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Sea Turtle Expert's Letter to Mexico's President on Net-Driven Mortality

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This letter to Mexico's President is from A. Alonso Aguirre, Executive Director of the Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation. …

This letter to Mexico's President is from A. Alonso Aguirre, Executive Director of the Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation.

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Can Technology and Tourism Sustain Mexico's Sea Turtles? http://nyti.ms/10bjIcH

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  • 1. Smithsonian-Mason School of ConservationVirginia, Estados Unidos de América, a 8 de junio del 2013.Día Mundial de los Océanos.Sr. Presidente Enrique Peña NietoEstados Unidos MexicanosP R E S E N T EAsunto: Mortandad de tortuga caguama por pesca incidentalDistinguido Sr. Presidente Peña Nieto:Me permito escribirle como sudcaliforniano de nacimiento, Director Ejecutivo de la Smithsonian-MasonSchool of Conservation, director del Mason Center for Conservation Studies y Profesor Asociado en elDepartamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Políticas de George Mason University, para externarpreocupación en torno al problema de la captura incidental de tortuga amarilla del Pacífico Norte (Carettacaretta).Su servidor cuenta con amplia experiencia en el tema. He trabajado con tortugas marinas desde 1990 enmuchas partes del mundo y soy experto en salud y enfermedades de tortugas marinas. He dirigido unprograma de conservación de tortugas marinas en EcoHealth Alliance (antes conocido como WildlifeTrust) en varios países. Recibí el grado de Médico Veterinario Zootecnista de la Universidad Autónomadel Estado de México, Maestro en Ciencias y Doctor en Filosofía de Colorado State University.Los objetivos de uno de mis proyectos han sido evaluar la mortalidad regional de tortuga amarilla conmonitoreos sistemáticos en Playa San Lázaro, B.C.S. (índice a largo plazo de 50 km playa) así comodocumentar todos los varamientos y colectar muestras de huesos, hígado, piel y contenido estomacal decarcajes. También trabajamos durante varios años con las tortugas amarillas para determinar su estadode salud a través de rodeos y captura de tortugas vivas tomando muestras de sangre, piel, lesionesincluyendo fibropapilomas e isopos cloacales, y orofaringeos con el fin de analizar su hematología,bioquímicas sanguíneas y análisis parasitarios.Durante más de una década hemos trabajado con pescadores locales, oficiales de gobierno y otrosexpertos en conservación de tortugas amarillas e investigación participativa. Hemos empleado hasta 15embarcaciones de los pescadores para evaluar y comparar la captura de peces dirigida y la capturaincidental de tortugas. Todas estas investigaciones muestran que en Playa San Lázaro se presentancifras exorbitantes de tortugas amarillas varadas (mas de 5000 tortugas varadas en una década querepresenta la cifra más alta documentada a nivel mundial).Con todo el trabajo que tengo como investigador en el área, me he dado a la tarea de seguir el tema enlos medios de comunicación, en particular he leído con atención los comunicados de prensa emitidos porConapesca http://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx/wb/cona/05_de_mayo_de_2013_mazatlan_sin_ el 5 de mayodel presente así como el de la Presidencia de la República http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/articulos-prensa/fortalecen-acciones-para-la-conservacion-y-proteccion-de-la-tortuga-amarilla-en-bcs/ en donde se dicedesconocer las causas de la mortalidad de la tortuga amarilla del Pacífico (Caretta caretta). También, heestado al tanto de las repentinas y diversas hipótesis que se han señalado como posibles causas de lamortandad, y del comité científico que recién se conformó para evaluarlas.Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation1500 Remount RoadFront Royal, VA, 22630Phone: 540.635.0461 | Email: aaguirr3@gmu.edu
