Impacts of food safety standards on processed (case study Thailand)


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Impacts of food safety standards on processed (case study Thailand)

  1. 1. Asian Insti itute of Technolo T ogy Im mpacts of Foo Saf od fety St tandar rds On Processed an P nimal based expor b rt “F ed in Pro d chicke indus T Focuse ocessed en stries Thailand” d by Atc charapo orn Khoomt K tong 1
  2. 2. Content Issues Page Introduction 3 General overview about Food Safety Standards 5 Overview about Food Safety Standards in Thailand 7 General Food safety concern in the poultry product 9 Present Situation of food safety in the export poultry industry of Thailand 13 Flooding situation in Thailand Effect to poultry industry? 18 Benefit from Achieving Food safety standards Certification in Thailand 20 Constraints in the implementation Food Safety Standards in case of SMEs Food industries Thailand 21 Recommendations 22 Conclusion 24 Reference 25 2
  3. 3. Introduction The current financial crisis impacts greatly on the world economy. The decline of trade and the rise of unemployment are the results of the deflating business sector. In order to avoid worsening the world economy, affected countries should stimulate their domestic market by injecting money into the system. In addition, every country must also abandon any protectionist measures that will further depress the world economy. For Thailand, the current financial situation is not as worse as in the United States, Europe and many other countries because of the foreign reserve amounting to about 130,000 million US dollar. This makes the current financial crisis in Thailand differ from the financial crisis in 1997 where the Thai baht was greatly devalued, whereby 1 US dollar is equal to 49-52 baht. Thailand thus has a competitive advantage in the world market with the U.S., Europe, and other regions importing products from Thailand at the cheaper price. This completely differs from the current situation where the global economy is regressing and the demand in decline; consequently, the export of Thailand is inevitably affected with the value of Thai baht at 34-35 baht per 1 US dollar. Exporting as a remedy to the crisis is not viable. However Thailand remains is one of the richest agricultural Produce Country in the world, located in the most fertile land on tropical area of Southeast Asia. Agricultural Technologies being the full drive Thailand to be only few nations who produce food commodities feeding the hungry world. The Country also nourishing with qualified food science and technologist, research activities, product development manufacturing technologies, whereby make the food industry in Thailand grows larger every year in value and in importance. At present, with some 80 -90 percent of ingredients of domestic origin, there are more than 8,250 factories producing food and more than 2,000 food exporters earning around US$1 billion in foreign exchange. Thailand is gaining recognition as the “Kitchen to the World”, not only because of the popularity of its uniquely flavorful and wholesome cuisine, but also because of the high standards of food manufacturing and the wide variety of food products offered. According to the Department of Trade Negotiations and Food Institute statistics, income from agricultural products has been among the top -10 ranking income generators in the world that could show the table 1. The primary export markets are Japan, the US, EU, and ASEAN. Most food exports are prepared and ready-to-eat. The major categories are:  Seafood is the largest single category and includes canned, chilled and frozen, dried, and prepared products. Thailand is a leading exporter of fresh – frozen and processed white and tiger shrimp (prawns). Even though the fresh – frozen shrimp world market is highly competitive, Thai shrimp is recognized for its high quality and strict hygiene. The major markets are the US, Japan, Canada, and Australia. Canned tuna is another significant component of Thailand’s seafood exports. Even thought all the fresh tuna is imported, Thai producers maintain a competitive advantage through cost - effective technology. Other seafood products enjoying significant export growth are canned calamari, canned crab, and prepared fish. The major export markets are the US, Japan, Australia, Canada, and the EU. 3
  4. 4. Table 1 Exports of Major Thai Food products (Export Value) Export Items 2007 Export value (million Dollars) 2010 2008 2009 (Jan-July) 2011 (Jan-July) Livestock Chicken and poultry 295.6 279.4 272.6 151.5 177.0 Fishery 3,905.6 3,718.3 4,119.4 2,218.4 2,704.7 1,421.0 826.1 632.5 788.7 437.5 596.5 1,803.4 261.8 340.9 452.5 708.8 9,708.3 2,152.4 343.4 410.5 610.2 809.9 11,237.9 1,847.5 185.3 226.5 347.7 460.2 6,879.4 2,576.4 277.3 274.0 481.5 524.8 8,900.4 Shrimp ,Canned / processed tuna, Chilled / frozen fish, Squid, Other canned / processed fish Vegetable and fruit 1,362.1 1,223.1 1,081.4 Canned / processed fruit, Vegetable products, Fresh / dried fruit, Vegetable / fruit juice Rice Cassava products, Flour and starch, Rice products, Cassava flour and starch Sugar Palm oil Seasonings Non-alcoholic beverage Pet food, Animal feed Total 657.0 1,449.9 656.0 298.5 429.5 719.8 10,068.4 Source: Department of Trade Negotiations and Food Institute  Fresh and processed fruit and vegetables account for the second largest portion of Thailand’s food exports and divides into two general groups: Fruit : fresh, chilled, frozen, and dried. The largest fruit export is lagan, mangos teens, lynchee, rambutan. Vegetables: the largest export is asparagus, large onions, okra, and baby corn. The main markets are Japan, china, Hong Kong, the UK, and the US.  Canned and other processed forms are the second major group of fruit and vegetable exports. Canned pineapple and pineapple juice are the main products in this category, followed by canned sweet and baby corn. The major markets are the US, Japan, the Netherlands, Germany, and the UK. 4
  5. 5.  Fresh - Fro ozen and Pr rocessed ch hicken is Nowadays, The Chine market i growing at 60 perce per annu with fro ese ent num ozen and proces ssed animal products a l accounting for the largest propor rtion, inclu uding fresh - froz and pro zen ocessed chic cken. Thailand produces no fewe than 1 billion er chickens pe year, or about 1 mi er illion tons of chicken meat. The avian flu crisis o c caused the volume of fresh chic f cken to fall off drastic cally, while the volum of e me processed c chicken inc creased wit the recog th gnition that Thailand maintains high t production and proces ssing standa ards. The major marke are Japa the UK, the m ets an, Netherland and Germ ds, many that co ould show the Figure 1 below: tnam, 2.71% Veit 3% Other, 11.03 Germany, 4.04% rland, Nethe 4% 9.14 Japa 43.27% an, U 29.81% UK, F Figure 1 Th major ma he arkets of fre - frozen and processed chicken of Thailan esh n nd  Other goo ods include rice and wheat pr e d roducts, re eady-to-eat foods, spices, flavorings, soups, veg getable and animal fat and oils, etc. Bever ts rages, inclu uding ater, soda water, healt drinks, whisky, wi , beer, milk and milk w th ine m mineral wa products, su as cream butter, an yogurt. uch m, nd General overview about Food Safety St l d tandards Food S Safety Stan ndards can be conside ered to have three mai compone ain ents: qua ality contr rol, quality assuran y nce and quality imp q provement Food sa t. afety man nagement is focused no only on p s ot product qua ality, but als the mean to achiev it. so ns ve Foo safety ma od anagement therefore us quality