Leadership for quality


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Leadership for quality

  1. 1. Leadership For Quality Presented by: Amiirah Camall Saib Anouchka Busawon Bundhoo Yashiin Pooja Bissessur Chamroo Ousha Devi Neeta Burnah
  2. 2. Introduction • Leadership is about influencing people towards accomplishment of goals. • It makes an important contribution to the diffusion of quality practices. • In order to embark on a journey of quality, leadership has been implemented in various models such as: i. TQM ii. MBNQA iii. EFQM iv. ISO v. KAIZEN
  3. 3. Leadership Styles Figure 1. Development of Leadership (1994) Source: TOSI, H.L., RIZZO, J.R. and CARROLL, S.J., Managing organisational behaviour. 3rd ed.
  4. 4. Trait Theory • Qualities that exist in a person. • Leaders must be able to create quality vision. • Provides important benchmarks. • It fails to delimit a definitive list of leadership characteristics. • Organisations should identify true leadership traits.
  5. 5. Behavioural Approach Lewin et al. (1939) proposed three leadership styles: 1. Autocratic leadership- Leader make all decisions without consultation and does not believe in empowering subordinates. 2. Democratic leadership- Involved followers in decision making process. 3. Laissez-faire leadership- Whereby leaders play minimal role in the decision making process and does not contributed much to quality.
  6. 6. Ohio State and Michigan studies Ohio State Studies Michigan Studies Relationship-related Employee Orientation Task-related Production Orientation
  7. 7. Contingency Theories • The style to be used is contingent upon such factors as the situation, the people, the task, the organisation, and other environmental variables. • The earliest contingency theory was developed by Fiedler (1967)
  8. 8. Fiedler‟s Contingency Theory • Combine aspects of both trait and style theories. • Concern mainly with task in hand or interpersonal relationships among the people trying to perform the task. • The position of the leader was determined by the Least Preferred Co-worker(LPC).
  9. 9. Vroom-Yetton Theory • This model suggests the selection a leadership style for group decision making. • This model identifies five different styles (ranging from autocratic to consultative to group-based decisions) on the situation & level of involvement. • More total quality organisations are recognising the need for more participative decision-making styles and hence the Vroom-Yetton model has promised that it can describe that trend.
  10. 10. Path-Goal Theory • Developed by Martin G. Evans (1970) and Robert J. House (1971) and based on Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory. • Subordinates will be motivated if: 1. They think they are capable of the work. 2. Believe their efforts will result in a certain outcome or reward. 3. Believe the outcome or reward will be worthwhile. • Increase subordinate‟s motivation to achieve personal and organisational goals and hence working towards quality.
  11. 11. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory • Leaders choose the leadership style based on the maturity or developmental level of the follower. • The leadership style could involve :directing, coaching, supporting and delegating. • Uses questionnaires to ask respondents to select their preferred style for each situation. • Questionnaire might be bias and cannot be considered as quality.
  12. 12. Transformational - Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership More concerned with the ends and with transforming the way the organisation operates More emphasis is placed on the means rather than the ends Relates to quality leadership Not relevant for quality management Stimulate teamwork and continuous improvement Encourage short term thinking which prevent continuous improvement Encourage quality improvement by creating an awareness for change Concerned with maintaining responsibility and fairness Motivates followers to exceed expectation Empower employees at all levels
  13. 13. Total Quality Management
  14. 14. Total Quality Management • Definition of TQM: Is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer satisfaction- Martin Murray • Process of TQM • Role of managing quality in today‟s environment
  15. 15. The importance of TQM • The success of the company which managed to achieve quality control is based on these key concept : concern for consumers, continual improvement, process control, taking preventive actions, leadership and team work. • Leadership is one of the important concept of TQM • A leader must be able to create organisational culture and apply quality control as it must be part of the activities of employees.
  16. 16. Implementation of TQM program-model of leadership • PDCA model of leadership which includes 4 phases: Plan, Do, Check and Act • Model start with check phase: Design preview and Total Quality Audit • Act phase: motivation and selection • Plan phase: defining aims & policy for quality achievement and creation of quality plan • Do phase: Communication and education
  17. 17. Principles of TQM • 3 principles notably: customer focus, teamwork and participation and finally continuous improvement • Teamwork & Participation: information is shared both vertically and horizontally without the fear of losing power and status. • Customer focus: both internal (managers, subordinates, employees) and external customer (customers) • Continuous improvement: must treat quality as a never-ending process
  18. 18. Reasons for failure of TQM • TQM has to be adjusted to the nature of every organisation separately. • Managers are impatient and do not understand the importance of the existence of long term goals. • The organisational culture plays out a very important role in the transformation of an organisation. • The accomplishment of TQM requires dedication from the managers or else they may not achieve quality control. • Managers do not realise the real importance and nature of the relation between consumers and suppliers.
  19. 19. Leadership with Baldrige
  20. 20. Leadership with Baldrige • Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) Criteria for Performance Excellence a widely used criteria • Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence built on a basis of core values and concepts
  21. 21. Visionary Leadership • Setting directions but also creating customer-based forces along with “raising the ban” concerning future expectations Leaders: • Clearly communicate the vision • Look forward to the creation of strategies and methods • Encourage innovation and supply adequate resources • Inspire and motivate • Good role models
  22. 22. Baldrige Award Framework Leadership: • The first category • MBNQA views it as the „driver‟ of successful quality system • Very important to promote leadership at all levels of management • Educate the employees about making quality their foremost priority • Why much emphasis is laid on the leadership?
  23. 23. EFQM and Leadership
  24. 24. European Foundation for Quality Management Award (EFQM) • European Foundation for Quality Management Award (EFQM) was formed in 1988 by 14 leading European businesses.
