Performance Appraisal Seminar 2009


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Performance Appraisal Seminar 2009

  1. 1. Performance Evaluation for Department Supervisors and Mid-Level Managers The Executive Suite Warren J. Rutherford
  2. 2. Seminar Objectives <ul><li>Review the reasons to perform supervisory evaluations, </li></ul><ul><li>Identify evaluation prerequisites, </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate various evaluation models, </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss training and communication requirements, and </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate linking an evaluation to corporate retention, advancement, and compensation systems. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Performance Evaluation and Performance Appraisal <ul><li>Terms are often used interchangeably. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – to determine the significance or worth of, usually by careful appraisal and study. </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal – to evaluate the worth, significance, or status of. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Evaluation Essentials <ul><li>Understand the reasons why performance evaluations often fail, </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to perform an evaluation, </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the elements to evaluation (preparation, interview, rating, follow-up), </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the evaluation cycle, and </li></ul><ul><li>How to link performance to retention, advancement, and compensation decisions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Seminar Expectations <ul><li>Participants will learn to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the precursors to performance evaluation (goal & objective setting, communication, objectivity, training, supervisory and staff support, clarity of mission, and realistic expectations), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures to regularly evaluate the performance evaluation program itself </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why Conduct Performance Evaluations <ul><li>Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information & feedback about supervisor job performance to the supervisor, evaluator, & executive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to retaining supervisors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase and enhance communication between evaluator and supervisor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the evaluator & supervisor a means to discuss the supervisor’s job duties & responsibilities along with work circumstances and the work environment. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why Conduct Performance Evaluations <ul><li>Measurement of performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to measure performance in relation to agreed goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the supervisor’s job performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point out areas of acceptable and/or outstanding work performance. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Why Conduct Performance Evaluations <ul><li>Improvement and training needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify areas that need improvement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine training needs for work unit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate job duties & outline specific objectives and the means to achieve them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervisor development : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop supervisors for higher levels and more responsible positions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To determine the level of compensation adjustment, if applicable. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prerequisites to Effective Evaluation <ul><li>Understand evaluator bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bias is the inaccurate distortion of a measurement caused when evaluator fails to remain emotionally detached while supervisor performance is evaluated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Biases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central tendency – Giving everyone the same average rating or avoiding extremes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leniency – Avoiding low ratings to avoid conflict or create a bad reflection on the evaluator. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halo effect – High or low rating in one area influencing the whole rating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recency – Focusing on most recent examples rather than across entire rating period. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Prerequisites to Effective Evaluation <ul><li>Understand evaluator bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Biases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constancy – Rank ordering supervisors rather than measuring their performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal prejudice – Evaluator’s dislike for a certain group or class of people (race, age, culture, sex, appearance) may distort the ratings those people receive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Length of service – Giving higher ratings to those with greatest length of service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previous ratings influence – Repeating the last rating instead of looking at the actual performance during the rating period. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal relationship conflict – Letting a personal relationship with the supervisor influence the appraisal. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Prerequisites to Effective Evaluation <ul><li>Observing and documenting supervisor performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose – To record and communicate a supervisor’s work performance during the rating period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be accurate – use as a memory jogger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Document facts, not opinions – open-minded, objective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on memory – write down, use standard form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent – Observe, document, communicate to all supervisors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate and document positive and negative supervisor performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation should describe supervisor behavior not his/her attitude – Be specific, point out specific performance incidents . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Prerequisites to Effective Evaluation <ul><li>Provide Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate to supervisor at the time something positive or negative occurs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure supervisor understands the feedback, explain carefully. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show respect for the supervisor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Listen carefully to the supervisor’s explanation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show you understand the supervisor’s point of view. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the feedback is accurate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct meetings during the year (quarterly) to review progress and provide feedback; both evaluator and supervisor should document. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Performance Evaluation Models <ul><li>Formal appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>360° </li></ul><ul><li>Self – Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Competency-based appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Team/Work Unit appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Combinations of the above </li></ul><ul><li>Linkages to merit pay, wage adjustments, compensation matrices, bonus, incentive pay, or innovation pay </li></ul>