assurance and control of processe as ses a es well as product to achieve more cons ts sistent quality. Food Sa afety Stand dards are a t tool to achie mainta and impr eve, ain rove the qu uality results. In this case a result is food prod ducts which come ou of produ ut ucing of r proc cesses. The system co e onsists of th organiza he ation, responsibilities, documentation, proc cesses and r resources to achieve, su o ustain and improve qua i ality of prod ducts. There are e man food safe standard that relate the food industry. ny ety ds ed Consum want th assuranc that they are receivin a safe an sanitary food mers he ce ng nd supp See Fig ply. gure 2 for a schematic representa c ation of the communica ation within the n food chain. Fo quality is an impo d ood ortant conce because the foods people choose ept, e s depend largely on quality. Consumer preference is importan to the foo manufacture, r nt od who wants to g as wide a share of the market for the prod as poss o gain e f duct sible. Quali is ity diff ficult to def fine exactly but it deg y, gree of exce ellence of a food and i includes all the l char racteristics of a food th are sign hat nificant, and that make the food ac d cceptable. Food F quality must b monitore on a reg be ed gular day-to o-day basis to ensure that a unif form prod is prod duct duced and th meets th required quality cont standard hat he q trol rds. 5
  6. 6. Statutory and Regulatory authorities Crop products Production of pesticides, fertilizers, and veterinary drugs Feeds products Food chain for the production of ingredient and additives Transport and storage operators Primary food producers Producers of equipment Food producers Producers of cleaning and sanitizing agents 2 nd food processor Producers of packaging materials Wholesalers Service providers Retailers, Food service operators/caterers Consumers Figure 2 A schematic representation of the communication within the food chain Assurance of food safety is a combined effort. Food producers at all levels of production convey a responsibility for the production of safe foods. At the farm level, farmers and workers must control pesticide and other chemical inputs and recognize potential sources of microbial contaminants from water, soil, animals and humans. The food processing and transportation industries must evaluate where food safety may be risk at critical points in food production and transport and take appropriate measures to control these potential hazards. Retail establishments, restaurants and other food vendors must also understand how to ensure proper sanitary practices and temperature controls. Government regulatory systems can provide a framework for maintenance of food safety across the food scale "from farm to table". Food safety laws, regulations, directives, standards, policies and procedures form a foundation for food control systems. Regulatory requirements establish limits and responsibilities, but are of little value without effective enforcement. Infrastructure and resources for strategic enforcement interventions, customized to work within a particular country's legal environment and culture is very important, even when resource constraints are severe. International organizations, whether government-based or private sector, have clear roles and strengths in promotion food safety. These roles may be presented in setting international science-based standards, providing scientific fora to leverage knowledge in addressing serious and complex food safety issues, or assisting countries that need help in establishing and managing their own food safety control systems. 6
  7. 7. Overview about Food Safety Standards in Thailand Nowadays, food industry manufacturers are facing with not only an increasing extremely competition from competitors both local and the global market, but also tougher demands in terms of environmental, quality and food safety regulatory issues for local and export products. Therefore, manufacturers have to get ready to handle with any arise more demanding challenges from government and public sectors as well as the market mechanism driven consumers. While the trend for Thai food exports is ongoing growth, Thai manufacturers and exporters need to track market conditions and consumer behavior closely to identify products that have export to identify products that have export potential and where growth is mostly likely. Nowadays, Thailand has given rise to different systems of food distribution, legislation, quality standards and difference in consumer appeal. Apart from the effects on changing in business nature and the increasing demand, the agreement under World Trade Organization (WTO) has created significantly new opportunities for international trade, most notably the reduction in tariffs. The forces such as competition, changing customers, product complexity, have resulted in requiring new approach if food industries are to remain in competitive world markets. For example, more consumer health awareness is increasing the demand for organic and general health foods, especially in Japan and the EU. Halal food is another example of an immense export opportunity, since Thailand has a substantial Muslim population and the number of Muslims around the globe is some 1.5 billion in 25 countries. The Thai government gives the highest priority to meeting international food safety standards so that consumers have confidence in the safety of Thai food exports. Food safety standards certifications currently implemented in food industry in Thailand are GMP, HACCP, ISO 9000, ISO 22000, and ISO 14000.While development of GMP and HACCP food safety management systems in food factories for export depend upon the laws and regulations of the importing countries pressure from customer requirements, especially from European countries has a significant effect on the implementation of ISO 9000, ISO 14000. Thai Industrial Standard Institute (TISI) under the Ministry of Industry is the central organization for implementation of ISO standards such as ISO 9000, ISO14000. As mentioned earlier, food companies which export products to the European countries seek ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certification. Since ISO standards are not mandatory, only few food companies have implemented ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. Food safety management system i.e., GMP&HACCP system is nowadays a big issue in Thailand. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of WTO, which refers the Codex standard of FAO/WHO, has greatly influenced regulations in many countries including Thailand. Approval of the Guidelines on the Application of HACCP to be the Annexure of the General Principles of Food Hygiene; CAC/RCP1-2003, Rev.4 by Codex Alimentarius Commission further pressured various countries to promote HACCP system among their food producers with the concept of introducing food safety From Farm to Table through laws and regulations. 7
