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Model Driven Architecture (MDA): Motivations, Status & Future

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  • 1. Model Driven Architecture (MDA): Motivations, Status & Future September 4-7, 2001, Seattle, WA Sridhar Iyengar Unisys Fellow OMG Architecture Board, MDA Evangelist sridhar.iyengar2@unisys.com Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 1
  • 2. Presentation Overview s Introduction - The integration problem s Motivation for MDA – Investment Protection of Intellectual and IT Assets – Managing Technology Innovation and Churn • Mapping to J2EE • Mapping to .Net {Web Services - Initial target} • Mapping to Transition (legacy architecture) s OMG Model Driven Architecture (MDA) Overview s MDA Status : What is in the pipeline? – UML2, Action Semantics, UML Profile for EDOC – XMI for XML Schemas, CWM Web Services... s Future of MDA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 2
  • 3. s Global services and technology company – 2000 Revenues : $6.9 Billion – www.unisys.com s Focus on Enterprise Class E-Business Solutions and Servers around the world – Integrated Solutions for Financial, Telcom, Publishing and Government markets – Windows 2000 DataCenter focus (ES7000) and ClearPath Servers s Actively using several – OMG MDA Technologies : UML, XMI, MOF, CWM and MDA – Java Technologies : J2EE, JMI, UML4EJB... – Microsoft Technologies : Win2K, COM+, .Net platform and tools – W3C Technologies : XML Suite of standards s Member of OMG, W3C, UDDI Consortium, OASIS... Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 3
  • 4. ‘Muddleware’ Architect’s Dilemma Architect (XML!) Warehouse DataMarts Unisys Builder SQL/Server LINC, Oracle Apps DMSII Middleware (Tuxedo, TIP, DCOM, IIOP, RMI, EJB, COM+, SOAP…) Information Models/Schemas (MOF, XML, UML, CWM, SPE, BODs, ….) Warehouse SAP Microsoft BEA NCR Siebel BI Ware .NET Servers Weblogic Teradata House SQL Server Distributed, Heterogeneous, Client/Server ! Multiple Clients, Servers, Tools, Apps, O/S, File systems, Databases, Repositories, Data Models, Object Models... Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 4
  • 5. The Technology Salad Bar (A small subset!) Capability J2EE COM+ CORBA/OMA Web Services OMG MDA .Net Network Layer TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP Web Protocol HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP HTTP Interface Definition Java Microsoft IDL CORBA IDL WSDL IDL/XMI/WSDL WSDL Meta Language XML XML XML/XMI XML MOF/XML XML RPC Mechanism RMI DCOM IIOP SOAP; XMLP SOAP; IIOP SOAP Registry/Repository JNDI; LDAP LDAP; ADSI I/F Repository UDDI MOF;UDDI UDDI Process Flow Proprietary Proprietary Proprietary ebXML; WSFL UML XLANG Modeling Language UML UML UML UML UML UML Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 5
  • 6. Solving the Integration Problem What is needed? s Short Answer is XML and HTTP! s Slightly longer answer is SOAP, WSDL, UDDI s Even longer answer is SOAP, WSDL, UDDI, WSFL, ebXML, XAML, ACML, PIPs… s The real answer is – Things are a lot messier – We need to think and build software like engineers and architects – All these acronyms are great, but where is the process, methodology and architecture! – We need to integrate the systems we have with the newer technologies – We need to rethink ‘Integration Platform’ & ‘Systems Integration Platform’! – etc. Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 6
  • 7. Solving the Integration Problem What is needed? s Methodology for building, evolving and integrating software across the life cycle s A mechanism for cataloging, indexing and searching enterprise assets (metadata and data, internal and external) s A flexible service based distributed component architecture that spans the enterprise s A set of shared standard vocabularies (information models) and notation (meaning and context of data usage) s A metadata driven approach to automate integration between islands of information s A set of open modeling, metadata and distributed computing standards s Infrastructure products and applications that address these concerns; The domain expertise needed to use these products and apply it to a customers situation ---> Unisys Global Industries Technology Roadmap Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 7
  • 8. The Enterprise Application Life Cycle Architecture Centric, Business driven, Complex Life Cycle, Many Tools Manage Discovery and Transformation Component s Modeling Add Component Build /Wrap Assemble Configure Architecture, Business Runtimes Components & Test &Deploy Object, Data… Logic (EJB, COM+) Components Components Models, Metadata, Mappings, Middleware Business Requirem Rigorous Acquired ents Components Modeling Rapid And do this with quality in a distributed environment Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 8
