Application of microsoft word

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Application of microsoft word

  1. 1. 2014 ZUNAIRA SAEED BALOUCH ISLAMIC INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF ISLAMABAD 3/21/2014 THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER
  2. 2. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER CONTENTS GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS..................................................................................................................... 0 First Generation (1940 to 1956): Using Vacuum Tubes ............................................................................. 0 Hardware Technology................................................................................................................... 0 Software Technology .................................................................................................................... 0 Computing Characteristics............................................................................................................ 0 Physical Appearance ..................................................................................................................... 0 Application.................................................................................................................................... 1 Examples ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Using Transistors .............................................................................. 1 Hardware Technology................................................................................................................... 1 Software Technology .................................................................................................................... 1 Computing Characteristics............................................................................................................ 1 Physical Appearance ..................................................................................................................... 1 Application.................................................................................................................................... 1 Examples ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Third Generation (1964 to 1971): Using Integrated Circuits...................................................................... 2 Hardware Technology................................................................................................................... 2 Software Technology .................................................................................................................... 2 Computing Characteristics............................................................................................................ 2 Physical Appearance ..................................................................................................................... 2 Application.................................................................................................................................... 2 Examples ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Fourth Generation (1971 to present): Using Microprocessors.................................................................. 2 Hardware Technology................................................................................................................... 2 Software Technology .................................................................................................................... 3 Computing Characteristics............................................................................................................ 3 Physical Appearance ..................................................................................................................... 3 Application.................................................................................................................................... 3 Examples................................................................................................................................................ 3 Fifth Generation (Present and Next): Using Artificial Intelligence ............................................................. 3
  3. 3. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER Printer............................................................................................................................................................. 4 Modern printer technology: ...................................................................................................................... 4 Toner-based printers ............................................................................................................................. 4 Impact printer ............................................................................................................................................ 0 Typewriter-derived printers .................................................................................................................. 0 Computer memory ......................................................................................................................................... 0 Read only memory ..................................................................................................................................... 0 PROM..................................................................................................................................................... 1 Random access memory ............................................................................................................................ 1 DRAM:.................................................................................................................................................... 1 Buses .............................................................................................................................................................. 1 System buses:............................................................................................................................................. 1 Data bus:................................................................................................................................................ 1 Expansion bus: ........................................................................................................................................... 2 ISA bus: .................................................................................................................................................. 2 Software: ........................................................................................................................................................ 2 System software:........................................................................................................................................ 2 Operating system:.................................................................................................................................. 2 Application software:................................................................................................................................. 2 HARDWARE..................................................................................................................................................... 2 INPUT DEVICES........................................................................................................................................... 3 The Mouse ............................................................................................................................................. 3 The Keyboard......................................................................................................................................... 3 Pointing devices..................................................................................................................................... 3 OUTPUT DEVICES ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Tactile .................................................................................................................................................... 4 Audio...................................................................................................................................................... 4 Hardware ............................................................................................................................................... 4 Software................................................................................................................................................. 4 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 5
  4. 4. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS COMPUTER BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS The computer has evolved from a large-sized simple calculating machine to a smaller but much more powerful machine. The evolution of computer to the current state is defined in terms of the generations of computer. Each generation of computer is designed based on a new technological development, resulting in better, cheaper and smaller computers that are more powerful, faster and efficient than their predecessors. Currently, there are five generations of computer. In the following subsections, we will discuss the generations of computer in terms of— the technology used by them (hardware and software), computing characteristics (speed, i.e., number of instructions executed per second), physical appearance, and Their applications FIRST GENERATION (1940 TO 1956): USING VACUUM TUBES HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. The input to the computer was through punched cards and paper tapes. The output was displayed as printouts. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY The instructions were written in machine language. Machine language uses 0s and 1s for coding of the instructions. The first generation computers could solve one problem at a time. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS The computation time was in milliseconds. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE These computers were enormous in size and required a large room for installation.