  8. 8. Japan is the largest importer of Thai food products importing almost all types of products including seafood, meat products, vegetable and fruit. The government of Japan requires the use of HACCP system, which was introduced in the Food Sanitation Law amended in May 24, 1996, only on a voluntary basis. However, Japanese consumers are exceptionally concerned with food safety. This consequently forced many Japanese retailers to accept food products only from manufacturers with HACCP or equivalent system certified. In order to develop food safety systems both for domestic and export establishments, Ministry of Public Health is chosen as the principal regulatory organization with the Department of Health and the Food and Drug Administration (Thai FDA) as the supporting departments in charge of the food service sector and food industry respectively. The primary role of the Department of Health is to develop and upgrade sanitary conditions in food services. It is also responsible for keeping consumers well informed about the risks and hazards associated with unsanitary and unsafe food consumption and promoting food sanitation information, knowledge and technology. On the other hand, the main tasks of the Thai FDA are to control and monitor the safety of food products manufactured in Thailand as specified in the Food Act of B.E. 2522. The Thai FDA also has the responsibility to ensure that the development of such control measures corresponds with international standards, so that Thailand would be recognized internationally as a safe and competitive food market. The regulations laid down would have to be consistent with the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which recognizes the international standards work of Codex (standard of FAO/WHO). Therefore, in 1985, the GMP standard was issued on a voluntary basis and was subsequently made mandatory from July 24, 2001. New domestic and export food plants seeking registration would have to comply with the GMP regulation. The HACCP standard, which is voluntary, directly refers the Codex standard and has been translated into Thai by the TISI. Because of the country’s export-oriented policy and the large number of food processing plants, the Ministry of Public Health’s duty as the principal regulatory agency has become increasingly On the other hands, other government organization that related food safety standards in Thailand is The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives has therefore agreed to elaborate a Thai Agricultural Commodity and Food Standard on “Safety Requirements for Agricultural Commodity and Food.” This standard indicates safety criteria and limits that contribute to the inspection and certification schemes on the safety of agricultural commodities and food. This standard covers three groups of agricultural commodities and food, including their products, namely, plant, livestock, and fish. The establishment of this standard is based on international standards and guidelines recommended by international organizations which are the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program (Codex), International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), and Office International des Epizootic (OIE). Additionally, the contents in the standard are also in accordance with scientific-based information, and importing countries’ standards and regulations. Mainly department of this Ministry that is responsible commodities product are Department of Fisheries, Department of Livestock Development and also Department of Agriculture. 8
  9. 9. General Food safety concern in the poultry product Access to a nutritionally adequate and safe food supply has long been regarded as a basic human right. Among the foods capable of meeting such a need, poultry products, including eggs, have a highly important part to play throughout the world. In developed countries, consumption of poultry meat has continued to rise, as consumers recognize the nutritious, low-fat attributes of the meat itself and the wide range of value-added products now available that provide choice, convenience and flexibility in meal preparation. Also, the technical efficiency and economies of scale in commercial production and processing of poultry have helped to ensure that product prices remain competitive in the marketplace. Despite the obvious benefits to consumers, poultry products are not exempt from certain public health concerns that continue to affect the food supply chain as a whole and foods of animal origin in particular. These are due to the possible presence of specific disease agents, whether biological or chemical, that can have a wide range of consequences for human health. The situation is often increase by the adverse information that such problems attract. No more than a week goes by without some kind of food `scare' being reported in the press, and poultry products have had more than their fair share of attention in this respect. More recent examples from around the world include Salmonella in chicken meat, dioxin contamination of chicken meat and Listeria in ready-to-eat poultry products. Certain, these issues raise questions about the adequacy of present controls and result in political pressure to take any corrective action that is perceived to be necessary. The bad publicity can have a devastating effect on the industry, since consumers simply stop buying the suspect product. The power of the consumer is also evident in the way that retailers respond to consumer concerns as a means of positioning themselves against their competitors. In the major poultry-producing countries, production systems tend to be highly integrated, which means that a single company may carry out the whole scale of relevant activities, from hatching of chicks, through feed production and rearing of breeders and broilers, to carcass processing and product manufacture. Therefore, food safety control is promoted at all stages of the supply chain, but how is it best achieved? Over the years, a substantial body of knowledge has accumulated on the health hazards associated with poultry products and their control. This has involved developments in a variety of fields, including food science and technology, veterinary science, animal husbandry, microbiology. However, making best use of the available knowledge requires a continuing input from individuals such public health officials, legislators and technical personnel in industry. Among the major concerns are health issues threatening not only animal production, but also the people using the products derived from the chickens. Safety is an important poultry product quality issue. Food safety risks associated with poultry include microbiological risks, such as Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, Listeria and E.coli are the pathogens most commonly causing food-related illnesses in humans. As far as viruses are concerned, the significance of avian influenza should not be overlooked. Furthermore, chemical risks, such as pesticide residues from feed production, and resistance problems following the use of antibiotics in animal production have become the focus of attention. Risk assessment data for most poultry-borne hazards are lacking, however, these types of data are essential in 9