  • 2. 2Al respecto quisiera expresarle con toda certeza que en -hasta la fecha no ha habido evidencia científicadel efecto negativo de biotoxinas sobre las tortugas marinas-, y que el proponer nuevas hipótesis nohacen más que reafirmar que los gobiernos federal y estatal están ignorando años deinvestigaciones publicadas en revistas de referencia de alto impacto donde fue documentada lapesca incidental de tortugas amarillas como la principal causa de mortandad: Es lamentable que inclusose desconozca el mismo reporte del INAPESCA sobre sus investigaciones de artes de pesca el veranopasado en el sitio en mención.Por lo anterior, me permito enviarle la lista de publicaciones y presentaciones profesionales queconfirman mis puntos anteriores y en los cuales he participado con académicos como Susan HayhurstTufts University Cummings Veterinary School, Grafton MA USA (hematología y bioquímicas sanguíneas),Iga Stasiak University of Guelph Guelph Canada (patología, hematología, evaluaciones clínicas ehistopatología), Mónica Ayala CICIMAR La Paz BCS Mexico (epibiontes de tortuga amarilla), Ruth OchoaCICIMAR La Paz BCS Mexico (dieta de tortugas marinas), Natalia Rossi Columbia University New YorkNY USA (estado reproductivo y evaluaciones de salud), Maria Wochokowski Duke University BeaufortNC USA (interacciones pesqueras), Yosvani Moncada CIP La Habana Cuba (ecología de pastos y algasmarinas), Carmen Valle UNAM Departamento de Ciencias Biomedicas (immunologia, salud yenfermedades), Eduardo Resendiz UNAM Departmento de Ecologia (salud, enfermedades y capacidadlocal de comunidades pesqueras), Hoyt Peckham Stanford University CA USA (pesca incidental), KalynBickerman Columbia University New York USA (edad de tortugas amarillas usando esqueletocronologia),Cesar Ley, CIIDIR IPN Guasave Sinaloa (metales pesados en tortugas marinas), Alan ZavalaNorzagaray CIIDIR IPN Guasave Sinaloa (ecología y manejo de tortugas en el noroeste de Mexico), J.Wallace Nichols, California Academy of Sciences CA USA (conservación y política ambiental y LayneBolen Pankratz George Mason University (ecología de pastos marinos y su relación con tortuga amarilla)entre otros.Finalmente le solicito atentamente, en nombre de todos los científicos y estudiantes citados, queconsidere lo hecho, y nos ponemos a su disposición para ayudar en la búsqueda de soluciones alproblema multicitado, en el entendido que en 2010 se desarrollaron a nivel piloto unas pruebas de artesde pesca alternativas a las redes de fondo, proyecto que desafortunadamente no contó con el apoyogubernamental, a pesar de que participaron alrededor de 20 embarcaciones de los pescadorestradicionales que utilizan redes en la zona de las 23 brazas y al participar ese verano en el programa depesca con líneas y anzuelos se logro que en ese año se redujera la tasa de varamientos hasta en un60% con relación a los datos históricos.Ciencia y resultados basados en colaboraciones solo muestran el camino a seguir. Sin más por elmomento, esperando recibir su respuesta no dude en comunicarse conmigo, AtentamenteA. Alonso Aguirre D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D.Executive Directorcc. Ing. Juan José Guerra Abud, Titular de la SEMARNATSr. Mario Aguilar Sánchez, Comisionado Nacional de CONAPESCAMtro. Luis Fueyo Mac Donald, Titular de la CONANPSr. Marcos Covarrubias Villaseñor, Gobernador de Baja California Sur
