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Through the Lens
– Ebenezer Annadoss
Volume - 2
CAMERA TECHNIQUES
A Video Camera
Index
Lens
Focal Length of the Lens
Shot Size
Focus
Aperture
Shutter
Image Sensor
In built Light Meter
White Balance
Depth...
The foremost element of the Camera
Lens
! Zoom
! Focus
! Iris (Aperture)
A Lens
One or both
surfaces are
curved in order to
collect light from
one direction,
change the
convergence of
the light r...
A Lens – Variable focal length lens
The TV Camera
Lens is made up of
a series of
individual lenses.
This arrangement
focus...
Focal Length of the Lens
● On digital cameras, focal length is
often expressed as 35mm film
camera equivalent
● Higher foc...
The Eye & The Camera
Lenses are found in
Human
- The Eye
In technology
- Cameras
Angle of view and shot size
Focal Length vs. Image Size (Shot Size)
Extreme Long Shot


ELS (Extreme Long Shot)

The view is so far from the
subject that she isn't even
visible. This is ofte...
Very Long Shot


VLS (Very Long Shot)

The subject is visible
(barely), but the emphasis is
still on placing her in her
en...
Long Shot


LS (Long Shot)

The subject takes up the full
frame, or at least as much
as possible. The same as a
Full shot....
Mid Long Shot


MLS (Medium Long Shot)

The subject takes up the
frame till knee level. It will
be useful for a group shot...
Mid Shot


MS (Medium Shot)

Shows some part of the
subject in more detail whilst
still giving an impression of
the whole ...
Mid Close Up Shot


MCU (Medium Close Up
Shot)

Half way between a MS and
a CU.
Above 50mm Lens (eg. 75mm Telephoto Lens)
...
Close Up Shot


CU (Close Up Shot)

A certain feature or part of
the subject takes up the
whole frame
Above 50mm Lens (eg....
Extreme Close Up Shot


ECU (Extreme Close Up
Shot)

The ECU shows extreme
detail.
Above 50mm Lens (eg. 200mm Telephoto Le...
Focus
To adjust the lens to obtain
the sharpest image is
called focus.
Professional cameras usually
have a manual focus ri...
Auto Focus
Most auto-focus devices
assume that the area you want
in sharp focus is in the centre of
the picture in the pho...
Manual Focusing Technique
Make sure the camera is set to manual
focus.
Zoom in as tight as you can on the subject
you wish...
Aperture
Aperture is a opening
within a lens, through
which light travels into
the camera body.
It controls the amount of
...
Various sizes of Aperture in f-stops
Auto Iris
Auto Iris controls the
amount of light that is
used to expose the
camera’s image sensor
according to the
illumin...
Video Camera Shutter
Video camera shutters work quite
differently from still film camera
shutters but the result is basica...
Video Camera Shutter
The main effect of higher shutter
speeds is that individual frames
appear sharper, due to the
minimiz...
Image Formation in Video Camera
A lens allows light to pass through to create the image of
a scene, but instead of this li...
Image Sensor
The image sensor is the heart of
the camcorder.
It converts optical energy into
digital energy or signals.
Im...
Types Image Sensor
Video cameras originally used vacuum
tubes, but today camcorders include
either,
•CCD – 3CCD
Charge-cou...
Sensor Table
In Built Light Meter