  10. 10. developing food safety strategies. There is a need to evaluate poultry production, processing, handling, and preparation procedures to determine their impact on the risk of food borne illness. Fully understanding the hazards associated with poultry consumption is key to developing effective sampling, detection, and identification methods, that in turn can be utilized to design control strategies. The different steps of the food production system need specific regulations. However, food-safety interventions should optimally be considered as a whole i.e. should be coordinated through the whole vertical system (see Figure 3). The chain from “farm to fork” starts with feed production, and continues through the hatcheries to the slaughterhouses, processing plants, wholesalers, retailers and the end consumer. Between these steps there is transport and storage, during which maintaining the coldchain is crucial. The hygienic behavior of the end consumer, such as washing hands and kitchen utilities after handling raw poultry meat or eggs, is the final factor in avoiding the food-borne illnesses related to poultry products. Many international organizations concerns about the alternative to eliminate and also prevent any hazards such as microbiological hazards. For example, WHO formulated a three-step approach to explanatory the risk posed by Salmonella spp. (WHO, 1980); the terms used are also relevant for other microbiological hazards. The first step is pre-harvest control, which focuses on the feed and poultry producers. The second step is harvesting control, which covers hygiene measures at the time of slaughter; these are described in the Codex HACCP model. The third step is postharvest control, which covers the product from the processing establishment all the way to the end-consumer. Each of these three stages has to be taken into consideration in order to prevent risk factors entering the chain. The first step, pre-harvest control, is the most important means to prevent infection with pathogens such as Salmonella, as traditional control systems are unable to control for these pathogens later in the chain. Singer et al. (2007) describe three reasons why it is important to process only healthy animals – thus emphasizing the importance of pre-harvest measures. First, a sick animal will shed pathogens into the surroundings and onto other animals; second, processing a sick animal may require additional handling in order to separate the infected parts from the carcass, which may add to the risk of cross-contamination; and third, certain illnesses lead to pathological changes in the carcass which may cause increased vulnerability of specific organs. Poultry producers have an important role in preventing risk factors from entering the food chain. In the developed world this role has become more or less clear to the farmers as a result of official regulations and increased hygiene demands originating from consumers and retailers. The enforcement of these regulations is done through control visits by governmental authorities to production establishments, and by continuous control on the part of the establishments themselves. An efficient traceability system linking the food product to the farm has enabled efficient and rapid intervention measures in the event of an outbreak of a food-borne disease. It has been shown that improvements made to the health of production animals have positive effects on the safety of animal-derived food products for humans. Singer et al. (2007) showed that there is a strong correlation between the health of production animals and level of food-related human illnesses. Veterinary services are also important. The non-regulated use of antibiotics as veterinary treatment might be a link 10
  11. 11. to the appearance of resistant strains of pathogens posing a threat also to human health. The antibiotics used for veterinary treatment can in some cases overlap with crucial ones used to treat human illnesses. Slaughterhouses and food-processing establishments are the next links in the chain of food safety. The post-slaughter poultry carcass is a suitable growing medium for many pathogens, including human pathogens. Hygiene procedures when handling the carcass are, therefore, essential and should be carefully planned and monitored to avoid contamination and cross-contamination of the food products. Packaging, transport, shelf-life and storage, as well as the maintenance of the cold-chain are important considerations. The cleaning and disinfecting of the premises and transport vehicles involved in these processes should be controlled. Resistance issues should be considered in the choice of the products used. Food products are then transported to wholesalers, retailers and finally to the consumers. Consumer information and education is important, especially in developing countries where hygiene standards are poor. It is quite difficult to define a best model for food-safety practices applicable to the developing world as a whole. More country-specific data on risk factors throughout the vertical chain are needed. The political environment, the state of infrastructure and so forward should also be carefully assessed before policies are formulated. Surveillance and data collection systems are often lacking or not functional, meaning that reliable data about risk factors are unavailable. Establishing food safety services may require considerable education of veterinary and the health inspectors at all levels. A market-driven approach could be a way to achieve success in food safety, but this would need interest and large investments from the industry. There would definitely be difficulties in implementing a thorough control system, because of the existence of the immense informal sector in which animals are not slaughtered in the abattoirs but at the markets. To improve food safety in poultry production in developing countries should start at the local union or village level with simple regulations directed towards addressing the most outstanding deficiencies in the food-safety system. Clearly, this would, again, require identification of the major risks and their entry points into the food chain. Village-level education campaigns, directed at community workers such as teachers, and thus reaching the consumers, as well as at restaurants, would be essential. Investment in basic education, and thus increasing consumer awareness, should be seen as a key element of food safety strategies in developing countries. All food safety systems have their own constraints, but what must be done is to find ways to work effectively within these constraints and move aggressively to remove those constraints that limit a government’s ability to protect the public’s health. When it comes to food safety, there is not one single solution; instead, there should be a series of reasonable approaches formulated to address the different situations in different countries. It is also important that these efforts be undertaken in a cooperative manner, to improve the food safety system. 11
  12. 12. BREEDING STOCKS Feed Production:  Pesticides  Environmental contamination Processing:  Heat handling  Gamma irradiation Storage:  Pathogens  Toxins  Pests (insects, rodents etc.)  Antibiotic growth promoters  Other additives    Hatcheries Vertical transmission Disinfection Environment Production  Flies  Rodents  Storage of feed  Water Veterinary services:  Vaccination  Treatment (antibiotics)  Disinfection of the house  Workers  Machinery  Waste management  Litter  Trucks, crates, environment       Processing Workers Cross-contamination Waste management Disinfection Water Surfaces    Market Storage Cold chain Labelling   End-Consumer Kitchen hygiene Personal hygiene Identification and Tracing system Figure 3 The vertical chain of poultry food-products and examples of possible hazard points 12