  • 3. 3ReferenciasAguirre, AA, H Peckham, I Stasiak, S Hayhurst, V de la Toba, A Zavala-Norzagaray, N Rossi, and TR Spraker.(2011). Baseline health parameters of clinically healthy and pathological evaluation of stranded pacificloggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) impacted by small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico. 31stAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation: The Next Generation of Research andConservation, 12-15 April, San Diego, California.Aguirre AA, SC Gardner, JC.Marsh, SG Delgado, CJ Limpus and WJ Nichols. (2006). Hazards associated with theconsumption of sea turtle meat and eggs: a review for health care workers and the general public.EcoHealth 3(3):141-153.Allen CD, Lemons GE, Eguchi T, LeRoux RA, Fahy CC, Dutton PH, Peckham SH, Seminoff JA (2013) Stableisotope analysis reveals migratory origin of loggerhead turtles in the Southern California Bight. MEPS 472:275-285.Conant TA, Dutton PH, Eguchi T, Epperly SP, Fahy CC, Godfrey MH, MacPherson SL, Possardt EE, SchroederBA, Seminoff JA (2009) Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) 2009 status review under the USEndangered Species Act. Report of the Biological Review Team to the National Marine Fisheries ServiceGardner SC, Nichols WJ (2001) Assessment of sea turtle mortality rates in the Bahía Magdalena region, BajaCalifornia Sur, México. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4: 197-199Gilman E, Gearhart J, Price B, Eckert S, Milliken H, Wang J, Swimmer Y, Shiode D, Abe O, Peckham SH (2009)Mitigating sea turtle by-catch in coastal passive net fisheries. Fish and Fisheries doi 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00342.xINAPESCA (2012) Evaluacion biotecnologica de artes de pesca alternativas en la pesqueria ribereña del Golfo deUlloa B.C.S. para evitar la captura incidental de especies no objetivo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca,Dirección General Adjunta de Investigación PesqueraKoch V, Nichols WJ, Peckham SH, de la Toba V (2006) Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching andbycatch in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Biological Conservation 128: 327-334Koch V, Peckham SH, Mancini A, Eguchi T (2013) Estimating at-sea mortality of marine turtles from strandingfrequencies and drifter experiments. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56776 doi doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056776Ley-Quiñonez C, Zavala-Norzagara A, Espinosa-Carreon TL, Peckham SH, Marquez-Herrera C, Campos-VillegasL, Aguirre AA (2011) Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Carettacaretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1979-1983Maldonado D, Peckham SH, Nichols WJ (2006) Reducing the Bycatch of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) inBaja California Sur: Experimental Modification of Gillnets for Fishing Halibut. In: Kinan I (ed) SecondWestern Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop Western Pacific RegionalFishery Management Council, Honolulu, HI, pp 59-68Mancini A, Koch V, Seminoff JA, Madon B (2012) Small-scale gill-net fisheries cause massive green turtleChelonia mydas mortality in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Oryx 1: 1-9Nichols WJ (2003) Biology and conservation of sea turtles in Baja California, Mexico. PhD Dissertation. School ofRenewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ USANichols WJ, Resendiz A, Seminoff JA, Resendiz B (2000) Transpacific migration of a loggerhead turtle monitoredby satellite telemetry. Bulletin of Marine Science 67: 937-947NMFS (2007) NMFS and USFWS 5-year status review for the loggerhead sea turtle as listed under the EndangeredSpecies Act of 1973. In: NMFS N, US Department of Commerce and USFWS, Department of the Interior.NMFS, USFWS (2011) Determination of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles asEndangered or Threatened. US Federal Register, pp 58868-58952Peckham SH, Maldonado D, Walli A, Ruiz G, Nichols WJ, Crowder L (2007) Small-scale fisheries bycatchjeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles. PLoS One 2(10) doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0001041Peckham SH, Maldonado-Diaz D, Koch V, Mancini A, Gaos A, Tinker MT, Nichols WJ (2008) High mortality ofloggerhead turtles due to bycatch, human consumption and strandings at Baja California Sur, Mexico,2003-7. Endangered Species Research 5: 171-183 doi 10.3354/esr00123Peckham SH, Maldonado-Diaz D, Tremblay Y, Ochoa R, Polovina J, Balazs G, Dutton PH, Nichols WJ (2011)Demographic implications of alternative foraging strategies in juvenile loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta ofthe North Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 425: 269-280 doi 10.3354/meps08995Ramirez-Cruz JC, Ramirez IP, Flores DV (1991) Distribución y abundancia de la tortuga perica en la costaoccidental de Baja California Sur, Mexico. Archelon 1: 1-4
  • 4. 4Ramírez-Rodríguez M, Ojeda-Ruíz MÅ (2011) Spatial management of small-scale fisheries on the west coast ofBaja California Sur, Mexico. Marine PolicyReséndiz E, C Valle, H Peckham, A Zavala, AL Sandoval, V De la Toba and AA Aguirre. (2009) Interdisciplinaryresearch project in conservation medicine of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in Puerto Adolfo LopezMateos, Baja California Sur –Preliminary data. 1stDisease Ecology and Conservation Medicine Congress,4-6 November, Kalaan Kab, UNAM, Universidad Veracruzana and Wildlife Trust, Veracruz, MexicoRomero V, LD Soriano, AL Sandoval, J Bravo, L Aguilar, H Peckam, M Olivera, M Harfush, HM Zepeda-Lopezand AA Aguirre. (2008). Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis in Mexico: Is it a viral etiology? Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Eight Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. 18-26 January, Loreto,Baja California, Mexico, no. 42Rossi NA, H Peckham, V de la Toba, R Ochoa, E Flores, AA Aguirre, and WJ Nichols (2008) Size distribution andreproductive status of loggerhead turtles at Baja California Sur, Mexico. Proceedings of the Twenty-EightAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. 18-26 January, Loreto, Baja California,Mexico, no. 213Rossi NA, SE Hayhurst, SH Peckam, V De la Toba, R Ochoa, E Flores, WJ Nichols, and AA Aguirre. (2009).Assessing the health of loggerhead sea turltes in Playa San Lazaro, Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. MilsteinScience Symposium: Exploring the dynamic relationship between health and the environment. 2-3 April,Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, New York, posterabstracts pp. 18.Seminoff JA, Resendiz A, Resendiz B, Nichols WJ (2004) Occurrence of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) inthe Gulf of California, Mexico: Evidence of life-history variation in the Pacific Ocean. HerpetologicalReview 35: 24-27Wallace BP, Kot CY, DiMatteo AD, Lee T, Crowder LB, Lewison RL (2013) Impacts of fisheries bycatch onmarine turtle populations worldwide: toward conservation and research priorities. Ecosphere 4: 40-49Wingfield D, Peckham SH, Foley DG, Palacios DM, Lavaniegos BE, Durazo R, Nichois WJ, Croll DA, Bograd SJ(2011) The making of a predator hotspot in the coastal ocean. PLOS One 6(11): e27874 doi10.1371/journal.pone.0027874Zavala-Norzagaray, A., C. E. Hart, A. Canizales-Roman, P. Aguilar-Claussell, C. P. Ley-Quiñones, and A. A.Aguirre. (2013). First record of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in Sinaloa, Gulf of California,Mexico. 33rdAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, 2-8 February, Baltimore,Maryland, USA.