  5. 5. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER APPLICATION They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest computing device of their time. EXAMPLES Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC), Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC), and Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). SECOND GENERATION (1956 TO 1963): USING TRANSISTORS HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY Transistors replaced the vacuum tubes of the first generation of computers. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, energy efficient and reliable. The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory. They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. The input was still through punched cards and the output using printouts. They used the concept of a stored program, where instructions were stored in the memory of computer. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY The instructions were written using the assembly language. Assembly language uses mnemonics like ADD for addition and SUB for subtraction for coding of the instructions. It is easier to write instructions in assembly language, as compared to writing instructions in machine language. High-level programming languages, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN were also developed during this period. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS The computation time was in microseconds. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE Transistors are smaller in size compared to vacuum tubes, thus, the size of the computer was also reduced. APPLICATION The cost of commercial production of these computers was very high, though less than the first generation computers. The transistors had to be assembled manually in second generation computers. EXAMPLES PDP-8, IBM 1401 and CDC 1604.
  6. 6. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER Second generation computers generated a lot of heat but much less than the first generation computers. They required less maintenance than the first generation computers. THIRD GENERATION (1964 TO 1971): USING INTEGRATED CIRCUITS HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY The third generation computers used the Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. In an IC chip, multiple transistors are placed on a silicon chip. Silicon is a type of semiconductor. The use of IC chip increased the speed and the efficiency of computer, manifold. The keyboard and monitor were used to interact with the third generation computer, instead of the punched card and printouts. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY The keyboard and the monitor were interfaced through the operating system. Operating system allowed different applications to run at the same time. High-level languages were used extensively for programming, instead of machine language and assembly language. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS The computation time was in nanoseconds. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE The size of these computers was quite small compared to the second generation computers. APPLICATION Computers became accessible to mass audience. Computers were produced commercially, and were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. EXAMPLES IBM 370, PDP 11. The third generation computers used less power and generated less heat than the second generation computers. The cost of the computer reduced significantly, as individual components of the computer were not required to be assembled manually. The maintenance cost of the computers was also less compared to their predecessors. FOURTH GENERATION (1971 TO PRESENT): USING MICROPROCESSORS HARDWARE TECHNOLOGY They use the Large Scale Integration (LSI) and the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. Thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip using LSI technology. VLSI allows hundreds of thousands of components to be integrated in a small chip. This era is marked by the development of microprocessor. Microprocessor is
  7. 7. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER a chip containing millions of transistors and components, and, designed using LSI and VLSI technology. A microprocessor chip is shown in Figure 1.7. This generation of computers gave rise to Personal Computer (PC). Semiconductor memory replaced the earlier magnetic core memory, resulting in fast random access to memory. Secondary storage device like magnetic disks became smaller in physical size and larger in capacity. The linking of computers is another key development of this era. The computers were linked to form networks that led to the emergence of the Internet. This generation also saw the development of pointing devices like mouse, and handheld devices. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY Several new operating systems like the MS-DOS and MS-Windows developed during this time. This generation of computers supported Graphical User Interface (GUI). GUI is a user-friendly interface that allows user to interact with the computer via menus and icons. High-level programming languages `1are used for the writing of programs. COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS The computation time is in picoseconds. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE They are smaller than the computers of the previous generation. Some can even fit into the palm of the hand. APPLICATION They became widely available for commercial purposes. Personal computers became available to the home user. EXAMPLES The Intel 4004 chip was the first microprocessor. The components of the computer like Central Processing Unit (CPU) and memory were located on a single chip. In 1981, IBM introduced the first computer for home use. In 1984, Apple introduced the Macintosh. The microprocessor has resulted in the fourth generation computers being smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. The fourth generation computers are also portable and more reliable. They generate much lesser heat and require less maintenance compared to their predecessors. GUI and pointing devices facilitate easy use and learning on the computer. Networking has resulted in resource sharing and communication among different computers. FIFTH GENERATION (PRESENT AND NEXT): USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE The goal of fifth generation computing is to develop computers that are capable of learning and self-organization. The fifth generation computers use Super Large Scale Integrated (SLSI) chips that are able to store millions of components on a single chip. These computers have large memory requirements.