  13. 13. Present Situation of food safety in the export poultry industry of Thailand The poultry sector has been widely acknowledged as the greatest agribusiness success story in Thailand. After an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Thailand in 2004 severely reduced frozen poultry cuts exports and led to stricter regulations on imported Thai poultry meat that was shown the Thailand export value of poultry in Figure 4. Some countries currently only accept prepared (cooked) Thai poultry imports. Since 2004, broiler meat exports have started to raise, despite a few trade barriers. In 2005, poultry was estimated to comprise 52% of total meat production in Thailand (Naranong, 2007). The sector has transformed itself over the past four decades from near universal backyard farming into a leading exporter. Today Thailand has one of the most advanced broiler production sectors, with levels of efficiency and overall performance equal or exceeding that of most countries. In turn, production and consumption of poultry have greatly increased over the past few decades. Figure 4 Thailand export value of poultry Source: The Ministry of Commerce. Poultry production in Thailand can be classified into three primary systems; large-scale industrial production, semi-industrial production, and smallholder backyard farming. Industrial production normally consists of vertically integrated companies controlling every stage of production from breeding hens to marketing processed chicken. The growing stage has often been contracted out to medium and large farms, while remaining production stages are controlled by the integrating firm. Firms also raise broilers on company farms. Industrial poultry products are both exported and sold domestically. Semi-industrial farms are small or medium size farms that raise poultry for commercial purposes but are not independent from other levels of the production system. Semi industrial farms tend to be characterized by medium intensive inputs and marketing. Smallholder backyard farms are characterized by low inputs and generally raise poultry for non-commercial reasons (i.e., consumption) but may receive an important source of supplemental income from selling surpluses to local markets. 13
  14. 14. Thai Chicken Export and Producer Association incorporated with the Department of Livestock Development forced the member companies, which produce chicken products and feed to implement GMP, HACCP and ISO 9000. Moreover, the Department of Livestock Development has implemented the Code of Practice related to antibiotics, which can be used in feed for raising chicken as mandatory from 1 November, 1999. This code of practice enables the control of drug residues in chicken products which facilitate the implementation of HACCP system in the factories producing chicken products. On the other hand, commercial poultry production this decade has largely been created by producers reacting to quality control issues. Early in 1999 the European Union (EU) detected Nitro-furans (a banned group of antibiotics) and Dioxin in some broiler imports from Thailand. This finding, in addition to new animal welfare standards in the EU, brought about a set of export restrictions that led many firms to exert more control over production in order to ensure quality standards. To comply with the EU white paper, the Department of Livestock Development has also issued a regulation regarding the standard of farms for chicken rearing in 1999. Also farms for chicken rearing therefore issued registration in the year 2000 already. In addition, the department of Livestock Development has provided manuals regarding animal welfare for farms, transportation and slaughterhouse. By the way, schematic representations Regulation Standard issued by Department of Livestock Development was shown in Figure 5 Nowadays, there are about 3,510 poultry industries (i.e. feed mill industries, Slaughter included Further processing or Processed Meat industries NOT INCLUDED hatchery farm) in Thailand and only 111 factories (included between feed mill industries and Slaughter included processing industry) have adopted HACCP standards, only 164 factories have adopted GMP standards and 801 factories have slaughter standards from Ministry of Interior that very inadequate portion from perspective that could show the table 2 below: Table 2 Number of HACCP/GMP-certified Factories in each Poultry Industry Sector Feed mill industry 535 Number of GMP /HACCP certified factories GMP 34* HACCP 19* Slaughter included processing industry 130 GMP 130* HACCP 92* Domestic Slaughterhouses 2845 801** Number of factories Categories Source: Department of Livestock Development: DLD, (Updated December, 2010) Note * mean certify by Department of Livestock ** mean certify by Ministry of Interior 14
  15. 15. System Certification Down Stream Industry Middle Stream Industry Up Stream Industry Laws,Regulatories,Standards Animal Feed Quality Control Act B.E.2525 (AD 1992) Feed Raw material Supplier Animal Feed Quality Control Act B.E.2525 (AD 1992) Feed Mill industry Export Market Basic breeding Hatching egg production Hatching GAP Certified Slaughter house & Slaughter industry GMP Certified Animal Epidemic Act B.E.2499 (AD 1956) Food Act B.E.2522 (AD 1979) Animal Slaughter and Sale of Meat Control Act B.E.2535 (AD1992) Industrial Products Standard Act B.E.2511 (AD1968) Food Act B.E.2522 (AD 1979) Further processing or Processed Meat industry Quality Analysis Feed Mill GMP Certified HACCP Certified* Wholesaling / Domestic Market Export Market Figure 5 Schematic representations Regulation Standard issued by Department of Livestock Development Note * mean forced only the exporters 15
  16. 16. However, nowadays hot issue of outbreak in poultry sector is Bird flu viruses refer to avian influenza. This outbreak was happen long-term more than ten years ago. Since January 2004, Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries have experienced outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI in poultry. Thailand was hit by four rounds of the outbreak between 2004 and 2006 (Figure 6) and another small round in early 2007. Since the first outbreak in January 2004, at least 25 people have caught the disease and 17 deaths have been reported (as of September 2007). Thailand rapidly applied control measures, including the killing of as many as 63 million chickens in 2004. Figure 6 The HPAI outbreaks in Thailand 2004 to 2006 Source: Department of Livestock Development. After the first outbreak in Thailand caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1, the Department of Livestock Development (DLD) implemented a range of control measures, including culling (with compensation), movement restriction, improvements in GMP hygiene and bioscurity, and an active surveillance program (the “X-ray program”). The DLD has also encouraged broiler chicken farmers to establish compartmentalized production systems, where biosecurity and surveillance measures are implemented within both the boundaries of the farm itself and within the surrounding 1 km area around the farm (the ‘buffer zone’) to protect the health status of the farm’s chicken population. The use of compartmentalization is not only a tool for prevention of HPAIV infection, but also creates disease free areas, allowing a continuation of trade activities. A qualitative risk assessment conducted as part of a larger project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) through the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations assessed the risk of introduction and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 into the 1-km buffer zones surrounding compartmentalized poultry farms in Thailand. 16
