalityTestRole PlayLeadership X X X XProblemsolvingX X X XInterpersonal X X XAdministrative X X XPersonal X X XEXERCISES
    16. 16. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 16Assessment Tools: BenchmarksAssessment Tools: BenchmarksBenchmarks© is an instrument designed tomeasure important factors in being a successfulmanagerItems measured are based on research thatexamines the lessons executives learn at criticalevents in their careersThis includes items that measure managers’ skillsin dealing with subordinates, acquiring resources,and creating a productive work climate
    17. 17. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 17Skills Related to Managerial SuccessSkills Related to Managerial SuccessResourcefulnessDoing whatever it takesBeing a quick studyBuilding and mendingrelationshipsLeading subordinatesCompassion and sensitivityStraightforwardness andcomposureSetting a developmentalclimateConfronting problemsubordinatesTeam orientationBalance between personal lifeand workDecisivenessSelf-awarenessHiring talented staffPutting people at easeActing with flexibility
    18. 18. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 18Assessment Tools:Assessment Tools:Performance AppraisalsPerformance AppraisalsPerformance appraisalPerformance appraisal - the process ofmeasuring employees’ performanceApproaches for measuring performance:ranking employeesrating work behaviorsrating the extent to which employees have desirabletraits believed to be necessary for job success (e.g.,leadership)directly measuring the results of work performance(e.g., productivity)
    19. 19. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 19Conditions under which performanceConditions under which performancemeasurement is useful for development:measurement is useful for development:The appraisal system must give employees specificinformation about their performance problems andways they can improve their performanceManagers must be trained in providingperformance feedbackManagers must frequently give employeesperformance feedbackManagers also need to monitor employees’progress in carrying out the action plan
    20. 20. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 20Assessment Tools:Assessment Tools: 360-Degree360-DegreeFeedback SystemFeedback SystemRatingFormRatingFormRatingFormRatingFormSelfPeersCustomers SubordinatesManager
    21. 21. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 21Activities involved in development planning usingActivities involved in development planning usingthe 360-degree feedback process:the 360-degree feedback process: (1 of 2)(1 of 2)1. Understand strengths and weaknesses Review ratings for strengths and weaknesses Identify skills or behaviors where self and others’ratings agree and disagree2. Identify a development goal Choose a skill or behavior to develop Set a clear, specific goal with a specified outcome
    22. 22. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 22Activities involved in development planning usingActivities involved in development planning usingthe 360-degree feedback process:the 360-degree feedback process: (2 of 2)(2 of 2)3. Identify a process for recognizing goalaccomplishment4. Identify strategies for reaching the developmentgoal Establish strategies such as reading, job experiences,courses, and relationships Establish strategies for receiving feedback onprogress Establish strategies for receiving reinforcement fornew skills or behavior
    23. 23. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 23Factors necessary for a 360-degreeFactors necessary for a 360-degreefeedback system to be effective:feedback system to be effective:The system must provide consistent (reliable)ratingsFeedback must be job-related (valid)The system must be easy to use, understandable,and relevantThe system must lead to managerial development
    24. 24. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 24360-Degree Feedback:360-Degree Feedback:Important Issues to ConsiderImportant Issues to ConsiderWho will the raters be?How will you maintain the confidentiality of theraters?What behaviors and skills are job-related?How will you ensure full participation andcomplete responses from every employee who isasked to be a rater?What will the feedback report include?How will you ensure that managers receive andact on the feedback?
    25. 25. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 25Job ExperiencesJob ExperiencesJob experiences refer to relationships, problems,demands, tasks, or other features that employeesface in their jobsMost employee development occurs through jobexperiencesA major assumption is that development is mostlikely to occur when there is a mismatch betweenthe employee’s skills and past experiences andthe skills required for the job
    26. 26. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 26To be successful in their jobs,employees must stretch theirskills.They must be forced to learnnew skills, apply their skillsand knowledge in a new way,and master new experiences.
