2. Outline Power & Power Power & Knowledge Knowledge on Education«I have spoken and saved my soul» K. Marx«It seems to me that the real political task in a society such as ours isto criticize the workings of institutions that appear to beboth neutral and independent; to criticize and attack them in such a mannerthat political violence has always exercised itself obscurely through themwill be unmasked so that one can fight against them.» M. Foucault
4. POWER SOVEREIGNITY POWER PURELY COERCIVE using force to persuade Deployed by CONCENTRATED POSSESSED people to do things which they are unwilling to do some Agents
5. ...you cant prevent me from believing that these notions of human nature, of justice, of the realisation of the essence of human beings, are all notions and concepts which have been formed within our civilisation, within our type of knowledge and our form of philosophy, and that as a result form part ofFoucault – Chomsky on Justice our class system...
6. Liberal/ Marxist vs. Foucaldian Liberal/ 1. Power is possessed at Marxist different levels or strata of the society. 2. Power is always exercised from top to bottom. 3. Power is always repressive.
7. Foucault believes that:1. Power is everwhere and comes fromeverywhere and even in routine everyday lives.2. Power is exercised both from bottom- upand from top- buttom.3. It is not only negative or in macro- level butalso it is in micro- levels and necessary andproductive, and it is even a positive force in thesociety.4. Power imposed on human activity is neither POWERan agency nor a structure, in fact it is diffused,embodied or enacted, discursive, and itconstitutes agents indeed. THIS IS DISCIPLINARY POWER.
8. Techniques of Regulating Power Normalization Classification Surveillance‘We are in the society of teacher- judge,the doctor- judge, the educator- judge…he may find himself subjecting to it his body,his gestures, his behavior,his aptitudes, his achievements.’ Bentham’s Panopticon
9. Disciplinary PowerAs an example to this disciplinary power, in terms of power in educational settings:• Students are segmented into precisely timed classes.• The arrangement of many classrooms remains rigidly hierarchial: students face forward, arrayed before an authority figure who stands at the front of the room, and who is usually addressed formally (as in "Mr. So-and- So, may I use the bathroom please?").• The testing procedures used by many teachers reinforce rote styles of learning and retention, where facts are privileged over concepts, and where kids are taught more for the nationally standardized tests than for intellectual nourishment.
10. Foucault believes that:1. Power is everwhere and comes fromeverywhere and even in routine everyday lives.2. Power is exercised both from bottom- upand from top- buttom.3. It is not only negative or in macro- level butalso it is in micro- levels and necessary andproductive, and it is even a positive force in thesociety.4. Power imposed on human activity is neither POWERan agency nor a structure, in fact it is diffused,embodied or enacted, discursive, and itconstitutes agents indeed. THIS IS DISCIPLINARY POWER.
11. Power & KnowledgeAccording to Foucault, power is knowledge and knowledge is power.
12. Think about the doctors/ teachers etc.These truths are the results of historical processes: scientific developments/discourse and institutions such as schools, hospitals, the media, the political oreconomical ideologies. Therefore there is no absolute truth or universaltruth (value) but critique can produce truths which are relative to thecontemporary society. It is specific and power is attached to the truein this sense.
13. Power- Knowledge & Curriculum Relativism/Truth and the Curriculum Moral RelativismMoral systems vary across cultures, historical periods, different people within thesame culture. Even if most societies or every society shared the same moral belief,that does not necessarily prove any moral absolutes. They might be all wrong. Conseptual RelativismThought, belief, and knowledge systems are embedded in particular socialarrangements, which cannot be changed through individual willpower, butnevertheless do not persist over timen and are different in different cultures. Perceptual RelativismRemember Whorf «we dissect nature along lines laid down by our nativelanguage.» Truth RelativismNo universal absolutes embedded in logic or rationality.Opposed to Hirst’s ideas on making distinctions between disciplines according totheir particular concepts and including them at that way.
14. POWER- KNOWLEDGE & CURRICULUM Foucault and Education Foucault and the Examination
15. Foucault and Education‘Take, for example, an educational institution:the disposal of its space, the meticulousregulations which govern its internal life, thedifferent activities which are organized there,the diverse persons who live there or meetone another, each with his own function, hiswell-defined character. The activity whichensures apprenticeship and the acquisition ofaptitudes or types of behavior is developedthere by means of a whole ensemble ofregulated communications (lessons, questionsand answers, orders, exhortations, coded signsof obedience, differentiation marks of the"value" of each person and of the levels ofknowledge) and by the means of a wholeseries of power processes (enclosure,surveillance, reward and punishment, thepyramidal hierarchy).’
16. • A progressive mechanism for combatting nepotism, favouritism, arbitrariness, for contributing to a more efficient society,• A reliable and valid way to choosing the appropriate members of a population for imporatant roles in the society.
17. Foucault and the Examination«(The examination) combines the techniques of observinghierarchy and those of a normalizing judgment. It is anormalizing gaze, a surveillance that makes it possible to qualify,to classify and to punish. It establishes over individuals avisibility through which one differentiates them and judgesthem.»
18. Any Qs?What’s Your Message?28th of March, 2012