  17. 17. The HPAI outbreaks have been the most important factor shaping Thailand’s poultry sector in the past few years. The outbreaks have also hit smallholders very hard, resulting in many leaving the industry altogether. However, strong and devastating as it has been, HPAI is unlikely to determine the future of Thailand’s poultry industry. This is because structural change is almost complete and is unlikely to be reversible. The Thai broiler industry will continue to move towards higher levels of industrialization and more vertical integration – most large integrated firms will include food processing as a part of their operation. Further industrialization and vertical integration will make it easier for the poultry industry to comply with the foreign importers’ food safety and animal welfare requirements. The trend towards further processing of poultry (cooked and semi-cooked products) – now included as part of the operation of many integrated firms – may increase employment in the poultry sector. However, additional employment in the integrators’ farms will be very limited, as many are now fully automated. Moreover, any new employment will be created at the expense of smallholders whose room to operate as self-employed broiler farmers will be increasingly curtailed. As the sector returns to “normal” business, its future will be shaped mainly by basic drivers, such as feed supply and demand. Another significant trend may be that movement towards replacing chemical protection (antibiotics, antiseptics, or even vaccination) with biosecurity and compartmentalization will shift the industry further towards integrated industrialization. Remaining the other Food Safety Problems of poultry industries of Thailand are meeting strict standards on veterinary drug residues and other unintended contaminants (both levels and methodology requirements) and dispute over factory and Lab result recognition a number of accredited Lab and factories complained of not getting due recognition despite their ISO standard certification and also Traceability requirement of some country tend to be more restrictive than necessary. However, most of problems are closely tended to by Department of Livestock Development (DLD); for example, DLD will be implementing the tools for traceability in the livestock industry. The tool for managing and addressing the compiling data related to the whole network of broiler industry (whole supply chain) and also this tool is providing information on outbreak control. By the way, it is not complete system but it will be benefit for poultry in the nearly future. Moreover, Department of Livestock Development (DLD) also works and cooperates with many International Food Safety Cooperation such as Cooperation with WHO Center for Reference and Research on study about Influenza and avian flu, Cooperation with WHO on Global Salmonella Surveillance Network, ASEAN Food Safety Network and also Cooperation with various food importing countries on Food Inspection to support information of food safety for poultry industries’ Thailand to meet the requirement of global market 17
  18. 18. Flooding situation in Thailand Effect to poultry industry? During the months of September and early October 2011, certain areas of some provinces in north and central Thailand, such as Sing Buri, Lop Buri and Kamphaeng Phet as well as a few coastal areas in southern Thailand, have been affected by floods due to seasonal heavy rains. The floods are mainly affecting land in low-lying agricultural areas and adjacent to major waterways such as the Chao Phraya River. Occasional flash floods are occurring in some mountainous areas as a result of runoff from the heavy rains. The flooding is resulting in the loss of lives, displacement of vulnerable persons and the destruction of key infrastructure, food stocks and livestock throughout the region. The floods coincided with the most critical time of the year, the lean (minor) farming season when Thai farmers faced food insecurity. The current flooding is having minimal impact on poultry industry. Most of poultry industry of Thailand is located in central area especially Lop Buri, a major production base for poultry industries such as CP, Betagro and also Sahafarm. Actually most livestock farms are located on hills because farmers have learned over the decades to avoid [areas near] waterways. The Agriculture Ministry reports about 7 million head of livestock were affected by the current floods, a figure that includes 6.6 million chickens. But the volume is small when compared to the more than 20 million chickens the country produces each week. The Head of the Livestock Office has encouraged poultry farmers to closely watch the avian flu outbreaks during the current flooding situation as the changing weather is catalyzing the deadly disease. The current flooding crisis in many provinces might affect the ecology that could stimulate the spread of bird flu. Therefore, fowl farmers are recommended to inform related officials, including livestock development volunteers in their communities in case dead fowls are found, in order to help prevent the disease’s outbreaks. According to, Frederick A. et al (2010) created A Conceptual Framework: General systems structure of the effects of floods on natural resource dependent communities can be illustrated in a simplified structure such as in Figure 7. Being essentially agricultural producers, the main consequence of flooding has been the destruction of food crops on farms as well as seeds stores; eventually culminating in a decline in food production. A decline in food production can lead to starvation. Starvation together with a decline in environmental quality resulting from flood related damage, fuels the desire for migrating out of these rural areas (see the starvation loop in Figure 7). The reduction in food production resulting from floods also means loss of income for many in these communities which further reduce their ability to purchase food and thereby contributes to increasing the problem of food shortages and starvation within households (agricultural income loop Figure 7). In these communities, non-agricultural income opportunities are few. Causal loop diagrams are used to show how variables that are interrelated affect one another. They are also called cause-effect diagrams. Positive relationships between variables (denoted with the sign “+”) indicate a change in the same direction of the two variables while negative relationships (denoted with the sign “–”) indicate 18
  19. 19. a change in opposite directions. In a positive relationship, an increase in one factor will lead to a corresponding increase in another factor and vice versa. In negative relationships an increase in one factor will lead to a decrease in the other factor and vice versa. Each of the loops or sub-systems in Figure 7 has been expanded. Another important effect of flooding is the destruction of the environment leading to a decrease in environmental quality. Figure 7. A simplified causal loop diagram illustrating the impact of floods on communities. From my point of view, floods may be affected to poultry industry in Thailand such as, Effect of flood on feed mill industry Most of animal feeding operation of Thailand has been constructed in Lop Buri, Saraburi province. The fecal waste pit and spray filed waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low laying area.The potential that flood can lead to environmental dispersion of animal waste containing numerous biologic and chemical hazards. It could be contaminate to feed mill animals. Effect of flood on sanitation and hygiene Floodwater may contain fecal material from overflowing sewage system, and agricultural and industrial by-products and also can be heavily contaminated with pesticides to highly hazards chemicals. Although, it could be cross contamination between water supply system and sewage system in hatchery farms that water treatment system may go out of order or malfunction due to flood impacts and sewer discharge may directly enter the watercourse without purification. Nevertheless, Water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea diseases, acute respiratory infections and skin infections, are common among flood-affected people and broilers. They can increase to epidemic levels even in a moderate flood; particularly in rapidly expanding urban areas with their often poor environmental conditions. 19