  14. 14. Performance Evaluation – Formal Appraisal Process <ul><li>Supervisor evaluated at established intervals (2x year). </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluator is a superior to supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Common to all models: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating-based across different categories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each category may be point-scored and/or weighted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final result is numerical, tied to performance grid. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Performance Evaluation – 360° Appraisal Program <ul><li>Supervisor performs self-evaluation AND is also evaluated by subordinate(s) and superior(s). </li></ul><ul><li>May/may not be anonymous. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on teamwork to overcome wounded egos. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor critically reviews evaluation comments, prepares performance improvement plan, discusses confidentially with superior(s). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Performance Evaluation – Self Appraisal Process <ul><li>Supervisor completes self-appraisal form requesting honest, objective assessment of performance during performance period. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized most frequently as part of a formal, 360°, or team-based appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables supervisor to reflect on performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables superior to understand the supervisor’s point of reference. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Performance Evaluation – Team/Work Unit appraisal <ul><li>Work Unit (department, division, section, team) evaluates performance for period under review. </li></ul><ul><li>Each member of work unit completes appraisal form that links to unit goals, objectives, strategies for performance period. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit performance results shared equally with all employees in unit. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Performance Evaluation – Competency-based <ul><li>Rewards superior performance that is linked to organizational goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies for individual jobs tied to performance measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually limited to supervisory, management, and professional group. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on better performance & career development. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on job description to develop competencies for development. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Commonly Shared Evaluation Categories <ul><li>Goals, Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Duties </li></ul><ul><li>Training/Support Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of Work </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Job, of Field </li></ul><ul><li>Work Effort/Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Working Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Following Policies & Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation & Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Service </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & Organizing </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul>
  20. 20. Competency Based Sample Categories <ul><li>Establish focus </li></ul><ul><li>Provide motivational support </li></ul><ul><li>Foster teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to communication </li></ul><ul><li>Oral, written, & persuasive communication </li></ul><ul><li>Customer, entrepreneurial, & results orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Building collaborative relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Empowering, developing, & influencing others </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical, forward, conceptual, & strategic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughness </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul><ul><li>Technical expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Managing performance </li></ul><ul><li>Managing change </li></ul><ul><li>Personal credibility </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rating Categories <ul><li>Qualitative – Numberless rating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E xceeds Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M eets Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N eeds Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U nsatisfactory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xceeds Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M eets Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B elow Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantitative – Numbered rating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 – Outstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – Above Average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 – Good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 – Below Average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 – Very Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be weighted for different categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be prioritized for different categories </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Purpose of Performance Evaluation <ul><li>Enable joint planning and communication between an supervisor and evaluator on what the supervisor is expected to accomplish during the performance period. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that a supervisor’s performance is evaluated in terms of measurable results as well as how these results are achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish clear and explicit performance goals and meaningful feedback, jointly established by the supervisor and evaluator, that are objective indicators of whether performance objectives are met, in order to maximize performance and customer service. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate ongoing, year-round communication concerning what the supervisor is expected to accomplish, how well s/he is meeting these performance objectives, and what steps need to be taken by both parties to ensure that the objectives are met. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Purpose of Performance Evaluation <ul><li>Identify a plan to promote the supervisor ’s professional development that can include educational and training opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify corrective action that needs to be taken by the supervisor and evaluator in those instances where a supervisor has not accomplished a performance objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the consequences when a supervisor has not accomplished a performance objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a reliable and rational basis for determining pay based upon performance. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Training Requirements <ul><li>Supervisor and evaluator need to be “on the same page.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand purpose of appraisal process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand roles & responsibilities of participants in the appraisal process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand need to schedule sufficient time to fulfill the process effectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice (role-play) the steps in the process in group setting, receive clarification on intent, raise and resolve “what-if” scenarios. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand need for objectivity . </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Evaluation Cycle
  26. 26. The Elements to Evaluation <ul><li>Pre-performance planning meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Signatures and approvals </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for the next performance planning meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Reappraisal period for a “below expectations” appraisal result </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation decision </li></ul>
  27. 27. Evaluation Components <ul><li>Pre-performance Planning Meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review expectations for performance period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss/reach agreement on expectations/standards for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major position duties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major position objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action plans for further professional development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet periodically during performance period to discuss: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actual compared to planned performance expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review and/or make changes necessary to performance plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both parties take notes of coaching sessions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluation Components Appraisal Preparation <ul><li>Evaluator – Assess on preliminary basis: </li></ul><ul><li>Major position duties – rating and comment </li></ul><ul><li>Major position objectives – date completed, rating and comments </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies – rating and comments </li></ul><ul><li>Comments regarding supervisor’s performance during the year </li></ul><ul><li>Overall rating </li></ul><ul><li>Action plans for further professional development – results achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>The supervisor should, using the original documents as adjusted during coaching session(s), conduct a self-appraisal of his/her own performance during the performance period . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Evaluation Components <ul><li>Performance Appraisal Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluator and the supervisor should meet privately to discuss his/her performance using the evaluator’s preliminary evaluation and the supervisor ’s self-appraisal as a basis for the discussion. As a result of this discussion, the evaluator arrives at and documents the final appraisal on the Performance Planning and Appraisal Document . </li></ul><ul><li>Signatures & Approvals </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluator signs and dates completed form, noting any additional comments. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor signs and dates the form, has the opportunity to make comments. </li></ul><ul><li>The supervisor ’s signature confirms that he/she has discussed its contents with the evaluator and does not necessarily imply concurrence with all of the content of the appraisal. </li></ul><ul><li>The form is then referred to the next level of supervision (if any) for signature. </li></ul><ul><li>The form is finally placed on file in the supervisor ’s official record. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Evaluation Components <ul><li>Planning for the next performance planning meeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the process is completed for the current performance period, the evaluator and supervisor should immediately schedule the planning meeting for the next performance period. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reappraisal period for a “below expectations” appraisal result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reappraise within 90 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide to superiors a specific, measurable, and objective corrective action program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek to bring appraisal to at least “Meet Expectations” level. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Linking Results to… <ul><li>Employment decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion, retention, probation, suspension, termination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance-based pay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase, no adjustment, decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational performance </li></ul>
  32. 32. Employment Decisions <ul><li>Promotion – Results assist in qualification review for promotional opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Retention – Results assist in retention decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Probation – Less than satisfactory results could place supervisor on limited probationary status with objective to change performance level to meets expectation level. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspension – Continued performance at a less than satisfactory results could place supervisor on suspension status with objective to change performance level to meets expectation level upon return. </li></ul><ul><li>Termination - Continued performance at a less than satisfactory results could cause the supervisor to be terminated from employment. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Performance-based Pay <ul><li>Merit pay increase (step-based) – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually provided for where a pay range (minimum/maximum) also has intermediary steps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average or better rating enables advancement in grade to next step level (preestablished %-age). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not provide %-age adjustment for those at top of grade range (may also be a lump-sum payment). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually accompanied by annual wage adjustment (COLA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below average rating may not receive merit adjustment and/or annual wage adjustment until performance becomes average. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below average rating may cause step reduction after reappraisal period if performance still below average. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Performance-based Pay <ul><li>Merit pay increase (percent-based) – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually provided for where a pay range is characterized by a minimum – maximum with no intermediary steps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually not accompanied by annual wage adjustment (COLA). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percent increase based on overall performance rating. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percent increase can also be based on supervisor’s present placement in the pay range (higher in range, less %-age merit). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not provide %-age adjustment for those at top of grade range (may also be a lump-sum payment). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below average rating may not receive merit adjustment and/or annual wage adjustment until performance becomes average. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below average rating may cause step reduction after reappraisal period if performance still below average. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Organizational Performance <ul><li>Gain – Sharing pay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires specific and measurable workplan objectives (targets) on organizational and department basis that are tied to core values and workplans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, no more than 50% of funds saved are awarded as gain-sharing pay, other 50% savings eliminated from budgetary process (returned to taxpayers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-funded, no additional funds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay incentive provided to team/work unit where innovation, exemplary results accomplished in unit goals/objectives, or workplan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from savings achieved from innovation – unit members share equally in savings. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Precursors to Evaluation <ul><li>Goal & objective setting – Specific, measurable, & attainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication…….both ways </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity………by both parties </li></ul><ul><li>Training………with both parties present </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisory and staff support – Equip the process with the tools necessary to make it successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of mission – Mutual understanding and agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic expectations – Challenging but possible. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Why Evaluations Often Fail <ul><li>There is no face-to-face discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no preparation by either party. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators do not really know what “performance” is or how it should be appraised. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators don’t know how to measure and/or rate performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal forms are too complicated and/or not understood. </li></ul><ul><li>There is little identification of actual performance problems. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been little communication about performance during the period being appraised. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Why Evaluations Often Fail <ul><li>Evaluators’ ratings have been biased. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been no relationship between the objectives set and the appraisal form. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluators have been concerned only with bad performance.  </li></ul><ul><li>There has been no follow-up effort afterwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal has just been a once-a-year event, not an ongoing process. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no linkage to compensation or other rewards-based program. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Evaluating the Appraisal Program <ul><li>Need to assess effectiveness before it can be improved. </li></ul><ul><li>Build evaluation of the program into the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate new program after it has been implemented in the first year, and every year thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Design the evaluation process to be useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate from 2 perspectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we doing things right? (i.e., are the process and rules being followed?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are we doing the right things? (i.e., what effect does the program have?) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Evaluating the Evaluation Program – Compliance <ul><li>Were appraisals done on time? </li></ul><ul><li>Did everyone who was supposed to receive an appraisal get one? </li></ul><ul><li>Were supervisory performance plans issued timely? </li></ul><ul><li>Were progress reviews conducted? </li></ul><ul><li>Does senior management devote appropriate resources and give priority to the effective maintenance and operation of the performance appraisal program? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Evaluating the Evaluation Program –Effect <ul><li>Are the stated objectives of the appraisal program being met? </li></ul><ul><li>Are supervisors and evaluators satisfied with the equity, utility, accuracy, etc. of the program? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the benefits of the program outweigh the costs? </li></ul><ul><li>Has there been an improvement in supervisor, unit, or organizational performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Has the attitude or the behavior of supervisors and/or evaluators changed as desired? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there signs of different treatment in the results of the performance appraisal processes? </li></ul><ul><li>Has there been an improvement in the efficiency or the effectiveness of related human resource programs? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Evaluating the Evaluation Program – Checklist <ul><li>Is it possible to gather information about the question raised? If not, don’t bother trying to answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there only one possible answer to the question? Answer should not be predetermined or loaded by the phrasing of the question. </li></ul><ul><li>Do decision-makers feel they need the information? If no one will use the results, don’t gather the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Do decision-makers want the answers to the question for themselves? Evaluation results are more useful when the information is desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Can decision-makers indicate how they would use the answer to the question? Knowing in advance how the evaluation information will be used increases the chance that the evaluation results will be utilized. </li></ul>
  43. 43. For more information, contact: <ul><li>Warren J. Rutherford </li></ul><ul><li>The Executive Suite </li></ul><ul><li>129 Airport Road </li></ul><ul><li>Hyannis, MA 02601 </li></ul><ul><li>508-778-7700 </li></ul><ul><li>508-771-1119 f </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>