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Digital Cameras

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Digital Cameras Digital Cameras Presentation Transcript

  • DigitalCameras
  • Digital Camera Types
    2
    Prosumer*
    Mobile Phone
    Professional SLR
    • Expansive
    • Versatile
    • Better images
    • Responsive
    • Bulky
    • Heavy
    • Cheap
    • Small
    • Light
    Point & Shoot
    Prosumer SLR
    *Prosumer = Consumer cameras with some pro-like capabilities
  • Digital Camera Operation
    3
    Camera Body
    1) The lens focuses light reflected from the subject onto the sensor
    2) Pressing the shutter button opens the shutter briefly to allow light in
    3) The image sensor converts the light into electric signals
    Shutter
    Light
    ImageSensor
    Subject
    DigitalImageProcessor
    Lens
    5) The image file is stored in the memory card
    4) The digital image processor transforms the signals into an image file (usually in jpeg format)
    MemoryCard
  • SLR vs. Fixed-Lens Cameras
    4
  • The Lens - Zoom
    5
    Changing the distance between the elements magnifies/shrinks the image (zoom in & out)
    Camera lenses are made up of glass elements
    Zoom range (AKA focal range) is measured in millimeters in image magnification factor (xN)
    Fully-extended lens
    Example: x31 zoom from 18mm (wide) to 250mm (tele)
  • The Lens - Aperture
    6
    Light enters the lens through the aperture hole which can be made bigger or smaller to allow more or less light in
    Aperture size is measured in f-numbers or stops
    f/1.4
    f/16
    Lenses indicate their maximal aperture in wide and full-tele modes (smaller numbers are better)
    A lens capable of big apertures (small f-numbers) isbetter: allows more light in in low-light conditions and enables shallow depth-of field images
    f/32
    f/5.6 (shallow depth of field)
  • What to Look For in a Lens
    Zoom range
    Wide for scenery shots
    Zoom for portraits, sports, wildlife
    Big apertures (low f-numbers)
    Allow in more light and shallower depth of field
    Sharpness
    In center and in corners
    Minimal distortion
    Especially in wide and in full-tele
    Materials and build quality
    Glass materials, coating, body materials
    7
  • Image Sensor – Resolution and Size
    • Image sensors affect image quality and resolution (how many dots, or pixels make up the picture)
    Resolution is mainly important when printing pictures
    8MP (megapixel) is sufficient for most print sizes
    More resolution ≠ Better images
    Sensors come in a variety of sizes
    Usually the bigger the camera the larger the sensor
    Bigger sensor  better image quality
    8
  • Image Sensor – Noise
    Sensors generate random variation in brightness or color, called Image Noise
    Image noise depends on:
    Sensor quality
    Sensor size – smaller sensors are noisier
    Cameras have built-in Noise-Reduction (NR),but this reduces detail
    9
    Noise-free image
    Noisy image
  • Image Stabilization (IS)
    Image stabilization (IS), is an electro-mechanical system built into a camera or a lens
    Reduces camera shake and thus image blur
    Also known as Vibration Reductions (VR)
    10
    Example: IS implemented by moving lens elements to counteract camera motion
  • ISO (Sensitivity)
    ISO= light sensitivity – the ability to capture images in low-light
    Measured in ISO values: 64, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200…
    Higher numbers indicate higher sensitivity
    Cameras allow increasing ISO level to capture images in low-light conditions
    Theoretically the higher the ISO the camera enables the better
    However higher ISO = higher image noise
    Depends on sensor quality and size
    Most digital cameras produce unusable images with highest ISO levels
    11
    ISO 400
    ISO 1600
  • LCD Screen
    Things to look for:
    Screen Resolution
    Higher resolution = more details
    Visibility in strong day light
    Swivel / Tilt
    Enables shooting from different angels
    12
    • The LCD screen at the back of the camera is used to control it and to review images and movies
    Swivel-and-Tilt Screen
  • Camera Features
    Manual Controls - allow controlling all picture-taking parameters – aperture, shutter speed, ISO
    13
    • Face Detection – the camera automatically focuses on the faces in the image
    • Live Histogram – the histogram shows light distribution in the image, thus indicating whether the image is well-exposed .
  • Summary - Things to Consider
    14
  • Photo Credits
    Night Time is the Right Time / Jakob Montrasio, http://www.flickr.com/photos/yakobusan/280627593/
    15
  • Legal Note
    This presentation is provided for use under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 license.
    (You may use, distribute, embed and make copies. You may not make commercial use or change. Attribution to the creators is required)
    16