Sweat Shops- In sweat shops or work shops, in tenements rather than in factories, workers had little choice but to put up with the conditions, the work was tedious and required few skills. 1839 1850 1851 Social Darwinism - Bessemer Process - The philosophy called The Bessemer Processsocial Darwinism grew out created by Henry Bessemerof the English natureralist and William Kelly becameCharles Darwins theory of widely used. This biological evolution. technique involved injecting air into molten iron to remove carbon and other impurities. http://tinyurl.com/c3tzyfp
Credit Mobilier- Sand Creek Massacre- In one of the most infamous One of the most tragic events occurred in 1864. schemes, stockholders in the Most of the Cheyenne thought they were union Pacific railroad formed, protected U.S. gov. and returned to Colorados and in 1862, a construction co. Sand Creek Reserve. But General S.R. Curtis still called Credit Mobilier, where wanted them to suffer. In response Chivington & stockholders gave this co. a his troops descended on the Cheyenne. On Nov. contract to lay track at two to 29, 1864 they killed over 150 inhabitants, mostly three times the actual cost and children and women. pocketed the profits. 1862 1864 1866 Long Drive- Buffalo Soldiers- After a herd of animals were Homestead Act- Members of the U.S. 10th gathered and branded, the trail A powerful attraction of Calvary regiment of the boss chose a crew for the Long the west was the land U.S. army. Formed on Sept. Drive. This overland transport, or itself. In 1862, congress 21, 1866, was established Long Drive, of the animals oftenpassed the Homestead Act, by congress as the first lasted for about three months, offering 160 acres of free peacetime all-black they included a cowboy for every land to any citizen or regiments in the regular 250 to 300 head of cattle, a cook, intended citizen who was U.S. army. and a wrangler. head of the household. http://tinyurl.com/ce5pahk http://tinyurl.com/clpwzo3
Tammy Hall- Boss tweed became head Sitting Bull- of Tammy Hall, New York Sitting Bull (Tatanka Cities powerful Democratic Iyotanka) leader of the political machine in 1868. Hunk papa Sioux, he actually never signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie. 1867 1868 1869 Oliver Kelly- George Westinghouse-In 1867, Oliver Kelly started An American entrepreneur the Patrons of Husbandry, & engineer who invented it was an organization for Grange- the railway air brake and farmers that became A Grange is an organization was a pioneer of the popularly known as of farmers, its original electrical industry. Grange. purpose was to provide a social outlet &and an http://tinyurl.com/d3wkkgv educational forum for http://tinyurl.com/cb2rkzd isolated families. http://tinyurl.com/dx67q4f
John D. Rockefeller- George A. Custer-Corp. such as the standard In1874, which Colonel oil company, established George Custer reported by Rockefeller, took a that the Black Hills, had different approach to gold "From the grass roots mergers: They joined w/ down." and the gold rush competing companies in was on. trust arguments. He also had a great fortune. 1870 1871 1874 Civil Service- Reformers began to press for the elimination of patronage and the adoption of a merit system of hiring. Jobs in civil service- gov. administration- should go to the most qualified http://tinyurl.com/bszv9cq persons, reformers. http://tinyurl.com/d2yqakv
Mark Twain- Samuel Clemens, the novelist humors Thomas A. Edison- better known as Mark Twain, inspiredIn 1876, Edison became a a host of other young authors when pioneer on the new he declared his independence of of Jim Crow Laws- industrial frontier, which "Lit. and all that bosh." Yet some of Segregation Laws later he established the worlds his books became classics in came to be known as Jimfirst research lad in Menlo American literature - Adventures of Crow Laws after a popular Park, New Jersey. Huckleberry Finn. old minstrel song that ended in the words "Jump, Jim Crow." 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn- Telephone- An armed engagement Alexander Bell & Weston between combined forces invented this in 1876, the Lakota, Northern telephones purpose was Cheyenne an Arapaho to permit two or more tribes against the 7th users to conduct a Calvary reg. of the U.S. conversation when they http://tinyurl.com/czjmwyv army. arent in the same area. http://tinyurl.com/c5prgrn http://tinyurl.com/c9pfdzb