  • 9. Unisys ‘GITA’ Development Framework (The case for MDA!) WebGain WebLogic Rational Rational Rational RequisitePro Rose VS.NET .NET Svr ClearCase Business, Business, Visual Visual .NET .NET .NET or J2EE .NET or J2EE Component Component IDE IDE or or Component Component Generation & Generation & and Data and Data & Legacy & Legacy J2EE J2EE Management Management Wrapping Deployment Deployment Modeling Modeling Wrapping Framework Framework XMI XML XML .NET Metadata, Models, .NET MOF UML MOF UML Components, J2EE /XMI /XMI CWM code... Traceability J2EE CWM VCS VCS Links & Transformations Developer ClearCase Portal The Key is Forward & Backward Traceability ––From Components to Requirements The Key is Forward & Backward Traceability From Components to Requirements and Business Vision and Business Vision GITA : :Unisys Global Industries Technology Architecture GITA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Unisys Global Industries Technology Architecture Slide 9
  • 10. An Overview of OMG Model Driven Architecture A vision that uses and integrates the 4M’s - Models, Metadata, Mapping and Middleware of software. MDA allows developers and users to productively design, build, integrate and manage applications throughout the lifecycle irrespective of hardware or middleware platform
  • 11. OMG History s 800+ Vendors and End User members s 1989 OMA Vision & Architecture s 1991 CORBA 1.0 s 1995 CORBA 2.0 IIOP - CORBA Interoperability s 1997 UML and MOF adopted, Domain specs begin to be adopted s 1999 XMI (XML Metadata Interchange) adopted s 2000 CWM, XML/Value, EAI, EDOC, XMI for XML Schema, Additional domain specs begin s 2001 UML for EDOC, EAI, UML 2.0, MOF 2.0 s 2001 OMG reinvents itself using MDA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 11
  • 12. OMG Analysis & Design Platform Task Force Premise s The use of Modeling and Metadata enabled architectures allows us to manage the complexity of software development, application integration and data warehouse management s Modeling and Metadata standards are necessary for interchange of software artifacts and interoperability between tools, applications, middleware and data stores across platforms The unification of the original OMG vision of OMA for distributed object interoperability with this ADTF premise gave birth to MDA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 12
  • 13. Solution for Managing Complexity : MDA: Model Driven Architecture s An eclectic integration of best practices in Modeling , Middleware, Metadata, Internet and Software Architecture s Model Driven (UML, MOF, CWM…) – Platform Independent Models (PIM) – Platform Specific Models (PSM) – Mappings : PIM <==> PSM – Applies across the software life cycle s Key Benefits – Improved Productivity for Architects, Designers, Developers and Administrators – Lower cost of Application Development and Management – Enhanced Portability and Interoperability – Business Models and Technologies evolve at own pace on platform(s) of choice Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 13
  • 14. Mapping Platform Independent Models to Specific Platforms PIM Software PSM Infrastructure E J2EE 4J2E UM ML L U .J2EE .NET PIM to PSM UM L. UML Transformation Ne t Model PIM PSM HealthCare Business .Net Application (CIAS) Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 14
  • 15. OMG MDA - Details Community & Enterprise Knowledge Portals A P L A T HealthCare Financial Manufacturing Insurance... F O R M E-Business E-Business A E-Business G Application Intelligence, N Application O Development E.I. Portals S Integration T I C Mappings to Platforms S P Information Models, Metadata Formats E C I Middleware Platforms F I C Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 15
  • 16. OMG MDA - Specific Models/Work in Progress Community & Enterprise Knowledge Portals (KM) A P L A T HealthCare Financial Manufacturing Insurance... F O R M E-Business E-Business E-Business A Application Intelligence, G Application N Development E.I. Portals O (CWM) Integration S (UML, SPEM T (UML4EAI) I UML4EDOC) C Mappings to Platforms (UML4EDOC, UML4EJB, UML.NET*) S P Information Models, Metadata (UML, MOF, XMI, XML...) E C I Middleware Platforms (.NET, CORBA, J2EE, SOAP…) F I C * Opportunity Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 16
  • 17. OMG Model Driven Architecture MDA for Enterprise Integration UML EDOC Vertical Industry Applications UML4EDOC*(PSM) Model & Design (PIM) UML4EAI*(PSM) 1 200 Business 19 Components 97 Model Driven Integration for App Integration Model Driven 0 20 00 App Development 2 01 CORBA EJB MetaData Management UML4CORBA(PSM) UML4EJB* (PSM) Business Process Integration PIM : Platform Independent Model PSM : Platform Specific Model *Coming Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 17