  8. 8. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER This generation of computers uses parallel processing that allows several instructions to be executed in parallel, instead of serial execution. Parallel processing results in faster processing speed. The Intel dual-core microprocessor uses parallel processing. The fifth generation computers are based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). They try to simulate the human way of thinking and reasoning. Artificial Intelligence includes areas like Expert System (ES), Natural Language Processing (NLP), speech recognition, voice recognition, robotics, etc. THE FIVE GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER (TABLE) GENERATIONS YEARS SOFTWARE HARDWARE COMPUTATION TIME EXAMPLES 1ST 1940 to 1956 machine language Vacuum Tubes Milliseconds. UNIVAC, ENIAC and EDVAC 2ND 1956 to 1963 programming languages Transistors microseconds PDP-8, IBM 1401 and CDC 1604 3RD 1964 to 1971 Operating system Integrated Circuits nanoseconds IBM 370, PDP 11 4TH 1971 to present MS-DOS and MS-Windows Microprocessors picoseconds Intel 4004 chip 5TH Present and Next parallel processing (SLSI) chips PRINTER In computing, a printer is a peripheral which makes a representation of an electronic document on physical media. Individual printers are designed to support local and network users at the same time. Some printers can print documents stored on memory cards or from digital cameras and scanners. Consumer and some commercial printers are designed for low-volume, short- turnaround print jobs; requiring virtually no setup time to achieve a hard copy of a given document. However, this is offset by the on-demand convenience and project management costs being more controllable compared to an out-sourced solution. MODERN PRINTER TECHNOLOGY: The following printing technologies are routinely found in modern printers: TONER-BASED PRINTERS
  9. 9. Computer memory A laser printer rapidly produces high quality text and graphics. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer's photoreceptor. IMPACT PRINTER Relay on a forcible impact to transfer ink to the media. The impact printer uses a print head that either hits the surface of the ink ribbon, pressing the ink ribbon against the paper (similar to the action of a typewriter), or hits the back of the paper, pressing the paper against the ink ribbon (the IBM 1403 for example). All but the dot matrix printer rely on the use of fully formed characters, letterforms that represent each of the characters that the printer was capable of printing. In addition, most of these printers were limited to monochrome, or sometimes two- color, printing in a single typeface at one time, although bolding and underlining of text could be done by "overstriking", that is, printing two or more impressions in the same character position. TYPEWRITER-DERIVED PRINTERS Main articles: Friedan Flex writer and IBM Electric type writertype ball print element from IBM Electric-type printer several different computer printers were simply computer- controllable versions of existing electric typewriters. The Friedan Flex writer and IBM Electric- based printers were the most-common examples. The Flex writer printed with a conventional type bar mechanism while the Electric used IBM's well-known "golf ball" printing mechanism. In either case, the letter form then struck a ribbon which was pressed against the paper, printing one character at a time. The maximum speed of the Electric printer (the faster of the two) was 15.5 characters per second. COMPUTER MEMORY The computer memory is a temporarystoragearea. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. Before a program can be run, the program is loaded from some storage medium into the memory. This allows the CPU direct access to the program. Memory is a need for any computer. A computer is usually an electrical device, which understands only electricity on and electricity off. This is expressed by using two symbols – 0 and 1 – which are called binarydigits or bits. Numbers and text characters are represented as codes, which are made up of combinations of 0s and 1s. Simple character codes are called ASCII (the American Standard Code for Information Interchange). In ASCII, eight bits – any combination of 0s and 1s – form one character or symbol. For example, the letter A is denoted by the code 01000001. As a result, the computer's memory usually consists of two parts: READ ONLY MEMORY Read only memory (ROM) is the permanent memory which is used to store important control programs and systems software to perform a variety of functions, such as booting up or starting up programs. ROM is non-volatile. That means the contents are not lost when the power is
  10. 10. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER switched off. Its contents are written at the time of manufacture, but in modern (2012) computers may be changed using special software. PROM Prom stand for programmable read only memory .this form of ROM is initially blank .the user can write data on it using special devices. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Random access memory (RAM) is used as the working memory of a computer system. It stores input data, intermediate results, programs, and other information temporarily. It can be read and written. It is usually volatile, that is all data will be lost when the power is turned off. In most cases it is loaded again from hard disk DRAM: DRAM stand for dynamic random access memory.it require an electric current to maintain its state. The electric charge of dram decreases with the time that may result in loss of data. Operation of AND (.) x y z Nil 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 BUSES A computer system consist of different devices. The devices are connected together by a communication channel called bus.it is used to move a large amount of bits in the form of electric pulses from one unit to another. SYSTEM BUSES: Different types of system buses as follows: Data bus Address bus Control bus DATA BUS:
  11. 11. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER It is used to carry data .it is an electrical path that connects CPU, memory, input/output devices and secondary storage devices. The bus contain parallel set of lines. A data bus with more lines carry more data. EXPANSION BUS: The buses that connect CPU to the peripheral devices are called expansion buses. Expansion buses are typically 16 to 64 bits wide and are mounted on motherboard. Different types of expansion buses as follows: ISA BUS: Isa stand for industry standard architecture.it has been around since 1984.it has developed for IBM personal computer .it is most common and slowest expansion bus. Isa bus transmit 8 to 16 bits at one time. SOFTWARE: A set of instructions given to the computer to solve a problem is called software. Software also known as program. Different software are used to solve different problems. A computer software specifies a sequence of operations to be performed by computer. SYSTEM SOFTWARE: System software is a set of programs to control and manage the actual operations of a computer hardware.it control the usage and allocation of different hardware components.it enables application program to execute properly. OPERATING SYSTEM: An operating system is a set of programs that manages all computer components and operations. A computer cannot do anything without an operating system. Operating system must be installed on every computer. APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Application software is used to perform various application on the computer.it helps a computer user to perform various tasks. People use application software according to their needs.it is also known as application package. The application software uses the operating system in order to function.it run on the top of the operating system. HARDWARE Hardware is a physical device something that you’re able to touch and see. For example, the computer monitor you’re viewing this text on or the mouse you’re using to navigate is
  12. 12. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER considered computer hardware. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). INPUT DEVICES In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras and joysticks. THE MOUSE Used to ‘drive’ Microsoft Windows THE KEYBOARD A 'keyboard' is a human interface device which is represented as a layout of buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a computer, or to call upon a particular function of the computer. Traditional keyboards use spring-based buttons, though newer variations employ virtual keys, or even projected keyboards. Examples of types of keyboards include: Computer keyboard Keyes Chorded keyboard LPFK POINTING DEVICES Keyboard devices are the most commonly used input devices today. A pointing device is any human interface device that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. In the case of mice and touchpads, this is usually achieved by detecting movement across a physical surface. Analog devices, such as 3D mice, joysticks, or pointing sticks, function by reporting their angle of deflection. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer, creating a simple, intuitive way to navigate a computer's GUI. OUTPUT DEVICES An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form.Some types
  13. 13. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER of output are text, graphics, tactile,[4] audio, and video. Text consists of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation marks, or any other symbol requiring one byte of computer storage space) that are used to create words, sentences, and paragraphs. Graphics are digital representations of non-text information such as drawings, charts, photographs, and animation (a series of still images in rapid sequence that gives the illusion of motion). Tactile output such as raised line drawings may be useful for some individuals who are blind. Audio is music, speech, or any other sound. Video consists of images played back at speeds to provide the appearance of full motion. TACTILE Haptic technology, or haptic, is a tactile feedback technology which takes advantage of the sense of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user. Several printers and wax jet printers have the capability of producing raised line drawings. There are also handheld devices that use an array of vibrating pins to present a tactile outline of the characters or text under the viewing window of the device. AUDIO Speech output systems can be used to read screen text to computer users. Special software programs called screen readers attempt to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen and speech synthesizers convert data to vocalized sounds or text. HARDWARE SOFTWARE Definition Devices that are required to store and execute (or run) the software. Collection of instructions that enables a user to interact with the computer. Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware). Types Input, storage, processing, control, and output devices. System software, Programming software, and Application software. Examples CD-ROM, monitor, printer, video card, scanners, label makers, routers, and modems. QuickBooks, Adobe Acrobat, Windom’s-Cs, Internet Explorer , Microsoft Word , Microsoft Excel
  14. 14. THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER Function Hardware serve as the delivery system for software solutions. The hardware of a computer is infrequently changed, in comparison with software and data, which are “soft” in the sense that they are readily created, modified, or erased on the computer To perform the specific task you need to complete. Software is generally not needed to for the hardware to perform its basic level tasks such as turning on and responding to input. Inter dependency Hardware starts functioning once software is loaded. To deliver its set of instructions, Software is installed on hardware. Failure Hardware failure is random. Hardware does have increasing failure at the last stage. Software failure is systematic. Software does not have an increasing failure rate. Durability Hardware wears out over time. Software does not wear out over time. However, bugs are discovered in software as time passes. Nature Hardware is physical in nature. Software is logical in nature. REFERENCES WWW.GOOGLE.COM WWW.WIKIBOOK.COM WWW.ASK.COM

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