The camera has a built in
light meter that evaluates
the total amount of light
reflected from the sub...
Camera White Balance
White balance adjustment In the light of a particular
color temperature, to adjust the white levels o...
How White Balance Works
All digital cameras have an auto white balance setting
that allows the camera to detect the color ...
How White Balance Works
But to the camera’s eye, each of these light sources is different
and each produces a tint of colo...
How White Balance Works
The image was shot using the
camera’s auto white balance setting.
The light was daylight and the c...
How White Balance Works
The light was daylight, but the
setting was for cloudy daylight.
Though the color is not correct, ...
How White Balance Works
For this shot , the setting for
tungsten (or indoor light). Since
daylight is much bluer than
indo...
Depth of Field
Depth of field refers to the range
of distance that appears
acceptably sharp.
Depth of Field
"circle of confusion" is used to
define how much a point needs
to be blurred in order to be
perceived as un...
Depth of Field
How to achieve DoF?
•Use higher f.no. (Smaller opening of aperture)
•Focus the subject at Infinity range (K...
Depth of Field - Examples
Aspect Ratio
The term Aspect Ratio refers to
the width of a picture (or screen)
in relation to its height.
Ratios are expr...
Aspect Ratio 4:3
This is the standard
television format.
All Television compatible
ratio.
4
3
Aspect Ratio 16:9
This format has gained
acceptance as the new
standard for widescreen TV,
DVD and high-definition video.
...
Aspect Ratio 21:9
Cinemascope
A very wide screen format
used for theatrical release
movies.
21
9
Converting Aspect Ratio
16:9 4:3
21:9
Lens Hood
To avoid unwanted entry
of light (Glare) Lens Hood
is used.
Made up of black colored
plates.
Lens Cap
To protect lens from dust,
moistures, finger marks,
etc.,
View Finder with Eye cup
•Its electronic view finder,
some camera has b&w & some
color view finder.
•This has eye piece co...
LCD Screen
To compose the subject in
large finder.
Tilt able during high angle &
low angle shot.
Useful for playback optio...
Zoom In/Out Peddle
To achieve smooth Zoom in
and Zoom out.
Fore finger holds Wide mode.
Middle finger holds Tele mode.
Video Cassette Loading Chamber
VHS, SVHS, Beta, Digi Beta,
Umatic, Mini DV, DVCAM &
HDV format tapes are used it
video cam...
Menu Options
With this button we can manually
set the camera settings. It have
various functions.
Once you press the Menu ...
Camera & VCR Mode
In Camera mode its ready to
record on tape or memory
card.
In VCR mode its ready to play
back the record...
Audio Controls
To control the in-built
microphone and the input
microphone through XLR input.
Selecting the channels &
lev...
AV Connectivity
Through this Audio/Video
ports we can connect the
camera directly to TV or use it
for direct composite cap...
Power Supply
An external rechargeable
battery will be used for power
supply.
There will be a DC power
adapter connectivity...
Now its your turn. Any Questions?
Ebenezer Annadoss
Assistant Professor – Department of Visual Communication
Shri Shankarl...
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Through the Lens (Vol-2)