  • 18. Early examples of MDA s OMG has been using MDA principles for about 3 years in several specifications s Metadata and Object Interchange/Integration – UML and MOF for modeling, MOF and XMI for metadata integration – MOF is a subset of UML (Class diagrams) used to model metadata s Application Development – UML for modeling, XMI and IDL for tool integration and interchange – UML profile CORBA : UML for modeling, IDL for Integration s Data Warehousing – UML and CWM for Modeling, XMI and IDL for Warehouse integration s Application Integration – UML profile for Enterprise Application Integration (UML4EAI), Distributed Object Computing (EDOC) Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 18
  • 19. OMG Model Driven Architecture MDA for Metadata Integration Vertical Industry UML XMI Specifications Model & Design (PIM) MOF2XML (PSM) 9 199 DTD, Document Data Warehousing 19 97 Schema (XMI 2.0) B2B Application Framework Metadata for Integration (PIM) Model Driven 7 20 99 App Development 1 01 JMI MetaData IDL Management MOF2IDL (PSM) MOF2Java(PSM) And So On PIM : Platform Independent Model PSM : Platform Specific Model *Opportunity UML2C# Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 19
  • 20. Transform UML models to DTD XMI 1.1 : ad/99-10-02, ad/99-10-03 XML UML CWM Travel Syntax and Encoding X UML Models UML Models UML Documents M XML Streams (Models) (Many - based on each metamodel DTD) MOF Metadata Definitions I Validate & Management MOF UML CWM Travel DTD DTD DTD PIM TO DTD, XML DTD (MetaModels) UML XML (1 per metamodel used for validation) Model Analysis & Design PSM Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 20
  • 21. Design-driven XMI for a car Objects and Designs Model in XMI Auto <Class> Model Interchange <Name>Auto</Name> </Class> Color Door XMI DTD, Schema <element name=quot;Autoquot; /> <!ELEMENT Auto (Color*, Door*)> XMI Document <Auto> Instance Interchange <Color>red</Color> <Door>2</Door> </Auto> Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 21
  • 22. Transform Models to Schemas XMI 2.0 OMG Document : ad/01-06-12,13 XML Syntax and Encoding X UML UML Models CWM UML Models Travel UML Documents M XML Streams (Models) (Many - based on each metamodel Schema) MOF I Validate Metadata Definitions & Management 2.0 UML CWM Travel PIM MOF2 XSD XSD XSD UML XSD XML Schema(MetaModels) (1 per metamodel used for validation) Model Analysis & Design PSM Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 22
  • 23. XMI Production of XML Schemas : OMG Vote next week s Bi-directional mappings from UML/MOF to XML Documents and XML Schema s Formal metamodels for XML Schema and XML s Reverse engineering of XML DTDs to assist transformation to schemas and UML s Integrate the Analysis and Design of XML applications to be better integrated with the web services platform s Accelerates tool integration and new methods for modeling web services Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 23
  • 24. Transform Models to Java JMI 1.0 Draft : http://jcp.org/jsr/detail/40.jsp. Java Syntax and Encoding J UML UML Models CWM UML Models Travel UML Objects M Java Model Servers (Many - based on each metamodel Schema) MOF I Validate Metadata Definitions & Management 1.0 UML CWM Travel PIM MOF2 JAR JAR JAR Java Java Packages UML (1 per metamodel used for validation) Model Analysis & Design PSM Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 24
  • 25. Quick Lessons Learned s Platforms and protocols come and go – Some become ubiquitous over time; most don’t s Just in the pace of 2 years DTD mania has become XML Schema mania! { YML and ZML are next!) s We used MDA to map UML/MOF to IDL and XML DTDs s We used MDA to map UML/MOF to XML Schema s We used MDA to map UML/MOF to EJB/Java respectively s We even reverse mapped XML DTD and Documents to UML s So design your models in UML and transform to DTD, XML Schema, Java, C#, IDL.. Etc. s Use well defined, standard design patterns to save time Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 25
  • 26. OMG MDA Technologies Submissions EJB Java SPE UML Profile for EDOC... UML MOF CORBA Med Evaluating Life Sciences Manufacturing EC EAI EC EAI CCM CCM CWM CWM UML CWM UML Electronic Commerce Enterprise Document CIAS Etc. App Integration Management Standards MOF UML CCM IDL CWM UML4CORBA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 26
  • 27. Integrating MDA and Web Services Architecture We finally apply the MDA principles - Modeling the Web Services Architecture (and its components) so we can formally define web service models with rich semantics (remember the ‘semantic web’) so we can manage the full application life cycle for .NET applications. P.S : We do the same for the next ‘fad’ or ‘real platform’
