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Middleware and Middleware in distributed application


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The seminar discuss about the common middleware concept and middleware in distributed applications .Also we discuss about 4 different types of middleware. MOM( Message oriented Middleware), ORB (object request broker), TP Monitors, Request procedure calls RPC.
The slide also gives the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Published in: Software
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Middleware and Middleware in distributed application

  3. 3. OVERVIEW •Introduction •What is Middleware •History •Middleware Application •Middleware Architecture •Uses Of Middleware •Middleware Objectives •Middleware in Distributed application •Types Of Middleware •Conclusion •Reference 3 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION •Middlewareis computer software that provides services to software applications beyond those available from the operating system. •Middleware makes it easier for software developers to perform communication and input/output, so they can focus on the specific purpose of their application. •Middleware is the software that connects software components or enterprise applications. •Middleware is the software layer that lies between the operating system and the applications on each side of a distributed computer network . •Typically, it supports complex, distributed business software applications. 4 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  5. 5. WHAT IS MIDDLEWARE ? •Layer between OS and distributed applications. •Hides complexity and heterogeneity of distributed system . •Software that functions as a conversion or translation layer. •Bridges gap between low-level OS communications and programming language abstractions. •Provides common programming abstraction and infrastructure for distributed applications. 5 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  6. 6. HISTORY… •Till 1980 most computing was based on central host computers.The term middleware first appeared in the late 1980s to describe network connection management software RPC was first developed circa 1982 by Birrelland Nelson. •Early RPC systems that achieved wide use include those by Sun. •Then The OMG was formed in 1989, In the late 1990s HTTP became a major building block for various kinds of middleware. 6 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  7. 7. MIDDLEWARE APPLICATION •Middleware services are sets of distributed software that provide a more functional set of APIs than does the operating system and network services. •Locate transparently across the network, providing interaction with another application or service. •Be independent from network services. •Be reliable and available. •Scale up in capacity without losing functionality. 7 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  8. 8. MIDDLEWARE ARCHITECTURE 8 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  9. 9. USES OF MIDDLEWARE •Be reliable and available. •Scale –up in capacity without losing function. •Middleware reduces application development and maintenance efforts. •Middleware provides distributed computing. 9 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  10. 10. MIDDLEWARE OBJECTIVES •Hide heterogeneity •Location independence •Common functionality needed by many applications •Software portability and mobile code •Help integrate legacy facilities •Aid application interoperability •Aid scalability 10 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  11. 11. MIDDLEWARE (DISTRIBUTED APPLICATIONS) •Middlewarein the context of distributed applications is software that provides services beyond those provided by the operating system to enable the various components of a distributed system to communicate and manage data. •Middleware supports and simplifies complex distributed applications. •It includes web servers, application servers, messaging and similar tools that support application development and delivery. •Middleware is especially integral to modern information technology based on XML, SOAP, Web services, and service-oriented architecture. 11 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  12. 12. TYPES OF MIDDLEWARE There are different types of middleware and we are going to discuss about… •MESSAGE ORIENTED MIDDLEWARE •REMOTE PROCEDURE CALLS •OBJECT REQUEST BROKER •TRANSACTION PROCESSING MONITORS 12 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  13. 13. MOM (MESSAGE ORIENTED MIDDLEWARE) •MOM is a client / server infrastructure which allows the application to be distributed over multiple heterogeneous platforms. •Reduces complexity of applications spanning operating systems and network protocols by insulating them from un-necessary details. •Data is exchanged by message passing and/or message queuing •Providing the directory, security, and administrative services required to support messaging. 13 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  14. 14. MOM 14 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  15. 15. PROPERTIES OF MOM Asynchronous interaction •Client and server are only loosely coupled •Messages are queued •Good for application integration Support for reliable delivery service •Keep queues in persistent storage Processing of messages by intermediate message server(s) •May do filtering, transforming, logging, … •Networks of message servers Natural for database integration 15 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  16. 