Landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmstead spearheaded the movement for planned urban parks. He and George M Calvert Vaux Pullman finalized helped draw plan design for the for what was ‘Pioneer Car’. selected to Founded Pullman become Central Palace Car Park, NYC. Company. 1850 1857 1862 1863Henry Bessemer Homestead actand William Kelly was passed bydevelop the congress, offeringBessemer Process, 160 acres of land,a Technique that free to any citizeninvolves injecting air who was head ofinto molten Iron to household. Fromremove Carbon and 1862 to 1900, overimpurities. 600,000 families took advantage of the offer. Www.archives.gov
Colonel Chivington and troops descended on the Cheyenne and Arapaho on what is known as the Sand American Railroad Creek Massacre. construction Attack was Company called the performed at dawn Credit Mobilier was on November 29th, set up. It was over 150 people chartered by the were killed, mostly federal government. women and children. 1863-64 1864 1864 1865TranscontinentalRailroad was built The term Politicalacross the western Machine came tohalf of US, which height in the US. Alinked existing political Machine is arailway network with group controllingeastern US. Atlantic activities of aand Pacific coasts political party in aconnected for the city, they offeredfirst time. services to voters in exchange for political of financial support. Www.manataka.org And www.boardsandbits.com
Social Darwinism Comes to height in US. Philosophy that grew out of the English naturalist Charles Darwin’s Theory of Biological Tammany hall is Evolution. headed by Boss Economists found it tweed- Tammany a way to justify the halls graft. Doctrine of Liassez Faire. 1866 1866 1867 1868Buffalo Soldiersformed onSeptember 21, 1866 Oliver Hudsonat Fort Leavenworth Kelley is father ofKansas. They were the order of patronsoriginally members of husbandry.of the US 10thcavalry regiment ofUS army. Thenickname was givento the “negrocavalry” by theAfrican Americantribes they fought.Synonymous with allAfrican Americanregiments formed in1866. Www.freemasonry.bcy.ca And www.stratamaxgames.com
John D Rockefellers Standard Oil Company processed 2-3% of the Urbanization takes countries crude oil. height in the US, as He established the immigrants move to Rockefeller US. Cities grow foundation, and rapidly, mostly in provided funds for regions of northeast University of and Midwest. Chicago. 1869 1870 1870 1870Americanentrepreneur and Reformers organizeengineer George Civil ServiceWestinghouse, Reform associationinvented the railway to secure legislationair brake and was to make reformpioneer of electrical permanent.industry, invented in1869. He alsoestablished theWestinghouse Airbrake Company onSeptember 28, 1869 Www.biography.com.pp And www.time.com/rfeller
Eugene V Debbs was a spokesman for socialists. In The Vanderbilt 1875 helped family gains wealth organize Local and fame. Cornelius Lodge of the Vanderbilt was the Brotherhood of wealthiest Locomotive industrialist of his Firemen. He also time. In 1873 he formed the contributed 1 million American Railway to Central University. Union. 1871 1873 1874 1875 George A Custer reports that blackThe tweed ring-- hills have gold “fromBoss Tweed was the grass rootshead of Tammany down”, prompts goldHall, he led them in rush. He and hisdefrauding the city. troops reach LittleIn 1871 the tweed Big Horn river andring broke. natives already awaited them, within an hour Custer and all his men of the 7th cavalry were dead. Www.biography.com.pp And en.wikapedia.org
Alexander G Bell and Thomas Racial laws called Watson unveil the the Jim Crow laws telephone. are passed in Telephone opens southern states. the way for a Made to separate worldwide white and black communications people in public and network. private facilities. 1876 1876 1876 1876Sitting bull-“Takanka Lytanka” isleader of the Sioux. Thomas AlvaHe agreed to live on Edison became athe reservation pioneer on the Newalong the Mississippi Industrial Frontier river. when he established worlds 1st research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. Www.Civfanatics32.com And www.pbs.com Www.civfanatics.com/rb3 And
The Gilded age was The Grandfather a term coined by clause was created Mark Twain. It was a to reinstate voters period from the end who may have failed of reconstruction, literacy test or could characterized by a not afford the poll greatly expanding tax. Stated that if economy and the anyone encountered emergence of either issue, he plutocratic could still vote if his influences in the father or grandfather government and were eligible to vote society. before January 1 1876 1877 1877 1877Literacy tests Chief Joseph andcreated for voters. his men embark onTested ability of a long march toreading, only those Canada. Journeywho passed were included severalpermitted to vote. imp700 followers (200 actual warriors) embarked on a 1,400 impressive victories against a US force that numbered over 2,000 soldiers. Later, exhausted, he surrendered, giving one of the greatest Www.pinkmonkey.com Www.walking-spirit.com/chief joseph Www.pinkmonkey.com/amgov speeches in history.