Gilded Age (1877-1917)- Chief Joseph- When Mark Twain & Joseph led his band Charles Dudley Warner during the most wrote the novel, The tumultuous period in Gilded Age, the title their contemporary became the name of the history. His band and of the period from the another took flight to 1870s to the 1890s. In theattempt to reach political 19th century, cities asylum. experienced rapid growth under inefficient gov. social darwism, city bosses ect. 1877 National Farmers Alliance- The Grange of farmers gave rise to other organizations, such as Rubber Barons- By the late farmers alliances. Alliances 1800s,the term was sent lectures from town, to typically applied to town to educate people businessmen who used about topics such as lower what were considered to interest rates on loans & be exploitative practices to gov. control over railroads amass their wealth. http://tinyurl.com/c6qumta and banks. http://tinyurl.com/d3a6znu
Assimilation- Ida B. Wells- Native Americans still had supporters in the U.S. B. Wells began her career as a teacher the well known writer Helen Hunt Jackson, for in Memphis, later she became a news example exposed the gov. many broken promises editor. Racial justice was always her in her 1881 book" A century of Dishonor" at the theme in reporting. On same time many sympathizers supported March, 1882that theme became her assimilation, which was a plan to have Native crusade, three African American Americans to give up their beliefs & way oflife to businessmen, friends of hers were become part of the white culture. lynched legally executed without trial, Wells saw it for what it really was though, a way to get rid of negroes acquiring wealth. Booker T. Washington- 1880 1881 The prominent African 1882 American educator Booker George Pullman- T. Washington believedThe railroads helped cities that racism would endnot only grow, but branch once blacks acquired useful out. labor skills & proved their In 1880, for example economic value to society. George Pullman built By 1881 he headed the factory fo manufacturing Tuskegee Normal and sleepers &other railroad Industrial Institute, nowcars in the Illinois prairie. called Tuskegee http://tinyurl.com/d6fdv5k http://tinyurl.com/d3c5a3p University , in Alabama
Settlement House- In the late 1880s, a few reformers established George Eastman- Settlement Houses, or New techniques eliminated community centuries in the need to develop slum neiborhoods that pictures right away. provided assistance to George Eastman people in the are, developed a series of especially immigrants. more covalent alternatives 1884 Toynbee Hall. to the heavy glass plates previously used. Years later 1883 he founded "Kodak". 1884 Joseph Pulitzer- Mugwumps- Pulitzer was an Hungarian Republican Politicalimmigrant who had bought activists who bolted from the New York World in the U.S. Republican Party 1883, he pioneered by supporting Democraticpopular innovation, such as Candidates. a large Sunday edition, comics, sports coverage, & http://tinyurl.com/botoft3 womens news. http://tinyurl.com/bpm5bm7 http://tinyurl.com/bmvwx6y
Jane Adams- Colored Farmers Alliance- Settlement Houses in the Membership grew to over U.S. were founded by 4 million. About 250,000 Charles Stover & Stanton African Americans Colt in NY City in belonged to Colored1886. Jane Adams was one Farmers National Alliance. of the most influential Some Alliance members Haymarket Affair- members of the promoted cooperation Labor leaders were movement. between black and white pressing for changes on alliances, but most May 4, 1886, 3,000 people members accepted the gathered at Chicagos separation between them. Haymarket Square to 1886 protest police brutality- a Samuel Gompers- striker had been killed and One approach to the several had been wounded organization of labor was at the McCormick craft unionism, which Harvester plant the day included skilled workers before. from one or more trades. Samuel Gompers led the cigar makers international union to join with other craft unions in 1886. http://tinyurl.com/bmtqt5d http://tinyurl.com/ccwp5op
Interstate Commerce Commission- Interstate Commerence Actin1887which reestablished the right of the federal gov. to Andrew Carneigie- supervise railroad activity &it also In 1889 Carneigie had his established a five-member own steal Co. & interstate commerce commission, manufactured more steel because of this they had then all factories in Great trouble regulating the railroad. Britain. 1887 1889 Daws Act- In 1887 congress passed the Daws Act aiming to "Americanize" the Native Americans. It gave some of the land to individual Native Americans 160 acres each. http://tinyurl.com/cbjm8la
Ghost Dance- Because the Sioux were so desperate they turned to a Paiute prophet who promised that is the Sioux performed ritual called the Ghost Dance, Native American lands and way of life would be restored. Wounded Knee- On Dec. 28, 1890, the 7th 1890 cavalry rounded up 350 starving & freezing Sioux, and Sherman Antitrust Act- demanded them o give up In 1890, the Sherman their weapons, a shot wasAntitrust Act made it illegal fired, and soldiers opened to form a trust that fire with a deadly cannon. interfered with free trade Within minutes they killedbetween states with other 300 unarmed Native countries. Americans including http://tinyurl.com/cshh7ou children.
