 To investigate and explore the proliferation of
actors and institutions and multi-actor partnership in
environmental gov...
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Multi-Actor Partnership for Environmental Governance - An Investigation from the Perspective of Bangladesh


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Multi-Actor Partnership for Environmental Governance - An Investigation from the Perspective of Bangladesh

  1. 1.  To investigate and explore the proliferation of actors and institutions and multi-actor partnership in environmental governance regime . Multi-Actor Partnership for Environmental Governance: An Investigation from the Perspective of Bangladesh Shahadat Hossain Shakil (ID: 9297731) Environmental Governance, The University of Manchester  Since the World War-II there has been a revolution of non-state actors (i.e. NGO, Community and Market) for governing various socio-economic and environmental problems in parallel with the ‘government’. This is because of shrinking state capacity to address all the demands and neoliberal ideas of privatization for better governance (Jordan et al. 2003; Biermann and Pattberg 2008). In environmental governance theory this shift has been termed as ‘government’ to ‘governance’ (Newell et al. 2012).  In the context of growing pollution from industries, limited state capacity to provide sufficient services and for multi-scalar problem like climate change; this proliferation of actors/institutions at different scales and partnership/interaction within them is being crucial (Evans 2012). These actors are forming networks within and across the scale and amalgamating (Figure 1) for the sake of their own interest and to achieve ‘environmental objective’ as a whole (Agarwal and Lemos, 2006;2007)  Bangladesh as a developing country is facing tremendous pollution from its growing industrial sector. It will face the impact of climate change to the highest degree in near future. Bangladesh is also lagging behind largely in providing energy to its rural areas within the face of competing demand from the rising industrial sector as well as increasing demand for irrigation in the agricultural sector.  Historically government of Bangladesh and other civic organizations (NGOs) are working in conjugation to cope with the natural disasters like cyclone, flood etc. Government also partnered with private sector to reduce the level of pollution from industries (tannery) as well as to achieve countries mitigation objectives (CDM). Private sector and NGOs on the other hand are working together to achieve more environmental sustainable image (green business) and to fill the gap in service provision (solar energy). Partnerships among these actors happen due to address and complement state or peoples limited capacity in terms of outreach or resource and also to achieve their own interest while prioritize environment and development. Considering the model provided by the Agarwal and Lemos (2007) as the theoretical basis, it has been reproduced and modified for the context of Bangladesh (Figure 2). iii. Civic-Private Partnership Improving Kiln Efficiency in the Brick Making Industry in Bangladesh; Partners: Brick Industries, IIDFC, Different Foreign Buyers of Carbon Credit, World Bank, UNDP; (Hossain and Abdullah 2012; Darain et al. 2013). 1. Background Government Civic Society (NGO, Community) Private Sector (Industries) Integrated Governance Civic-Private Partnership [i.e. Improving Kiln Efficiency of the Brick Industry (IIDFC); Improved Cooking Stove (Grameen Shakti)] 2. Research Aim  To explore the evolution of actors and form of multi-partnership in the context of Bangladesh for governing the environment.  To assess the three major forms of partnership in quest of integrated governance within the framework of Bangladesh. 3. Research Objectives 4. Case Studies  This study will first develop a theoretical framework regarding proliferation of actors and partnership in the arena of global environmental governance. Then utilizing that analytical lens, evolution of actors and partnership alongside with the government in Bangladesh will be explored. Then utilizing three separate case studies major three forms of multi-partnership for environmental governance will be analyzed. All three forms of partnership will be then evaluated with respect to some common criteria to answer the question – whether distinct form of partnership or integrated governance is better solution to address the environmental challenges in Bangladesh. Evaluation criteria are still under research and will be finalized through rigorous literature review of the following domains – institutions, actors and environment, proliferation of actors in environmental governance, political economy. 5. Methodology Multi-actor Partnership for Environmental Governance Agrawal, A. and Lemos, M.C. (2007). A Greener Revolution in the Making?: Environmental Governance in the 21st Century. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 49(5), pp.36–45. Agrawal, A. and Lemos, M.C. (2006). Environmental Governance. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31(1), pp.297–325. Biermann, F. and Pattberg, P. (2008). Global Environmental Governance: Taking Stock, Moving Forward. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33(1), pp.277–294. Evans, J.P. (2012). Environmental Governance. 1st ed. Oxon: Routledge. Jordan, A., Wurzel, R.K.W. and Zito, A.R. (2003). ‘New’ Instruments of Environmental Governance: Patterns and Pathways of Change. Environmental Politics, 12(1), pp.1–24. Newell, P., Pattberg, P. and Schroeder, H. (2012). Multiactor Governance and the Environment. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37(1), pp.365–387. Coastal Afforestation Program Ahammad, R., Hossain, M.K. and Husnain, P. (2014). Governance of forest Conservation and Co-benefits for Bangladesh Under Changing Climate. Journal of Forestry Research, 25(1), pp.29–36. Rawlani, A.K. and Sovacool, B.K. (2011). Building Responsiveness to Climate Change through Community Based Adaptation in Bangladesh. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16(8), pp.845– 863. Relocation of Leather Processing Industry Bhowmik, A.K. (2012). Environmental Sustainability vs. Political Decision: A Review of the Bangladesh Leather Processing Industry Relocation Plan. In 2nd World Sustainability Forum. Basel, Switzerland: MDPI. Bhowmik, A.K. (2013). Industries’ Location as Jeopardy for Sustainable Urban Development in Asia: A Review of the Bangladesh Leather Processing Industry Relocation Plan. Environment and Urbanization Asia, 4(1), pp.93–119. Improving Kiln Efficiency in the Brick Making Industry Darain, K.M. et al. (2013). Brick Manufacturing Practice in Bangladesh: A Review of Energy Efficacy and Air Pollution Scenarios. Journal of Hydrology and Environment Research, 1(1), pp.60–69. Hossain, M. and Abdullah, A.M. (2012). Securing the Environment: Potentiality of Green Brick in Bangladesh. BUP Journal, 1(1), pp.79–89.  Studies regarding environmental governance in Bangladesh are still its infancy. This study will shed the light about the basic framework of partnership of the institutional interactions. Through exploring three prominent cases/projects this research will investigate the suitable amalgamation among the actors needed to address the multi-faced environmental problems in Bangladesh. 6. Research Gap 7. References State Community Market Multi-partner Governance Public-Social Partnership (i.e. payments for ecosystem services, carbon sequestration or ecotourism) Figure 1: Multi-actor Partnership for Environmental Governance Source: Agrawal and Lemos (2007) i. Co-Management: Community based Adaptation to Climate Change through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh; Partners: Local Community, MoEF, UNDP, GEF; (Rawlani and Sovacool 2011; Ahammad et al. 2014). ii. Public-Private Partnership: Relocation Plan of Bangladesh Leather Processing Industry; Partners: BSCIC, BTA, Workers; (Bhowmik 2012; 2013). Figure-2: Multi-partner Governance Framework of Bangladesh Source: Author (based on : Agrawal and Lemos, 2007)