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  • 1. THE POLITICS OFAMERICAN EDUCATION<br />Megin Holt<br />Jon Rashid, <br />Dan Young, <br />Pat Murphy<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 2. What Forces Influence School Governance and Finance?<br />Governance: The process of making financial and other decisions<br /> What do you think public schools should<br />use more funds on, and why? <br />Sex education? <br />Violence in schools? <br />Teen drug use?<br />Making schools more energy efficient <br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 3. What Forces Influence School Governance and Finance?<br />Stakeholders in Education: Stakeholders are people and agencies with a particular interest in schools<br /><ul><li>Political Interest Groups
  • 4. Business and Industry
  • 5. Professional Organizations and Teachers
  • 6. Parents, Students, and Community Groups</li></ul>The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 7. How is Education Governed?<br />The three branches of government influence the governance and finance of education <br />Executive<br />Legislative<br />Judicial<br />Roles of the Federal Government in Education<br />The U.S. Constitution<br />Federal Legislation<br />Influence of the Executive branch<br />Legislative<br />Judicial<br />Executive<br />
  • 8. State Government<br />Board of Education<br />Strengthens state leadership and policy making<br />Promote excellence in education to all students<br />Advocates equality of access to educational opportunity <br />Ensures continued citizen support for public education<br />State Standards Boards<br />Responsible for the governance and regulation of professional practice<br />Department of Education<br />Implements policies that effect education in each state<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 9. Intermediate Education Agencies<br />Intermediate Educational Units<br />Designed to provide services that individual districts that might not be able to afford it on their own<br />Promotes inter-district collaboration<br />Council of Chief State School Officers<br />Comprised of state commissioners and superintendents <br />Provides a forum for interstate discussion and information exchange on educational advances and issues<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 10. Local Government<br />Local Educational Agencies<br />School districts<br />Local Boards of Education<br />Group of people elected by people to make decisions for the school district <br />Must stay within State DOE standards<br />Superintendent<br />Works closely with BOE<br />Serves as the face of the school district<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 11. School Accountability<br />Everyone from the boards of education, superintendents, principals, teachers to students is held accountable.<br />No Child Left Behind<br /><ul><li>Schools and districts must meet state standards by 2014
  • 12. Schools and districts issue school accountability report cards available to parents</li></ul> and the community<br />Teacher Accountability<br /><ul><li>Teachers are accountable for student learning
  • 13. Performance pay – bonuses or raises based</li></ul> on student achievement<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 14. Governance and Administrationof Schools<br />Administration<br />Management of school affairs, puts into place the policies set by state legislation and state and local boards of education<br />Principals<br />Responsible for management at the school level<br />Set school direction, build staff morale, leadership<br />School-Based Management (SBM)<br />Governance process where the people affected<br /> by decisions are involved in making them<br />School Advisory Council (SAC)<br />Membership of school and community stakeholders who make decisions and recommendations regarding school operations<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 15. Funding Education<br />Total expenditure for public elementary and secondary education is $489.4 billion annually, which comes to $9,969 for one student per year.<br />Federal Support and Mandates<br /><ul><li>Categorical grants – federal government support through specific legislation designed to help particular groups of students (e.g. Head Start)
  • 16. Recipients of federal funding must comply with all federal regulations</li></ul>State Funding<br /><ul><li>Sales tax, income tax, inheritance tax, various license and occupation fees, and state lotteries
  • 17. Flat grants – equal funding based on the districts average daily attendance
  • 18. Foundation grants – funding based on property values, inversely related to community wealth </li></ul>The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 19. Funding Education<br />Local Funding<br />Property tax, based on assessed value of real estate<br /> - Reliable, steady source of revenue<br /> - Inequity between districts<br />Private Funding<br />Foundations provide support through grants and other private funds<br />Targeted to reforming education with an emphasis on urban, minority, and special education<br /> - Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation<br /> - Annenberg Foundation<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 20. Issues of Governance and Finance<br />Federal vs. State Control<br /> Who do American believe should have the greatest influence over what is taught in public school?<br />    <br />Decisions to be made: What is best for students and what should they learn?<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 21.    Financing Education<br />Funding Equity: the unequal ability of school districts to pay for quality education<br />Is using property tax to support education fair?<br />Privatization of public schools<br />The Politics of American Education<br />
  • 22.    Why Important To Us, As Teachers?<br />Informed Professional Participation<br />Accountability<br />Teacher Empowerment<br />The Politics of American Education<br />

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