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Post-colonialism

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Baylis, Smith & Owens
The Globalization of World Politics 5e
Chapter 11
Post-colonialism
Post-colonial thinking breaks into International
Relations…
• 1990s - End of Cold War, and failure of mainstream theories to
predict this, opens the door for critical theories including
feminism and post-colonialism.
• ‘Bottom-up’ approach used by post-colonialism in stark contrast
to ‘state-down.’
• Fiction, poetry and memoir - relied on heavily by post-colonialists
to analyze culture. This is a lens through which world politics is
then viewed.
Former colonies in International Relations
• Decolonization began with Woodrow Wilson and the
League of Nations…
• …Was interrupted by World War Two….
• …Continued apace after 1945…
• …And culminated with the end of the Cold War.
‘Developing’, ‘Third World’, or ‘Global
North/South’?
• Post-colonial theorists challenge the idea of
linear ‘development’ and the language
associated with this.
• The Non-aligned movement: former colonies
delineate their independence.
• The Tri-continental Conference: Che Guevara
speaks.
• Oil:1973, OPEC asserts its power.
Revising history, filling the gaps…
• 1980’s India: subaltern studies takes shape by
moving away from Western analysis of
subjects.
• Original fiction and memoir allow the
subalterns own voice to be heard, e.g Ngugi
wa Thiong’o, Chenjerai Hove, Ho Chi Minh
and Chinua Achebe.
…But can the subaltern speak?
• Giyatri Spivak invokes intense debate by suggesting
that ‘the subaltern’ will always be presented through
the language and lens of the Western scholar.
• Does ‘the West’ always, then, remain the central
focal point of any subaltern studies?
• ‘World-Travelling’ attempts to overcome this
problem.

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Post-colonialism

  • 1. Baylis, Smith & Owens The Globalization of World Politics 5e Chapter 11 Post-colonialism
  • 2. Post-colonial thinking breaks into International Relations… • 1990s - End of Cold War, and failure of mainstream theories to predict this, opens the door for critical theories including feminism and post-colonialism. • ‘Bottom-up’ approach used by post-colonialism in stark contrast to ‘state-down.’ • Fiction, poetry and memoir - relied on heavily by post-colonialists to analyze culture. This is a lens through which world politics is then viewed.
  • 3. Former colonies in International Relations • Decolonization began with Woodrow Wilson and the League of Nations… • …Was interrupted by World War Two…. • …Continued apace after 1945… • …And culminated with the end of the Cold War.
  • 4. ‘Developing’, ‘Third World’, or ‘Global North/South’? • Post-colonial theorists challenge the idea of linear ‘development’ and the language associated with this. • The Non-aligned movement: former colonies delineate their independence. • The Tri-continental Conference: Che Guevara speaks. • Oil:1973, OPEC asserts its power.
  • 5. Revising history, filling the gaps… • 1980’s India: subaltern studies takes shape by moving away from Western analysis of subjects. • Original fiction and memoir allow the subalterns own voice to be heard, e.g Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Chenjerai Hove, Ho Chi Minh and Chinua Achebe.
  • 6. …But can the subaltern speak? • Giyatri Spivak invokes intense debate by suggesting that ‘the subaltern’ will always be presented through the language and lens of the Western scholar. • Does ‘the West’ always, then, remain the central focal point of any subaltern studies? • ‘World-Travelling’ attempts to overcome this problem.
  • 7. Becoming postcolonial • FRANZ FANON: The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin, White Masks. - Focus on the power of colonial discourses to colonize the minds of all involved. - ‘Culture’ must be reshaped in order for formal independence to result in an altered national consciousness.
  • 8. Becoming postcolonial cont… • Edward Said: Orientalism, an eponymous work which some credit as pre-dating subaltern studies in India as the beginning of post-colonialist theory. - An extremely contentious and divisive topic. - Some charge that Said delineates sharp and incompatible lines between ‘the west’ and ‘the east’.
  • 9. Conclusions • Post-colonialism is not a branch of international relations theory; it challenges the basis upon which such theory exists. • Former colonies, and the culture within them, are put front and centre by post-colonialism. • Feminism, post-structuralism and development studies are integral to post-colonialism. • Heavy use of memoir, literature and ‘the arts’ to study the subaltern subject.
  • 10. Case study Zimbabwe: a post-colonial dilemma in International Relations