  • 28. How to apply MDA principles to Web Services s Of course we start by modeling the various parts of the web services architecture s The key components of the architecture to model are – XML itself – UDDI – WSDL – Transformations from UML/MOF to these technologies s These models of models are called ‘Metamodels’ in OMG parlance s Having these metamodels and transformation models assists semantic integration of applications and data Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 28
  • 29. Mapping Platform Independent Models to Specific Platforms PIM PSM Service Registry OMA - IR Model BA OR UM L 4C L UM PSM OMA DL WSA - WSDL WSA 4W S PIM to PSM UML UML Transformation UM Model L4 UD DI PIM Service Definition PSM WSA: Web Services Architecture Model OMA: Object Management Architecture WSA - UDDI IR: Interface Repository Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 29
  • 30. Metamodels of XML and XML Schema itself s XML and XML Schema Model – Defined in the OMG XML Production for XML Schemas proposal – OMG Document # : ad/01-06-12,13 – A complete MOF model using UML notation of XML and XML Schema is available – Forward and reverse mappings from UML/MOF to XML and XML Schema have been specified s Goal is to over time unify multiple schema models such as XML Schema, XMI, RDF etc using MOF s See also UML profile for XML at xmlmodeling.com Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 30
  • 31. Fragment of XML Schema Model Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 31
  • 32. Metamodel of UDDI s Formally defining a metamodel for UDDI will make it more easy to integrate the structure and semantics of other directories and registries s An alternative approach is to define a generic interface (JAXR - Java API for XML Registries) - but this is not likely to capture the richer semantics in models s Models of UDDI are being developed at IBM, Unisys and Microsoft (among other vendors) Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 32
  • 33. Metamodel of UDDI - Subset BusinessContact 0.. * BusinessEntity BusinessService BusinessTemplate 0..* 0..1 IdentifierBag 0..1 This is only a subset of the UDDI metamodel. A complete model will be in an upcoming OMG Proposal. TModel OverviewDocument See xmlmodeling.com for a Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 33
  • 34. Metamodel of WSDL s Formally defining a metamodel for WSDL will make it more easy to integrate the structure and semantics of other interface definition languages (IDL, Java…) s A formal model (MOF metamodel) of WSDL is being defined by IBM and Unisys for an OMG submission – The CWM Web Services RFP - so that it becomes easier to integrate analytical web services with the rest of the database/data warehouse integration infrastrcucture s This model can be integrated with additional metamodels of Java and IDL that have already proposed in OMG specifications Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 34
  • 35. WSDL Metamodel Fragment WSDLElement 0..1 Documentation u nd ef in ed : boo lean text : St ring +eDocumentation Exten si b leElem ent Import +eImports 0..* Types +e Type s 0..1 0..* Message +eMessages Defini tio n +ePortTypes PortType 0..* +eBindings Bin din g 0..* Metamodel : Courtesy IBM +eServices Service 0..* Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 35
  • 36. How do we use these metamodels of WSDL, UDDI and XML! s Within the OMG suite of metamodels, UML is the most well known and used to integrate application development and deployment tools s CWM - Common Warehouse Metamodel is more recent, but is a landmark model that addresses the integration requirement of various types of databases (network, relational, XML, multidimensional etc,) s The OMG is now in the process of integrating these suite of metamodels and the information they represent into the world of web services. s A quick peek at CWM will show us the way! Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 36
  • 37. OMG Common Warehouse Metamodel (CWM) s Scope – Data Warehouse lifecycle metadata interchange and management s Initial submission : IBM, Unisys, NCR, Hyperion, Oracle, Genesis, UBS, Dimension EDI... – Metamodel - Single logical & physical! – Generated XML DTDs – Generated MOF - IDL mappings – Generated XML document s Approved by OMG Board in June 2000 s Endorsed by Meta Data Coalition in October 2000 s CWM 1.1 Revision is being now worked on Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 37
  • 38. CWM Package Architecture Modular Design org.omg ObjectModel CWM – Minimum dependencies Foundation <<metamodel>> DataTypes • Cross package services provided <<metamodel>> TypeMapping by links to UML <<metamodel>> KeysIndexes <<metamodel>> Expressions – Avoid subpackages <<metamodel>> BusinessInformation <<metamodel>> SoftwareDeployment Resource – Reduced complexity, improved <<metamodel>> Relational understanding <<metamodel>> Record <<metamodel>> Multidimensional <<metamodel>> XML – Use only the packages you Analysis need <<metamodel>> Transformation <<metamodel>> Olap <<metamodel>> BusinessNomenclature <<metamodel>> DataMining <<metamodel>> InformationVisualization Management <<metamodel>> WarehouseProcess <<metamodel>> WarehouseOperation CWMX Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 38