Through the Lens - Volumes of learning material on Film Making & Photography. Here is the 1st Volume of Through the Lens (Video Camera Techniques). This is for learning purpose not for commercial use. Hope this is will really helps media students. Write to me for to clarify any doubts - ebenezerannadoss@gmail.com

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Through the Lens (Vol-2)

  1. 1. Through the Lens – Ebenezer Annadoss Volume - 2 CAMERA TECHNIQUES
  2. 2. A Video Camera
  3. 3. Index Lens Focal Length of the Lens Shot Size Focus Aperture Shutter Image Sensor In built Light Meter White Balance Depth of Field Aspect Ratio Lens Hood Lens Cap View Finder LCD Screen Zoom in – Out pedal Video Cassette Menu Options Camera & VCR Mode Audio Controls AV Connectivity Power Supply
  4. 4. The foremost element of the Camera Lens ! Zoom ! Focus ! Iris (Aperture)
  5. 5. A Lens One or both surfaces are curved in order to collect light from one direction, change the convergence of the light rays and focus them onto a surface in the other direction.
  6. 6. A Lens – Variable focal length lens The TV Camera Lens is made up of a series of individual lenses. This arrangement focuses a small sharp image of the scene on to the camera’s chip or target plane. Zoom Lens
  7. 7. Focal Length of the Lens ● On digital cameras, focal length is often expressed as 35mm film camera equivalent ● Higher focal length number indicates a greater image magnification ○ Telephoto ~ Above 50mm ○ Normal ~50mm (human eye) ○ Wide angle ~ Below 50mm ● Combination of all the above three are Zoom Lens otherwise called as Variable Focal Length Lens.
  8. 8. The Eye & The Camera Lenses are found in Human - The Eye In technology - Cameras
  9. 9. Angle of view and shot size Focal Length vs. Image Size (Shot Size)
  10. 10. Extreme Long Shot 
 ELS (Extreme Long Shot)
 The view is so far from the subject that she isn't even visible. This is often used as an establishing shot. Below 50mm Lens (eg. 18mm Wide angle Lens) *More Depth of Field (DOF)
  11. 11. Very Long Shot 
 VLS (Very Long Shot)
 The subject is visible (barely), but the emphasis is still on placing her in her environment. Below 50mm Lens (eg. 22mm Wide angle Lens) *More Depth of Field (DOF)
  12. 12. Long Shot 
 LS (Long Shot)
 The subject takes up the full frame, or at least as much as possible. The same as a Full shot. Below 50mm Lens (eg. 28mm Wide angle Lens) *More Depth of Field (DOF)
  13. 13. Mid Long Shot 
 MLS (Medium Long Shot)
 The subject takes up the frame till knee level. It will be useful for a group shot. Below 50mm Lens (eg. 35mm Wide angle Lens) *Little Depth of Field (DOF)
  14. 14. Mid Shot 
 MS (Medium Shot)
 Shows some part of the subject in more detail whilst still giving an impression of the whole subject. 50mm Lens (Normal Lens) *Little Shallow Depth
  15. 15. Mid Close Up Shot 
 MCU (Medium Close Up Shot)
 Half way between a MS and a CU. Above 50mm Lens (eg. 75mm Telephoto Lens) *Little Shallow Depth
  16. 16. Close Up Shot 
 CU (Close Up Shot)
 A certain feature or part of the subject takes up the whole frame Above 50mm Lens (eg. 100mm Telephoto Lens) *More Shallow Depth
  17. 17. Extreme Close Up Shot 
 ECU (Extreme Close Up Shot)
 The ECU shows extreme detail. Above 50mm Lens (eg. 200mm Telephoto Lens) *More Shallow Depth
  18. 18. Focus To adjust the lens to obtain the sharpest image is called focus. Professional cameras usually have a manual focus ring at the front of the lens housing. Turn the ring clockwise for closer focus, anti-clockwise for more distant focus. Consumer cameras have different types of focus mechanisms usually a small dial.
  19. 19. Auto Focus Most auto-focus devices assume that the area you want in sharp focus is in the centre of the picture in the photo right below that the centre area is correctly focused (thanks to auto-focus), but the main subject is blurry. Of course, the goal was the opposite
  20. 20. Manual Focusing Technique Make sure the camera is set to manual focus. Zoom in as tight as you can on the subject you wish to focus on. Adjust the focus ring until the picture is sharp. Turn the ring clockwise for closer focus, anti-clockwise for more distant focus. Zoom out to the required framing — the picture should stay nice and sharp.
  21. 21. Aperture Aperture is a opening within a lens, through which light travels into the camera body. It controls the amount of the Light.
  22. 22. Various sizes of Aperture in f-stops
  23. 23. Auto Iris Auto Iris controls the amount of light that is used to expose the camera’s image sensor according to the illumination requirement.
  24. 24. Video Camera Shutter Video camera shutters work quite differently from still film camera shutters but the result is basically the same The shutter speed is adjusted by electronically varying the amount of time the CCD is allowed to build a charge.
  25. 25. Video Camera Shutter The main effect of higher shutter speeds is that individual frames appear sharper, due to the minimization of motion blur. Motion blur occurs when the subject moves within the frame while the shutter is open. Below 1/60 of Sec 1/60 of Sec Above 1/60 of Sec
  26. 26. Image Formation in Video Camera A lens allows light to pass through to create the image of a scene, but instead of this light hitting a piece of film to later be chemically processed, an image sensor takes that light and converts it to a digital format and gives output into a memory.
