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Geological Time Analogies

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Data for a student exercise on putting geological time into known contexts. Good starter for Yr 13 AS 3.5

Data for a student exercise on putting geological time into known contexts. Good starter for Yr 13 AS 3.5

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  • 1. Timeperiod Majorevolutionary event Generalconversion multiplier Distancerunina10- kilometerrace Distanceonafootball field(100yards) Distanceonasoccer field(100meters) Ageinanave.human lifespan(76yrs) Dayinacalendaryear No.ofthe407M&M’sin 1lbbag Timepassedina3-hour exam Timeremainingina3- hourexam 4500 mya Earth is formed; 0 0 m 0 yds 0 m 0 yrs Jan. 1st 0 eaten 0 min 180 min no free oxygen 3800 mya Prokaryotes evolve; 0.1556 1556 m 15 yds 20 in 15.56 m 12 yrs old Feb. 25th 63 eaten 28min 152 min hydrosphere present 2500 mya Eukaryotes evolve; 0.4444 4444 m 44 yds 16 in 44.44 m 34 yrs old June 13th 181 eaten 80 min 100 min oxygen present in atmosphere 543 mya Cambrian Period; 0.8793 8793 m 87 yds 33 in 87.93 m 67 yrs old Nov. 15th 357 eaten 158.3 min 21.7 min explosion of animal phyla 500 mya Ordovician Period; 0.8889 8889 m 88 yds 32 in 88.89 m 67.5 yrs old Nov. 19th 361 eaten 160 min 20 min evidence of complex plants on land 440 mya Silurian Period; 0.9022 9022 m 90 yds 8 in 90.22 m 68.5 yrs old Nov. 24th 367 eaten 162.4 min 17.6 min vascular plants and arthropods on land 409 mya Devonian Period; 0.9091 9091 m 90 yds 33 in 90.91 m 69 yrs old Nov. 27th 370 eaten 163.6 min 16.4 min mountain building in North America; fresh water increasing 354 mya Carboniferous Period; 0.9213 9213 m 92 yds 5 in 92.13 m 70 yrs old Dec. 1st 374 eaten 165.8 min 14.2 min major radiation of insects
  • 2. 290 mya Permian Period; 0.9356 9356 m 93 yds 20 in 9.56 m 71 yrs old Dec. 6th 380 eaten 168.4 min 11.6 min mammal-like reptiles predominate; huge land and sea extinction event at period’s end 245 mya Triassic Period; 0.9456 9456 m 94 yds 20 in 94.56 m 72 yrs old Dec. 9th 384 eaten 170.2 min 9.8 min ancestors of dinosaurs present and diversifying 206 mya Jurassic Period; 0.9542 9542 m 95 yds 15 in 95.42 m 72.5 yrs old Dec. 13th 388 eaten 171.8 min 8.2 min Pangaea begins breaking up; dinosaurs continue to diversify 144 mya Cretaceous Period; 0.968 9680 m 96 yds 28 in 96.80 m 73.5 yrs old Dec. 18th 394 eaten 174.2 min 5.8 min angiosperms rapidly diversify 65 mya Tertiary Period; 0.9856 9856 m 98 yds 20 in 98.56 m 75 yrs old Dec. 24th 401 eaten 177.4 min 2.6 min terrestrial and marine reptiles and many marine invertebrates go extinct 1.8 mya Quaternary Period; 0.9996 9996 m 99 yds 35 in 99.96 m 76 yrs, 355 days 8:30 p.m. 406.8 eaten 179.9 min 0.1 min first hominids present Dec. 31st