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Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
Lecture12 volcanoes
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Lecture12 volcanoes

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Transcript

  • 1. Volcanoes
  • 2. Seismogram 3 types of waves
  • 3. P- waves (Primary, Compression)
  • 4. S- waves (Secondary, Shear)
  • 5.
    • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es1002/es1002page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization
  • 6. Surface waves
  • 7. How do we know about the Core?
  • 8. S-waves S-wave Shadow
  • 9. S-waves
  • 10. How do we know about the Core?
    • studies of earthquake wave reflection and velocity
    • differentiates layers
    • shows increase in density, pressure, & temperature w/ depth
  • 11. Volcanism
    • = when molten magma extrudes onto Earth’s surface
  • 12. Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcano Stratovolcano/Composite Volcano Cinder Cone 9 km 3 km 0.3 km
  • 13. Shield volcano 150 km
  • 14. Hawaii
    • Rivers of lava - very fluid
    Hawaii
  • 15. Shield Volcanoes on Mars: Olympus Mons
  • 16. Stratovolcano
  • 17. Stratovolcano Alternating Layers of Lava flows & Pyroclastic deposits AKA Composite Volcano
  • 18. Flows don’t go as far from vent Lava is more viscous Higher Silica (~55-65%) More volatile gases in lava Stratovolcanoes / Composite Volcanoes
  • 19. Pyroclastic flows
    • Avalanche of rock material, hot ash & gas
      • Highly destructive
      • Typically faster than 80km/hr and up to 700°C
      • Can incinerate, burn, and asphyxiate people
  • 20. Caldera = basin-shaped depression e.g., Crater Lake (Mount Mazama) Oregon
  • 21. Yellowstone Caldera
  • 22. Cinder Cone Diamond Valley, UT Small in size Pyroclastic Material- Fall Steep Slopes
  • 23. SP Crater, Arizona
  • 24. Volcanic hazards
    • volcanic gases (H 2 O, CO 2 , sulfur oxides)
    • pyroclastic flows = avalanche of hot gas, ash, & rock fragments
    • lahars (mudflows)
    • lava flows
  • 25. Pyroclastic flows
  • 26. 1902- Mt. Pelée, Martinique, Caribbean St. Pierre
  • 27. Before the eruption
  • 28. After the eruption 20,000 inhabitants were killed
  • 29. Mt St Helens lahars
  • 30. Mt St Helens lahars
  • 31. 2 Types of eruptions
    • Effusive
      • gentle, low viscosity lava
      • shield volcanoes
      • e.g., Hawaiian volcanoes
    • Explosive
      • violent, high viscosity lava
      • composite volcanoes
      • e.g., Mount St. Helens, Nevada del Ruiz, Yellowstone

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