  20. 20. Effect of flood on food safety During the flood, electricity supply may be cut off. Without electricity hatchery farm activities will be stop because most of hatchery farms in Thailand were used evaporation ventilation system so farmers could be migrate the broilers to another area to safe the broilers from death. In case of factory such as slaughter house or processed plants without electricity cold stores and refrigerators will stop functioning. Normally, the meat poultry in these facilities will start decaying after 4 hours. On the other hand, the meat poultry stores may come into contact with floodwater and thus meat being contaminated. Moreover, pest, i.e. rats may be problem, during and after flood. The displaced rats, snakes and other animals may contaminate food storage as they may be a source of rabies and poisonous. Other way, if flood continue long time, it will be affected to transportation system that may be cause of shortage food finally. Benefit from Achieving Food safety standards Certification in Thailand Food safety standards certification benefits may be measured as “external” and “internal” benefits. External benefits are realized externally from the system such as an increase in market share or gaining customer recognition. An internal benefit is a benefit experienced within system such as increased employee moral or reduction in nonconforming product. For factories providing product to the International markets such as European market, USA market, Japan market, it is very likely that Food safety standards certification is required in order to be considered as a supplier. This would be considered an external benefit. Realizing external benefits depend seriously on the specific business and focused market. Further examples of some benefits are: Benefits to Food Industry  Reduced legal and insurance costs  Improved efficiency through better documentation and communication  Improved consistency of manufactured items  Improved customer satisfaction  Reduced customer complaint  Improved motivation and employee involvement through all levels of the process  Increased consumer and government confidence  Increased market access  Reduction in production costs (reduced recall/wastage of food)  Improved product consistency  Improved staff-management commitment to food safety  Decreased business risk Benefits to Consumers  Reduced risk of food-borne diseases  Increased awareness of basic hygiene  Increased confidence in the food supply  Improved quality of life 20
  21. 21. Benefits to Governments  Reduced public health costs  Improved public health  More efficient and targeted food control  Trade facilitation  Increased confidence of the community in food supply. Constraints in the implementation Food Safety Standards in case of SMEs Food industries Thailand Cost For implementation of food safety standards in Food industries have additional costs, of i.e., training of employees, hiring qualified staffs, documenting all data, fee for Food Safety Standards certification, cost to improve the process, etc. For SMEs (Small and medium enterprises), it is quite a significant portion of the revolving funds available. Therefore, if not for exporting and regulatory controls, it is unlikely that SMEs would invest in such systems. Knowledge Implementing food safety standards requirements the full co-operation of employees and management in all functions hence, everybody in the manufactures need to clear understanding of the purpose and schemes in successfully applying the Food Safety Standards certification. Readiness Food Safety Standards implemented needs a lot of paper work to be used as documentation during system verification, monitoring or auditing. Moreover, all staffs may have additional work to ensure compliance with Food Safety Standards. Labor Labor that work in SMEs has the quite high of the turnover rate so the trained employees may quit and change their jobs every 8-12 months. Thus, it causes uncertainty and reluctance on the part of the business owner to continue investing money and employee training. This result in the situation where employees who are still working in the factory may not understand much about the efforts to do additional tasks associated with the Food Safety Standards of their industry that effect to the quality of production and quality of product also. Production of Technology Most of SMEs production line is very simply that limitation of the budget. SMEs could not support high costs for modification of process and work systems in adoption of principle and rules of GMP , HACCP and QMS in majority of small and medium food processing so that could not produce the regularly quality of products. Old machinery in production process Old machinery and deficiency of preventive maintenance program in production Processes are causes of contamination. SMEs food industries in Thailand lack resource to improve or substitute the machine for hygienic production process and not position to get Food Safety Standards certification. 21
  22. 22. Legislation and Enforcement Lack of sufficient of government officer to monitor and measure government organization according to Food Safety Standards in Thailand is having an adverse effect on the food industry. In additional, only one government organization in Thailand named TISI that can succeed in addressing the whole food quality and food safety issue. Food Safety problems of SMEs food industry in Thailand are important because their business activities occupy and important position in Thai economy. SMEs focus less on Food Safety Standards than large enterprises. In large enterprises, the staff can establish effective hygienic design for production to prevent contamination. In addition, they could select and purchase raw material, ingredients and packaging material through the food supply chain to produce quality and safety products. But SMEs have no abilities to do so by themselves because of lack of technical base and food safety professionals. Recommendations 1. Food safety could be strengthened by strengthening the links along the food chain and building in demands by the next person in the chain - this would copy in some way the customer-led approach to applying HACCP as we have seen by demands of the customer in the importing country. 2. It is recommended that Thailand depute a separate organization that is responsible, for food safety standards implementation for the whole country with a clear objective, strategy and plan. Especially in case of poultry industries, government should focus in Horizontal issues such as animal feeding, guide to good farming practices, role of the Veterinary Services in food safety, antimicrobial resistance, animal identification and traceability, meat inspection, certification, model certificates and also included biotechnology. 3. It is recommended that government policy should aim at providing knowledge, training, consultation and financial support (for modifying building structure and equipments) while ensuring that there are sufficient resources for auditing these factories. In case of poultry industries especially  smallholder professional training is also important, especially for product certification and enforcement of standards with veterinarians and technicians playing a essential role. Similarly, basic education with respect to contracting, negotiation, and conflict resolution would improve the terms of smallholder market participation. 4. It is recommended that the small factories receive better inputs from the government such as financial assistance and training appropriate to their needs, level of development etc. 5. The quality and quantity of private consultants must be assured through a government program to manage development of human resources under a single standard. The aim is to assure good practices, maintain fair prices and protect the food industry against poor work of consultants. 22