  • 5. Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation1500 Remount RoadFront Royal, VA, 22630Phone: 540.635.0461 | Email: aaguirr3@gmu.eduSmithsonian-Mason School of ConservationVirginia, United States of America, 8 June 2013.World Oceans Day.Mr. Presidente Enrique Peña NietoMexican United StatesP R E S E N TSubject: Loggerhead sea turtle mortality due to fisheries bycatchDear Mr. President Peña Nieto:Please allow me to write to you as a native of Baja California, Executive Director of the Smithsonian-Mason School of Conservation, Director of the Mason Center for Conservation Studies, and AssociateProfessor in the Environmental Sciences Department at George Mason University, to express myconcern about the problems associated with the incidental capture of North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles(Caretta caretta).Over the past decades I have acquired much experience with this theme. I have worked with sea turtlessince 1990 en many parts of the world and I am an expert in health of and diseases in sea turtles. I havedirected a sea turtle conservation program at EcoHealth Alliance (formerly Wildlife Trust) in variouscountries. I received my Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from Universidad Autonoma del Estado deMexico and Masters of Science and Doctorate degrees from Colorado State University.The objective of one of my projects has been to evaluate the regional mortality of loggerhead sea turtlesthrough systematic monitoring at Playa San Lázaro, B.C.S. (a 50 km-long beach), to document allstrandings and collect samples of bone, liver, skin, and stomach contents from the carcasses. We havealso worked for several years with live turtles captured at sea to determine their health status, takingblood samples, skin samples, oral and cloacal swabs, and investigating lesions, tumors likefibropapilloma with the goal of analyzing their hematology, plasma biochemistry and parasite loads.For more than a decade we have worked collaboratively with local fishers, government officials, and otherexperts in the conservation and investigation of loggerhead turtles. We have employed as many as fifteenlocal fishing vessels to evaluate and compare various types of fishing gear relative to the incidentalcapture of sea turtles.All of these investigations demonstrate that at Playa San Lázaro there are exorbitantly high numbers ofstranded loggerhead turtles (more than 5000 turtles stranded in one decade representing the highestdocumented levels in the world).With al of the work experience I have as a specialist in my area of expertise I have taken on the task offollowing the reports on this matter in the media, and I have read with particular attention the pressreleases issued on May 5th of this year by CONAPESCAhttp://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx/wb/cona/05_de_mayo_de_2013_mazatlan_sin_ as well as thosefrom you http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/articulos-prensa/fortalecen-acciones-para-la-conservacion-y-proteccion-de-la-tortuga-amarilla-en-bcs/ in which it’s stated that the causes of mortality of the Pacificloggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) are unknown. Also, I have also been aware of the various hypothesesthat have been identified and proposed as possible causes of death, and that scientific committeerecently was formed to evaluate them.
  • 6. 2In regard to these reports I would like to express with absolute certainty that to date there has been noscientific evidence of the negative effect of biotoxins on these marine turtles. The proposed newhypotheses do nothing but reaffirm that federal and state governments are ignoring years of researchpublished in high impact refereed journals which have documented fisheries bycatch of loggerheads asthe main cause of death. It is unfortunate that even the government’s own reports on the researchconducted by INAPESCA last summer at the site in question remain unmentioned.In reference to the above shortcomings, I would like to send you the publications listed below, in which Iparticipated with fellow academics along with professional presentations that confirm my previous points,including Susan Hayhurst Tufts University Cummings Veterinary School, Grafton MA USA (hematology yand blood biochemistry), Iga Stasiak University of Guelph Guelph Canada (pathology, hematology,clinical evaluations of histopathology), Mónica Ayala CICIMAR La Paz BCS Mexico (loggerhead turtleepibionts), Ruth Ochoa CICIMAR La Paz BCS Mexico (sea turtle diet), Natalia Rossi Columbia UniversityNew York NY USA (reproductive and health status), Maria Wochokowski Duke University Beaufort NCUSA (fisheries interactions), Yosvani Moncada CIP La Habana Cuba (seagrass and algae ecology),Carmen Valle UNAM Departamento de Ciencias Biomedicas (immunology, health and disease), EduardoResendiz UNAM Departmento de Ecologia (health, disease and local fishing community