    27. 27. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 27Job Demands and Lessons Learned from ThemJob Demands and Lessons Learned from ThemMaking transitions Unfamiliar responsibilitiesProving yourselfCreating change Developing new directionsInherited problemsReduction decisionsProblems with employeesHaving high level of responsibility High stakesManaging business diversityJob overloadHandling external pressureBeing involved in non-authority relationships Influencing without authorityFacing obstacles Adverse business conditionsLack of top management supportLack of personal supportDifficult boss
    28. 28. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 28How Job Experiences are Used for EmployeeHow Job Experiences are Used for EmployeeDevelopment:Development:Enlargement ofCurrentJobExperiencesPromotionJob Rotation(Lateral Move)Transfer(Lateral Move)DownwardMoveTemporaryAssignmentwith AnotherOrganization
    29. 29. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 29Characteristics of Effective Job RotationCharacteristics of Effective Job RotationSystemsSystems (1 of 2)(1 of 2)1. Job rotation is used to develop skills as well asgive employees experience needed formanagerial positions2. Employees understand specific skills that willbe developed by rotation3. Job rotation is used for all levels and types ofemployees4. All employees have equal opportunities for jobrotation assignments
    30. 30. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 30Characteristics of Effective Job RotationCharacteristics of Effective Job RotationSystemsSystems (2 of 2)(2 of 2)5. Job rotation is linked with the careermanagement process so employees know thedevelopment needs addressed by each jobassignment6. Benefits of rotation are maximized and costs areminimized through managing time of rotationsto reduce workload costs and help employeesunderstand job rotation’s role in theirdevelopment plans
    31. 31. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 31Interpersonal RelationshipsInterpersonal RelationshipsEmployees can also develop skills and increasetheir knowledge about the company and itscustomers by interacting with a more experiencedorganizational memberTwo types of interpersonal relationships used todevelop employees:MentoringCoaching
    32. 32. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 32Characteristics of Successful FormalCharacteristics of Successful FormalMentoring Programs:Mentoring Programs: (1 of 2)(1 of 2)Mentor and protégé participation is voluntaryrelationship can be ended at any time without fear ofpunishmentMentor-protégé matching process does not limit theability of informal relationships to developMentors are chosen on the basis of:their past record in developing employeeswillingness to serve as a mentorevidence of positive coaching, communication, andlistening skills
    33. 33. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 33Characteristics of Successful FormalCharacteristics of Successful FormalMentoring Programs:Mentoring Programs: (2 of 2)(2 of 2)The purpose of the program is clearly understoodThe length of the program is specifiedA minimum level of contact between the mentor andprotégé is specifiedProtégés are encouraged to contact one another todiscuss problems and share successesThe mentor program is evaluatedEmployee development is rewarded
    34. 34. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 34Coaching RelationshipsCoaching RelationshipsCoach – a peer or manager who works withemployees to:motivate themhelp them develop skillsprovide reinforcement and feedbackCoaches need to be able to suggest effectiveimprovement actions
    35. 35. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 35The Development Planning ProcessThe Development Planning ProcessThe development planning processdevelopment planning process involves:identifying development needschoosing a development goalidentifying the actions that need to be taken by theemployee and the company to achieve the goaldetermining how progress toward goal attainment willbe measuredinvesting time and energy to achieve the goalestablishing a timetable for development
    36. 36. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 36Development PlanningDevelopment Planning (continued)(continued)An emerging trend in development is that theemployee must initiate the development planningprocessThe development approach used is dependent onthe needs and development goal
    37. 37. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 37Responsibilities in the DevelopmentResponsibilities in the DevelopmentPlanning Process:Planning Process: (1 of 2)(1 of 2)DevelopmentPlanning ProcessEmployee Responsibility Company ResponsibilityOpportunity How do I need to improve? Assessment information to identifystrengths, weaknesses, interests, andvaluesMotivation Am I willing to invest thetime and energy to develop?Company assists in identifyingpersonal and company reasons forchange.Manager discusses steps for dealingwith barriers and challenges todevelopment.Goal Identification How do I want to develop? Company provides developmentplanning guide.Manager has developmentaldiscussion with employee.
    38. 38. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 38Responsibilities in the DevelopmentResponsibilities in the DevelopmentPlanning Process:Planning Process: (2 of 2)(2 of 2)DevelopmentPlanning ProcessEmployee Responsibility Company ResponsibilityCriteria How will I know I am makingprogress?Manager provides feedback on criteriaActions What will I do to reach mydevelopment goal?Company provides assessment,courses, job experiences, andrelationshipsAccountability What is my timetable?How can I ask others forfeedback on progresstoward my goal?Managers follows up on progresstoward developmental goal and helpsemployees set a realistic timetable forgoal achievement
    39. 39. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 - 39Company Strategies for ProvidingCompany Strategies for ProvidingDevelopment:Development:IndividualizationLearner ControlOngoing Support

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