  23. 23. 6. A national policy on facilitating food safety through the application of GMP and HACCP should include clear procedures for the auditing/certification of factories to ensure a homogeneous approach. The emphasis of food safety audits should be on the effectiveness of the HACCP system and not only on the documentation. 7. A central government database could be set up to collect information confirming the condition or status of the food safety systems at each factory. 8. Thailand needs a national policy to facilitate the development of the food safety system through the entire food chain. In addition, the Technical One Stop Services Centre is one of the most important integrated systems that have been established by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, which refers to the issuing of a single policy by the government. The implementation of this strategy will eliminate the conflicts and the overlapping work responsibilities among governmental units, as well as help increase the performance of the food safety control system. By the ways, the Food Safety Program can be developed through a series of stages, as shown in Fig. 8. Stages Elements Management responsibility and commitment Preparation Food Safety policy Planning Product/process Food safety requirements Organizational Specific food safety plan Implementation Development of Capabilities Emergency management Operational control Operational processes Supporting tools eg.HACCP other reliability tools. Statistical process control etc. Analysis Procedures Operational criteria Performance assessment Assessment of performance audit Permanent improvement Review adjustment-improvement Figure 8 The Food Safety Program 23
  24. 24. 9. Food safety awareness should be integrated into curricula from the primary school level in order to create an effective workforce. In addition universities should have strong programs on food science, quality assurance, research to support the food industry in establishing critical limits, validation exercises etc. Therefore, the government should promote the development of academic curricula, textbooks, and research projects related to food safety awareness as early as the primary school level in order to create effective workforce and research data that aids HACCP system implementation. Conclusion Poultry production has undergone rapid changes during the past two decades as a result of the introduction of modern intensive production methods, genetic improvements, improved preventive disease control and biosecurity measures, increasing income and human population, and urbanization. The intensification of segments of the poultry sector, in proximity to areas of ever more dense human population, in conjunction with the increasing ease of transport, has led to growth or scaling-up of poultry production. Over the past decades, industry and regulators have focused mainly on scientific and technological advances aimed at preventing or controlling hazards in food. Today, the analysis of major food safety problems teaches us that many of these problems have their origins in organizational deficiencies. Increasingly complex food systems are vulnerable because a global organization for approaching food safety issues is not growing at the same rate as the food business is changing or consumer concerns are growing. The principal lesson to be drawn from this overview is that the challenges of providing food safety have changed. The main challenges for the total food chain are to maintain the highest standards of safety, to meet new challenges and reduce the vulnerability of food systems in order to restore and develop public trust. Meeting this challenge basically requires more effective use of HACCP. Running alongside is the need to develop a broader approach to food safety management extending beyond HACCP. Although the primary focus will be on microbiological issues, the principles are equally applicable to control of chemical or physical contaminants. Whereas these principles and their application will probably not pose much of a problem to large food businesses, which have the necessary resources and expertise, it has to be appreciated that these changes would increase pressure on smaller, less developed businesses (e.g. the small and medium-sized enterprises, so-called SMEs). They would have unique needs for specific assistance and guidance. This should be provided by governmental authorities and professional organizations, and interpretation of the risk-based HACCP system should be kept flexible to allow them to apply it. To benefit all food producers and consumers, it is essential in particular that scientists from the academy, government, professional organizations and industry work together to provide the necessary information, advice and technical support. The increasing complexity of food safety and the significant changes occurring in the global economy present a unique opportunity and challenge. Going beyond HACCP towards a risk-based food safety management program will be crucial for companies wishing to move from a regional or national scale to an international one. It is likely that only companies that recognize this need will be successful on the international marketplace during the twenty-first century. 24
  25. 25. References DLD - Department of Livestock Development ,HPAI Control Measure Undertaken in Thailand since 2004, 2006a, Available at Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), “Improving Efficiency and Transparency in Food Safety Systems—Sharing Experiences”. Proceedings of the FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators, held in Marrakesh, Morocco, 28-30 January 2002. Rome: FAO/WHO. Frederick A. et al,Impact of Floods on Livelihoods and Vulnerability of Natural Resource Dependent Communities in Northern Ghana,Water, 2, 120-139, 2010. G. C. Mead, Food safety control in the poultry industry, Woodhead Publishing Limited, England, 2005. Naranong, V, “Structural Changes in Thailand’s Poultry Sector and its Social Implications.” Thailand Development Research Institute. Bangkok, Thailand, 2007. Singer, R. S., Cox, L.A, Dickson, J.S., Hurd, H.S., Phillips, I. & Miller, G.Y, Modelling the relationship between food animal health and food borne illnesses. . Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 79: 186–203, 2007 Kotze and Holloway, Flood disasters learning from previous relief and recovery operations, 1996. WHO, Guidelines for strengthening a National Food Safety Program, Geneva, WHO/FNU/FOS/96.2, 1996. WHO, Strategies for Implementing HACCP in Small and/or Less Developed Businesses, Geneva, WHO/SDE/PHE/FOS/99.7, 1999. WHO, Report of the WHO/WAVFH round table conference on the present status of the Salmonella problem (prevention and control). Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 6–10 October 1980. USDA, A report from the Economic Research Service, Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Outlook, LDP-M-204, 2011. 25