Booker T The dumbbell Washington was a tenements were prominent African The National introduced. They educator. He Farmers Alliance were cheap housing graduated from was an organized units, made in effort Virginia Hampton agrarian movement to reform. The first Institute. In 1881 he among American law that led to them headed the farmers. It included was passed in 1879. Tuskegee Normal the farmers alliance later proved to be a and Industrial and industrial union. failure. Institute. 1877 1879 1880 1881Poll tax was arequirement forvoting. It was anannual tax that hadto be paid beforequalifying to vote.Often AfricanAmericans and poorwhites preventedfrom voting. Thegildedage.wikispaces.com
Joseph Pulitzerbought “NY worldwar” in 1883, hepioneered popular Mark Twain was ainnovations. The novelist andpaper emphasized humorist. He first“sin, sex, and used term “gildedsensation” in age” wrote manyattempt to surpass books, including thecompetitor William classic “AdventuresHearst. of Huckleberry finn”. 1883 1884 1885 1885 Republican political The graft “system activists who bolted was at height, and the republican party very common. It was by supporting an illegal usage of democrat Grover political influence for Cleveland in election personal gain. of 1884 were called Mugwumps. They switched because of financial corruption associated with republican James G. Blaine. Hfboards.hockeysfuture.com
Congress passed the Dawes Act, aiming to “Americanize” native Americans Many reservations were broken. 160 acres of land were given to the head of households, 60 toSamuel Gompers those who wereled the Cigar makers single. GovernmentInternational Union sold remainingto join with other reservations tocraft unions. settlers. 1886 1886 1887 1887 Socialism originates The Colored from the intellectual Farmers Alliance and working class. It was an organized was a political agrarian movement movement that among African criticized effects of American farmers in industrialism and the south where the private property on granger movement society. had been strong. Thegrio.com and www.commons.wikimedia.org
George Eastman Jane Adams was adeveloped a series pioneer settlementof more convenient worker, founder ofalternatives to the house in Chicagoheavy glass plates along with Ellenpreviously used for Gatesstar, one ofphotography. He the first socialintroduced his settlements inKodak camera 1888. United States. 1888 1889 1889 1890 Jacob Riis was a Battle of the Danish American wounded knee took social reformer place in December. known for Custers 7th cavalry photographic and slaughtered 300 journalistic talents to unarmed native help impoverished in Americans Brought NYC. Photographed the Indian wars/era the slums. to a bitter end. Sparticus.schoolnet.co.uk feministezine.com
Collective bargaining becomes a “famous” process of Ida B Wells was negotiations born into slavery, between a group of later moved to employers aimed at Memphis where she reaching worked as a teacher. agreements to She was later the regulate working editor of a local conditions, a paper and wrote technique used for about racial justice. expanding industry. 1890 1890 1890 1890Melting Pot was a Sherman anti trustterm becoming more act made it illegal tocommon. More form trusts thatimmigrants were interfered with freecoming in, etc. This trade between theterm described US states and otheras a land of different countries.people and cultures. Www.nativenotes.net Www.themanjimmy.blogspot.com
Omaha platform, a populist party, grew out of a agrarian W.E.B Dubois was revolt that rose the first African because of the American to receive collapse of the a doctorate from agriculture prices Harvard. Later on following the panic He founded the in1873. Niagara Movement. 1891 1892 1892 1895Settlement houses Ellis Island, New Yorkwere established by harbor, a immigrationa few reformers. station that wasThey were moved from Castlecommunity centers garden NY.in slumneighborhoods thatprovided assistancefor that area. Www.Uic.edu www.Italianamericanstudies.org
Andrew Carnegie was one of the first industrialists to make his own William McKinley fortune. Started with was nominated by William Jennings nothing. Entered the republicans to Bryan ran against steel business in run against William William M. He 1873, in 1899 the Jennings Bryan. Had received a low Carnegie steel millions of backing number of votes, company funds, received and delivered an manufactured more about 7 million impassioned speech steel than all votes, became pres.. called the “cross of companies in Great gold”. Britain. 1896 1896 1896 1899In the Plessy vs.Ferguson case,supreme court rulesseparation of racesin public was legaland did not violatethe 14th amendment.It Permittedsegregation. Www.whitehouse.gov/25
Construction for Debt pionage Angel island starts. forced some It was an Mexicans and immigration station African Americans to for primarily the work in order to pay Chinese. More harsh off debt to condition than those employers. of Ellis Island. 1899 1902 1903 1905 Orville brothersOctober 1899 Edwin experimented withMilton Royle hailed new enginesVaudeville Theatre powerful enough toas “an American keep in air. Oninvention”. December 17, inVaudeville had Kitty Hawk NC theysophisticated had the firstmusicals, successful flight. Itperformances, etc covered 120 ft and lasted 12 seconds. Www2.uwrf.edu www.myjetreview.com/kittyhawk1 www. Immigration.procon.org
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