Many people are either bilingual or multilingual.
We hear different languages in media on webpages on walls etc.
• Guarani isspoken by % 90of its populationBUT it is usedwith friends orpoor people etc.• Spanish is theofficial languageof the countrywith its % 7 ofspeakers BUTspoken ingovernment andit is the languageof instruction.
Many people are either bilingual or multilingual.Minority Majoritylanguages languages • in the private domain • on formal occasions: government, business or with foreigners • at schools • at work 6
Edward (2004) says: “ Schools play a central role in the socialization of the children and embody the values of the dominant group.” UNESCO (2003) suggests:” “ a careful balance needs to be made between enabling people to use local languages in learning and providing access to global languages of the communication.” DO YOU AGREE?? 7
•In the earlyyears ofeducation in USthe use ofmother tonguewas tolerated;the language ofthe instructionwas thelanguage of thecommunity. 8
In 1879, inPennsylvania, in anattempt to accelerateassimilation; the useof English wasseverely imposed.By the end of thecentury, Englishbecame lingua francaand the only languagetolerated in theclassrooms. 9
• In Scotland; ahanging stick to theones caught speakingGaelic in theclassroom,• In Wales; a woodenblock hung aroundneck to the onesspeaking Welsh in theclassroom,• In Ireland; hangingsticks to the onesspeaking Irish in theclassroom. 10
During WW I, in various Australian states theuse of other languages other than English isbanned. 11
What is the difference between FLTand Bilingual Education at schools? The goal of FLT is to learn additional language but the goals of bilingual education is as follows (Ferguson et al., 1977): to assimilate individuals and socialize people for full participation, to bring unity to multilingual society, to enable people to communicate with the outside world to mediate between different political & linguistic communities, to give equal status to languages of unequal status, to deepen an understanding of language and culture, 12
As the World Bank (2004) points out: Fifty percent of the world’s out of school children live in communitieswhere the language of the schooling is rarely, if ever, used at home.This underscores the biggest challenge to achieving Education for All(EFA): a legacy of non-productive practices that lead to low levels oflearning and high levels of dropout and repetition. 13
Every language reflects a unique world view and culture mirroring the manner in which a speech community has resolved its problems in dealing with the world, and has formulated its thinking, its system of philosophy and understanding of the world around it. With the death of the language, an irreplaceable unit of our knowledge and understanding of human thought and world view has been lost forever. (Wurm 1991, 17) 14
A Child uses his native language only until he becomes fluent in the target language which is most often the language of the state. Applied generally in US:He star ts with his native language.Language of the state Words are for Las palabras helping. son para ayudar. 16
According to Villarreal (1999),∑ the main aim of this programme is to increase the use of majority language in the classroom while decreasing the home language of the minorities.∑ to increase mastery of concepts in maths and social studies her content areas since they are taught in home language. Language of For To get ready for Instruction Early exit- Bilingual 2 years % 100 Submersion teachers programmes Late exit- Bilingual 6 years %40 Submersion teachers programmes 17
Even though TBE seems to stands for building on the strengths of home language and culture, it is also based on the view of the superiority of majority language and culture.A school context in El Paso where:Teachers speak both English & SpanishHeadmasters & Assistants speak only English DOES THIS SEEM OKEY?(majority language).Cook & Servants speak only Spanish. 19
Language majority children are taught exclusively in the language that they are trying to acquire. A good example: ODTUThe immersion programmes may be foreign (e.g. English immersion in Austria or Hungary) or heritage (e.g. Gaelic or Welsh immersion in Scotland and Wales respectively) or community reflecting new communities settled in particular countries (e.g. French, Japanese, Indonesian, or Mandarin immersion in Australia, or Korean, Japanese or Russian immersion programme in USA) 20
Immersion programmes serve not only to educate learners but to fulfill other reason which is that they serve as a means of strengthening national unity by establishing a bilingual Canadian identity !! 21
There are two strong reasons behind this idea, one of them iswaves of immigration to Australia, the other one is for economicreasons based on the fact that Australians could get benefit fromits geographical closeness to Asia. 22
All children are required to master two languages, Spanish and Catalan,until the end of their primary school.• to respect language rightsof Catalan pupils and• to integrate them bymaking Catalan culture andlanguage their education; 23
In Scotland, Gaelic-medium education isprovided to have afundamental role in helpingto preserve andreinvigorate the GaelicSpeech community inScotland and same is beingapplied in Ireland for Irishand in Wales for Welsh 24
Children start school at five throughthe medium of Luxembourgishand German is initially a subject inthe curriculum and then becomes themedium of instruction. By the end ofGrade 6, French is introduced andincreasingly used in as the mainteaching medium. Therefore at the endof schooling, most students have aworking knowledge of three languages 25
The early immersion from the start of primary schooling or in pre- primary education.The delayed models adolescent learners at secondary schools.late programmes adults. 26
This strong form of bilingual educationoccurs where language minority children usetheir native, ethnic, home or heritagelanguage in the school as a medium ofinstruction with the goal of full- bilingualism. 27
Children easily transfer ideas, concepts, skills, and knowledge into the majority language. A minority language is easily lost. number of teachers of each language, their qualifications and interests, the instructional materials, the parents’ wishes, the community’s sociolinguistic profile and that of the students. 28