16. MOM ADVANTAGES ●Asynchronous ●Flexible ●Portability ●Interoperability ●Reduces Complexity 16 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  17. 17. DISADVANTAGE OF MOM Poor programming abstraction (but has evolved) •Rather low-level (cf. Packets) •Request/reply more difficult to achieve, but can be done Message formats originally unknown to middleware •No type checking (JMS addresses this –implementation?) Queue abstraction only gives one-to-one communication •Limits scalability (JMS pub/sub –implementation?) 17 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  18. 18. MOM PRODUCTS •IBM WebsphereMQ Series •Sonic MQ •MS MQ •Java Message Queue 18 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  19. 19. MOM -ARCHITECTURE Database Transaction J2EE Application Middle Layer Listener Listener Message Message Message Message Message Process C Process B Process A A P P L I C A T I O N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 9 C B A Q1 Q2 19 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  20. 20. RPC (REMOTE PROCEDURE CALL) •An inter-process communication. •Allows a computer program to cause a subroutine or procedure to execute in another address space without the programmer. •Explicitly coding the details for this remote interaction. 20 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  21. 21. RPC 21 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  22. 22. PROPERTIES OF RPC Language-level pattern of function call •easy to understand for programmer Synchronous request/replyinteraction •natural from a programming language point-of-view •matches replies to requests •built in synchronisation of requests and replies Distribution transparency (in the no-failure case) •hides the complexity of a distributed system Various reliabilityguarantees •deals with some distributed systems aspects of failure 22 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  23. 23. DISADVANTAGES OF RPC Synchronous request/reply interaction •tight coupling between client and server •client may block for a long time if server loaded leads to multi-threaded programming at client •slow/failed clients may delay servers when replying multi-threading essential at servers Distribution Transparency •Not possible to mask all problems RPC paradigm is not object-oriented •invoke functions on servers as opposed to methods on objects 23 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  24. 24. ORB (OBJECT REQUEST BROKER) •Middleware infrastructure that support the development of distributed object-oriented applications . •CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is the most common example . •Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) and COM+ specific to Microsoft is another example 24 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  25. 25. ORB Client Application Remote Service (Object) ORB Locate service Activate service communicate Establish connection 25 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  26. 26. ADVANTAGES OF ORB •vendor-neutral and open standard. •portable. •wide variety of implementations. •hardware platforms, operating systems and languages. •takes the grunt work out of distributed programming. 26 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  27. 27. DISADVANTAGES OF ORB Specified by consensus and compromise. No reference implementation. Not perfect. 27 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  28. 28. TRANSACTION PROCESSING MONITORS •For long the dominant form of middleware. •Main goal is to support execution of distributed transactions. •Is a set of information which process the data transaction in database system. 28 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  29. 29. TRANSACTION PROCESSING MONITOR Database Processing Routines Client Client Client Client Client Transaction Processing Monitor 29 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  30. 30. TPMONITORS •TP monitors initially developed as multithreaded servers to support large numbers of terminals from a single process. •Provide infrastructure for building and administering complex transaction processing systems with a large number of clients and multiple servers. •Some commercial TP monitors: CICS from IBM, Pathway from Tandem, Top End from NCR, and Encinafrom Transarc 30 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  31. 31. COMMON SERVICES PROVIDED BY TPMONITORS •Presentation facilities to simplify creating user interfaces •Persistent queuing of client requests and server responses •Routing of client messages to servers •Coordination of two-phase commit when transactions access multiple servers. 31 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  32. 32. CONCLUSION ●Middleware is connectivity software . ●Consists of a set of enabling services. •Middleware is independent of network services. ●Allow multiple processes running on one or more machines to interact with each other. ●Middleware services are sets of distributed software. ●Middleware is an important abstraction for building distributed systems. 32 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  33. 33. REFERNCE • • •Wikipedia • TECHNOLOGY-Seminar • • • 33 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  34. 34. QUESTIONS ??? 34 School of Engineering,CUSAT
  35. 35. THANK YOUYOU