Ellis Island- Populist- Immigrants were scared Leaders o the alliance they would not be movement realized that to admitted to the U.S. they make far-reaching changes, had to pass inspection at they would need to built aimmigration stations. Such base of political power.as the one at Castle Garden Populist, the movement of in NY, which was later the people was born with moved to Ellis Island in NY the founding of the harbor. Populist or peoples party. 1892 1894 Omaha Platform- Pullman Strike- On July 2, 1892, a populist The town of Pullman remained firmly under party convention in company control. They were not allowed to loiter Omaha, Nebraska, on their own front steps or to drink alcohol. demanded reformers to lift Pullman hoped his rules would maintain a stable the burden of debt from work environment. But his refusal to lower rents farmers, and other after cutting his worker pay led to a violent strike workers, and to give the in 1894. people a greater voice in their gov. http://tinyurl.com/cg7zqk4
Plessey v. Ferguson- In 1896, Plessey v. William McKinley- Mail-Order Catalog- Ferguson was brought to As the 1896 campaign In 1896 the post the supreme court to testprogressed the Republican office introduced rural whether or not segregation Party stated its firm free delivery (RFD) system was acceptable by the commitment to gold that brought packages constitution. The supreme standard & nominated directly to every home. court ruled that the Ohioan William McKinley separation of races in for president. public was legal and did not violate the 14th amendment. 1896 1897 "Cross of Gold Speech"- This speech was made Ragtime- famous by William J. Bryan Ragtime is a blend of and he i characterized by a African-American spirituals quote from it. "The and European musicals humblest citizen in all the form it. Ragtime originated land, when clad in armor of in the 1800’s in the south. a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts http://tinyurl. http://tinyurl.com/d97hu4n com/cdnq7h5 of error."
Bimetallism - The central issue was Eugene v. Debs- which metal would be the Some labor leaders felt basis of the nations that unions should include monetary system. One one all laborers-skilled & side were he "Silverites", unskilled- in a specific who favored bimetallism, a industry. This concept monetary system which captured the imagination the gov. could give citizens of Eugene v. Debs, who either gold or silver in attempted to form such an exchange for paper industrial union. currency or checks.1901 1903 1904 1905 W.E.B. Dubois- Orville & Wilbur Wright- In 1905, Dubois founded They had many attempts at the Niagara Movement, flying “Heavier-then-air” which insisted blacks to craft aloft. First they build seek a liberal arts a glider. Their first education so the successful flight Dec. 17, community would have 1903 at Kitty Hawk, NC. well educated leaders. http://tinyurl.com/d5j6uhd http://tinyurl.com/collzqd
1910 Angel Island- While European immigrants arriving onthe East Coast passed through Ellis Island, Asians-primarily Chinese- arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel http://tinyurl.com/d7sl66m Island in San Fran. Bay. Immigrants http://tinyurl.com/bn2x2zf endured harsh questioning and long http://tinyurl.com/d4f7u3v detention in filthy ram shack buildings.