  25. 25. European Foundation for Quality Management Award (EFQM) and Leadership • EFQM emphasises the concept of leading with vision, inspiration and integrity (EFQM 2013) which may ultimately lead to quality. • Leadership is actually the momentum of organisational commitment and good corporate performance.
  26. 26. EFQM AS A SELF-ASSESSMENT MODEL • The model promotes continuous improvement, high quality performance and greater competitiveness internationally by encouraging good leadership (Ismail et al. 2011). • Leaders are role models of a culture of Excellence.
  27. 27. Simple Assessment Concept 1. Vision, mission, values. 2. Self-assessment 3. Strategic planning 4. Action planning 5. Business planning 6. Implementation and review 1. Leadership 2. Maturity 3. Continuous improvement 4. Strategic integration 1. Vision, mission and values 2. Integrated planning process 3.Implementation and review
  28. 28. Leadership under EFQM • Leaders ensure organisation‟s management system is established, executed and upgraded, they relate with customers, partners and the society and they identify organisational change. • Leaders are, therefore, advised to listen, inform, motivate, recognise, delegate, mentor and team build, which relates narrowly to the EFQM guidance on leadership.
  29. 29. EFQM Based Transformational Leadership Model • Leader‟s role is evolving as quality officer. • Erturgut and Hava (2009) elaborated on the “EFQM Based Transformational Leadership Model” in order to increase employee performance and set up a quality culture in the Armed Forces.
  30. 30. Criticisms on EFQM • Assumption that it kills initiative. • Weights devoted to the criteria in the EFQM may differ per country (Eskildsen et al. 2002 cited by Blom 2006). • Focus is holistic: it does not emphasise on specifics, e.g accreditation and research.
  31. 31. Leadership related to ISO
  32. 32. Leadership related to ISO • ISO 9000 is a quality management standard design to increase business efficiency and customer satisfaction. • Its main goal is to embed a quality management system within an organisation. • ISO focuses on the importance for quality. • ISO 9001 is applicable to the service quality as well.
  33. 33. ISO Model Source: http://www.paradigm-consultant.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/iso-9001.gif
  34. 34. • ISO has 8 different principles. • Leaders need to coordinate. • Leadership being one of these principles need to create the appropriate culture for successful ISO implementation. • Leaders will set the direction to achieve the best outcomes. • Good leaders inform and motivate others toward accepting change. Leadership related to ISO
  35. 35. • Under ISO 9001, leadership is defined by management responsibility in Clause 5. • Leadership has as role to create and sustain values, trust and fairness among employees. • Leaders need to set the direction, strategic focus, plan, alignment and empowerment. Leadership related to ISO
  36. 36. • Leaders need to determine proper communication and focus on continuous improvements. • Encourage feedback to identify areas of difficulties. • Review QMS to know if objectives are being met. Leadership related to ISO
  37. 37. • However, failure to fulfill these requirements might lead to cancellation of the ISO certificate. • Tsiotras & Gotsamani (1996) assert that “the greatest reason for failure of ISO 9000 programs is lack of management commitment.” Criticism
  38. 38. Kaizen and Leadership
  39. 39. Kaizen and Leadership • Kaizen: o Kaizen comes from two Chinese words “Kai” meaning an ongoing change and “Zen” which means for the better. • The Concept of Kaizen o The purpose of Kaizen goes beyond simple productivity improvement. o Successful implementation requires the participation of workers in the improvement.
  40. 40. • Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results, then adjusting. • Five main elements of Kaizen: Teamwork Personal discipline Improved moral Quality Circles Suggestions for improvement
  41. 41. kaizen blitz and kaizen burst or kaizen event • The Toyota Way Fieldbook by Jeffery Liker and David Meier • A kaizen blitz, or rapid improvement, is a focused activity on a particular process or activity.
  42. 42. PDCA Cycle Source: http://www.brightubpm.com/resource-management/70469-what-are-the-expectations- of-a-kaizen-leader
  43. 43. • Ground rules for conducting kaizen o Prof. Bob Emiliani (2003) wrote a team Leader manual in which the ground for implementing Kaizen was put forward. • This concept comprises of: o A non-zero sum ( a win-win situation) Ground Rules
  44. 44. • Kaizen and Leadership • Kaizen Leadership o We have group implicated in a definite quality enhancement development being studied and benefits from the result of a Kaizen event.
  45. 45. o Champion - senior leader o Process Owner - process responsibility o Mentor - outside consultant o Team Leader - inside leader o Co-Leader - leader in training o Master Trainer - deploys the new process o Team Members - people that work in the process to be improved
  46. 46. • Enabling change through Kaizen Culture and Leadership. o An appropriate leadership style that is suitable for an organisation will help in implementing a Kaizen Culture. Enabling change through Kaizen Culture
  47. 47. Continuous improvement Team work Motivation at work InnovationIncreased productivity Competitiveness Communication Good leadership styles bring about:
  48. 48. Conclusion • Good leadership has been viewed to bring about:  continuous improvement,  team work, motivation to work,  innovation,  increased productivity,  rise in competitiveness,  good communication of vision and goals of the organisation among others. • These factors have undoubtedly lead to process improvement and excellence in doing business.
  49. 49. • Failure to find a universal style of leadership • The EFQM Transformational Leadership elaboration • Kaizen Concepts
  50. 50. • The role of leadership in TQM should be addressed more profoundly in changing the culture of the organisation since only the top management should be in a position to create a necessary culture that is capable of leading and supporting TQM actions and thus improved quality.
  51. 51. Recommendation (Contd) • It can be recommended that leaders must devise means and ways to offset this criticism which may come in terms of company policy to protect its labour and maintain quality products.