  27. 27. Image Sensor The image sensor is the heart of the camcorder. It converts optical energy into digital energy or signals. Image sensors are used in camcorders, digital still cameras, medical products, security equipment and mobile phones.
  28. 28. Types Image Sensor Video cameras originally used vacuum tubes, but today camcorders include either, •CCD – 3CCD Charge-coupled device •CMOS – 3MOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
  29. 29. Sensor Table
  30. 30. In Built Light Meter The camera has a built in light meter that evaluates the total amount of light reflected from the subject. It then averages this light and sets the correct exposure. Center Weighed Metering
  31. 31. Camera White Balance White balance adjustment In the light of a particular color temperature, to adjust the white levels of the R, G, and B channels of a color video camera so that any white object shot in that light is reproduced as a truly white image.
  32. 32. How White Balance Works All digital cameras have an auto white balance setting that allows the camera to detect the color of the light and balance it correctly. When you look at a white object, it appears white to you regardless of the light source. When lit by an ordinary household bulb, or a fluorescent light, or outside in daylight it still looks white to your eye.
  33. 33. How White Balance Works But to the camera’s eye, each of these light sources is different and each produces a tint of color on the white object. And unless the camera makes some sort of adjustment for this variation in light color, a white object will not appear white in your photos. In fact, everything in your photo will have a color cast to it… it is just more obvious in the whites and near whites than in other colors. This is the function of the white balance feature in digital cameras.
  34. 34. How White Balance Works The image was shot using the camera’s auto white balance setting. The light was daylight and the color is correct for this subject.
 Light is measured in degrees Kelvin, such as 3200K or 5800K. This is known as the color temperature of a light source.
  35. 35. How White Balance Works The light was daylight, but the setting was for cloudy daylight. Though the color is not correct, it could still be OK, if you wanted a slightly warmer feeling.
  36. 36. How White Balance Works For this shot , the setting for tungsten (or indoor light). Since daylight is much bluer than indoor light, the result was an overall blue cast.
  37. 37. Depth of Field Depth of field refers to the range of distance that appears acceptably sharp.
  38. 38. Depth of Field "circle of confusion" is used to define how much a point needs to be blurred in order to be perceived as un sharp. When the circle of confusion becomes perceptible to our eyes, this region is said to be outside the depth of field and thus no longer "acceptably sharp."
  39. 39. Depth of Field How to achieve DoF? •Use higher f.no. (Smaller opening of aperture) •Focus the subject at Infinity range (Keep your subject at far distance) •Use short focal length lenses
  40. 40. Depth of Field - Examples
  41. 41. Aspect Ratio The term Aspect Ratio refers to the width of a picture (or screen) in relation to its height. Ratios are expressed in the form "width : height". Width Height
  42. 42. Aspect Ratio 4:3 This is the standard television format. All Television compatible ratio. 4 3
  43. 43. Aspect Ratio 16:9 This format has gained acceptance as the new standard for widescreen TV, DVD and high-definition video. 16 9
  44. 44. Aspect Ratio 21:9 Cinemascope A very wide screen format used for theatrical release movies. 21 9
  45. 45. Converting Aspect Ratio 16:9 4:3 21:9
  46. 46. Lens Hood To avoid unwanted entry of light (Glare) Lens Hood is used. Made up of black colored plates.
  47. 47. Lens Cap To protect lens from dust, moistures, finger marks, etc.,
  48. 48. View Finder with Eye cup •Its electronic view finder, some camera has b&w & some color view finder. •This has eye piece correction. •Eye cup is used to rest our eye on it.
  49. 49. LCD Screen To compose the subject in large finder. Tilt able during high angle & low angle shot. Useful for playback option.
  50. 50. Zoom In/Out Peddle To achieve smooth Zoom in and Zoom out. Fore finger holds Wide mode. Middle finger holds Tele mode.
  51. 51. Video Cassette Loading Chamber VHS, SVHS, Beta, Digi Beta, Umatic, Mini DV, DVCAM & HDV format tapes are used it video cameras. Now the Video contents are stored as a data in a memory card & Hard disk.
  52. 52. Menu Options With this button we can manually set the camera settings. It have various functions. Once you press the Menu button the menu will open in LCD Screen and use the scroll bar or touch screen to access it.
  53. 53. Camera & VCR Mode In Camera mode its ready to record on tape or memory card. In VCR mode its ready to play back the recorded content.
  54. 54. Audio Controls To control the in-built microphone and the input microphone through XLR input. Selecting the channels & leveling.
  55. 55. AV Connectivity Through this Audio/Video ports we can connect the camera directly to TV or use it for direct composite capturing. It has remote connectivity to operate camera in tripod handle & Rigs.
  56. 56. Power Supply An external rechargeable battery will be used for power supply. There will be a DC power adapter connectivity also available near the battery.
  57. 57. Now its your turn. Any Questions? Ebenezer Annadoss Assistant Professor – Department of Visual Communication Shri Shankarlal Sundarbai Shasun Jain College for Women ebenezerannadoss@gmail.com

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