  • 39. MDA for Data Warehouse Integration using CWM Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 39
  • 40. What next for CWM : CWM Web Services s CWM is now being used by IBM, Unisys, Hyperion, Oracle, and many others for integrating enterprise data, metadata and content s However this interchange even though it uses XML (CWM is XMI compliant and uses XML for its interchange) has the following problems – The interchange patterns are too fine grained – The interchange patterns need to be formalized between the integration partners – The interchange protocol does not support web services s To address these needs OMG is standardizing ‘CWM for Web Services’ Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 40
  • 41. CWM Web Services RFP s Requires Integration of – CWM Metamodel – XMI - The XML DTDs and Schemas that conform to CWM – WSDL – SOAP – UDDI s A key principle of OMG MDA is define formal models (platform independent and platform specific) of these technologies and their transformations s The suite of metamodels and transformations being proposed will integrate MDA and Web Services Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 41
  • 42. CWM Web Services RFP - A Potential Solution s The specific interchange patterns model will be specified using UML and MOF and this metadata interchanged using XMI s Mappings from UML/MOF to WSDL and UDDI will make it possible to – Design web services applications and components using UML – Manage all related metadata using MOF/XMI and XML – Automatically publish the interfaces/service definitions in CORBA IR, UDDI registry and JNDI/LDAP servers! – Maintain traceability across the life cycle (try this today!) Please note that the final adopted proposal may be different - Too early to tell! Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 42
  • 43. MDA meets Web Services bringing some order to the web services Chaos! PIM PSM Service Registry .NET -ADSI Model N ET UM OF. M PSM UML L OMA OF.LD AP DIR - LDAP M UML 1.4 WSA UML4W App Design PIM to PSM SDL PSM Transformation UML UM WSA - WSDL Model L4 ML U UD DI PIM Service Definition PSM WSA: Web Services Architecture Model OMA: Object Management Architecture WSA - UDDI ADSI: Active Directory Services Interface Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 43
  • 44. OMG MDA : What is Coming? Submissions EJB Java UML Profile for UML2 EDOC... UML Profile UML Profile Action for EJB - JSR 26 JMI - JSR-40 for EAI Semantics CORBA Med Evaluating XMI MOF UML Life Sciences WSDL EC EAI EC EAI XML CCM CWM CCM UML CWM UML Electronic UDDI Commerce MOF 2.0 WorkFlow Etc. CIAS SPEM Standards MOF UML CCM IDL CWM UML4CORBA Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 44
  • 45. What about UML 2.0? s Massive industry interest (30+ LOIs) s ‘Gang of 17’ proposal – Unisys/IBM/Rational/Oracle/Telelogic et al [Show model?] s Kinetium/Adaptive et al proposal s 4 others s Expect – A radical restructuring of UML/MOF kernel – Better support for component architectures – Much better extensibility – Delays and some surprises! – Much better next generation tools! s MOF 2.0 coming on the heels s UML/MOF/XMI/JMI will power the MDA platform Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 45
  • 46. Concluding Thoughts s Ensuring a unified model and metadata driven architecture is key to solving the heterogeneous integration problem – Use models and metadata to enable transformation – Use MDA principles through out the life cycle – OMG MDA is the realization of this vision s Most customers have and will continue to have components/services and information/data from multiple sources and formats that need integration s Integration problem continues to be complex and challenging – Use MDA principles to abstract complex models, map these models to platforms and interchange artifacts across life cycle s Mapping MDA to .NET and J2EE frameworks will make the developers and systems integrators work easier – We handle the next platform even more easily! Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 46
  • 47. For More Information s OMG : www.omg.org, www.omg.org/cwm s MDA : www.omg.org/mda s Unisys : www.unisys.com s UML : www.omg.org/uml, www.rational.com s CWM : www.cwmforum.org, www.omg.org/uml s W3C : www.w3c.org s DSTC : www.dstc.edu.au s Sridhar : sridhar.iyengar2@unisys.com s UML RTF : uml-rtf@omg.org s MOF RTF : mof-rtf@omg.org s XMI RTF : xmi-rtf@omg.org s CWM RTF : cwm-rtf@omg.org s JMI : http://java.sun.com/aboutJava/communityprocess/jsr Copyright 2001, UNISYS Corporation Slide 47