Multi-Actor Partnership for Environmental Governance - An Investigation from the Perspective of Bangladesh
To investigate and explore the proliferation of
actors and institutions and multi-actor partnership in
environmental governance regime .
Multi-Actor Partnership for Environmental Governance: An Investigation from the Perspective of Bangladesh
Shahadat Hossain Shakil (ID: 9297731)
Environmental Governance, The University of Manchester
Since the World War-II there has been a revolution
of non-state actors (i.e. NGO, Community and
Market) for governing various socio-economic and
environmental problems in parallel with the
‘government’. This is because of shrinking state
capacity to address all the demands and neoliberal
ideas of privatization for better governance (Jordan
et al. 2003; Biermann and Pattberg 2008). In
environmental governance theory this shift has been
termed as ‘government’ to ‘governance’ (Newell et
In the context of growing pollution from industries,
limited state capacity to provide sufficient services
and for multi-scalar problem like climate change; this
proliferation of actors/institutions at different scales
and partnership/interaction within them is being
crucial (Evans 2012). These actors are forming
networks within and across the scale and
amalgamating (Figure 1) for the sake of their own
interest and to achieve ‘environmental objective’ as a
whole (Agarwal and Lemos, 2006;2007)
Bangladesh as a developing country is facing
tremendous pollution from its growing industrial
sector. It will face the impact of climate change to the
highest degree in near future. Bangladesh is also
lagging behind largely in providing energy to its rural
areas within the face of competing demand from the
rising industrial sector as well as increasing demand
for irrigation in the agricultural sector.
Historically government of Bangladesh and other
civic organizations (NGOs) are working in
conjugation to cope with the natural disasters like
cyclone, flood etc. Government also partnered with
private sector to reduce the level of pollution from
industries (tannery) as well as to achieve countries
mitigation objectives (CDM). Private sector and
NGOs on the other hand are working together to
achieve more environmental sustainable image
(green business) and to fill the gap in service
provision (solar energy). Partnerships among these
actors happen due to address and complement state
or peoples limited capacity in terms of outreach or
resource and also to achieve their own interest while
prioritize environment and development. Considering
the model provided by the Agarwal and Lemos
(2007) as the theoretical basis, it has been
reproduced and modified for the context of
Bangladesh (Figure 2).
iii. Civic-Private Partnership
Improving Kiln Efficiency in the Brick Making Industry
in Bangladesh; Partners: Brick Industries, IIDFC,
Different Foreign Buyers of Carbon Credit, World
Bank, UNDP; (Hossain and Abdullah 2012; Darain et
[i.e. Improving Kiln Efficiency of the
Brick Industry (IIDFC); Improved
Cooking Stove (Grameen Shakti)]
2. Research Aim
To explore the evolution of actors and form of
multi-partnership in the context of Bangladesh for
governing the environment.
To assess the three major forms of partnership in
quest of integrated governance within the framework
3. Research Objectives
4. Case Studies
This study will first develop a theoretical
framework regarding proliferation of actors and
partnership in the arena of global environmental
governance. Then utilizing that analytical lens,
evolution of actors and partnership alongside with
the government in Bangladesh will be explored. Then
utilizing three separate case studies major three
forms of multi-partnership for environmental
governance will be analyzed. All three forms of
partnership will be then evaluated with respect to
some common criteria to answer the question –
whether distinct form of partnership or integrated
governance is better solution to address the
environmental challenges in Bangladesh. Evaluation
criteria are still under research and will be finalized
through rigorous literature review of the following
domains – institutions, actors and environment,
proliferation of actors in environmental governance,
Multi-actor Partnership for Environmental Governance
Agrawal, A. and Lemos, M.C. (2007). A Greener Revolution in the
Making?: Environmental Governance in the 21st Century. Environment:
Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 49(5), pp.36–45.
Agrawal, A. and Lemos, M.C. (2006). Environmental Governance. Annual
Review of Environment and Resources, 31(1), pp.297–325.
Biermann, F. and Pattberg, P. (2008). Global Environmental Governance:
Taking Stock, Moving Forward. Annual Review of Environment and
Resources, 33(1), pp.277–294.
Evans, J.P. (2012). Environmental Governance. 1st ed. Oxon: Routledge.
Jordan, A., Wurzel, R.K.W. and Zito, A.R. (2003). ‘New’ Instruments of
Environmental Governance: Patterns and Pathways of Change.
Environmental Politics, 12(1), pp.1–24.
Newell, P., Pattberg, P. and Schroeder, H. (2012). Multiactor Governance
and the Environment. Annual Review of Environment and Resources,
Coastal Afforestation Program
Ahammad, R., Hossain, M.K. and Husnain, P. (2014). Governance of
forest Conservation and Co-benefits for Bangladesh Under Changing
Climate. Journal of Forestry Research, 25(1), pp.29–36.
Rawlani, A.K. and Sovacool, B.K. (2011). Building Responsiveness to
Climate Change through Community Based Adaptation in Bangladesh.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16(8), pp.845–
Relocation of Leather Processing Industry
Bhowmik, A.K. (2012). Environmental Sustainability vs. Political Decision:
A Review of the Bangladesh Leather Processing Industry Relocation
Plan. In 2nd World Sustainability Forum. Basel, Switzerland: MDPI.
Bhowmik, A.K. (2013). Industries’ Location as Jeopardy for Sustainable
Urban Development in Asia: A Review of the Bangladesh Leather
Processing Industry Relocation Plan. Environment and Urbanization
Asia, 4(1), pp.93–119.
Improving Kiln Efficiency in the Brick Making Industry
Darain, K.M. et al. (2013). Brick Manufacturing Practice in Bangladesh: A
Review of Energy Efficacy and Air Pollution Scenarios. Journal of
Hydrology and Environment Research, 1(1), pp.60–69.
Hossain, M. and Abdullah, A.M. (2012). Securing the Environment:
Potentiality of Green Brick in Bangladesh. BUP Journal, 1(1), pp.79–89.
Studies regarding environmental governance in
Bangladesh are still its infancy. This study will shed
the light about the basic framework of partnership of
the institutional interactions. Through exploring three
prominent cases/projects this research will
investigate the suitable amalgamation among the
actors needed to address the multi-faced
environmental problems in Bangladesh.
6. Research Gap
(i.e. payments for ecosystem
services, carbon sequestration or
Figure 1: Multi-actor Partnership for Environmental Governance
Source: Agrawal and Lemos (2007) i. Co-Management:
Community based Adaptation to Climate Change
through Coastal Afforestation in Bangladesh;
Partners: Local Community, MoEF, UNDP, GEF;
(Rawlani and Sovacool 2011; Ahammad et al. 2014).
ii. Public-Private Partnership:
Relocation Plan of Bangladesh Leather Processing
Industry; Partners: BSCIC, BTA, Workers; (Bhowmik
Figure-2: Multi-partner Governance Framework of Bangladesh
Source: Author (based on : Agrawal and Lemos, 2007)