capacitybuilding), Hoyt Peckham Stanford University CA USA (fisheries bycatch), J. Wallace Nichols, CaliforniaAcademy of Sciences CA, USA (conservation and advocacy), Kalyn Bickerman Columbia University NewYork USA (use of skeletochronology to age loggerhead turtles), Cesar Ley CIIDIR IPN Guasave Sinaloa(heavy metals in sea turtles), Alan Zavala Norzagaray CIIDIR IPN Guasave Sinaloa (ecology andmanagement of sea turtles in northwest Mexico), and Layne Bolen Pankratz George Mason University(seagrass ecology and its relation to loggerhead turtles) among others.Finally I sincerely offer, on behalf of all of the scientists and students cited, that you please consider thevast amount and range of work that has already been completed as a solution is developed and considerthat we are at your disposal to assist in finding solutions to the mentioned bycatch problem.In summer 2010 we developed a pilot project to test alternative fishing gear to the problematic bottom-setnets. The project unfortunately did not receive government support, although it involved some 20traditional fishing boats and local leaders, who previously used the high-impact nets and fished in the 23fathom hotspot area. These fishers participated in the alternative program with lines and hooks and theresults achieved in that year reduced stranding rates up to 60% compared to the historical data.Collaborative, science and results-based, approaches like these offer the best path forward. Lookingforward to hearing from you. Please do not hesitate to contact me.Best regards,A. Alonso Aguirre D.V.M., M.S., Ph.D.Executive Directorcc. Ing. Juan José Guerra Abud, Titular de la SEMARNATSr. Mario Aguilar Sánchez, Comisionado Nacional de CONAPESCAMtro. Luis Fueyo Mac Donald, Titular de la CONANPSr. Marcos Covarrubias Villaseñor, Gobernador de Baja California Sur
  • 7. 3ReferencesAguirre, AA, H Peckham, I Stasiak, S Hayhurst, V de la Toba, A Zavala-Norzagaray, N Rossi, and TR Spraker.(2011). Baseline health parameters of clinically healthy and pathological evaluation of stranded pacificloggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) impacted by small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico. 31stAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation: The Next Generation of Research andConservation, 12-15 April, San Diego, California.Aguirre AA, SC Gardner, JC.Marsh, SG Delgado, CJ Limpus and WJ Nichols. (2006). Hazards associated with theconsumption of sea turtle meat and eggs: a review for health care workers and the general public.EcoHealth 3(3):141-153.Allen CD, Lemons GE, Eguchi T, LeRoux RA, Fahy CC, Dutton PH, Peckham SH, Seminoff JA (2013) Stableisotope analysis reveals migratory origin of loggerhead turtles in the Southern California Bight. MEPS 472:275-285.Conant TA, Dutton PH, Eguchi T, Epperly SP, Fahy CC, Godfrey MH, MacPherson SL, Possardt EE, SchroederBA, Seminoff JA (2009) Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) 2009 status review under the USEndangered Species Act. Report of the Biological Review Team to the National Marine Fisheries ServiceGardner SC, Nichols WJ (2001) Assessment of sea turtle mortality rates in the Bahía Magdalena region, BajaCalifornia Sur, México. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4: 197-199Gilman E, Gearhart J, Price B, Eckert S, Milliken H, Wang J, Swimmer Y, Shiode D, Abe O, Peckham SH (2009)Mitigating sea turtle by-catch in coastal passive net fisheries. Fish and Fisheries doi 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00342.xINAPESCA (2012) Evaluacion biotecnologica de artes de pesca alternativas en la pesqueria ribereña del Golfo deUlloa B.C.S. para evitar la captura incidental de especies no objetivo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca,Dirección General Adjunta de Investigación PesqueraKoch V, Nichols WJ, Peckham SH, de la Toba V (2006) Estimates of sea turtle mortality from poaching andbycatch in Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Biological Conservation 128: 327-334Koch V, Peckham SH, Mancini A, Eguchi T (2013) Estimating at-sea mortality of marine turtles from strandingfrequencies and drifter experiments. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56776 doi doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056776Ley-Quiñonez C, Zavala-Norzagara A, Espinosa-Carreon TL, Peckham SH, Marquez-Herrera C, Campos-VillegasL, Aguirre AA (2011) Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Carettacaretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1979-1983Maldonado D, Peckham SH, Nichols WJ (2006) Reducing the Bycatch of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta) inBaja California Sur: Experimental Modification of Gillnets for Fishing Halibut. In: Kinan I (ed) SecondWestern Pacific Sea Turtle Cooperative Research and Management Workshop Western Pacific RegionalFishery Management Council, Honolulu, HI, pp 59-68Mancini A, Koch V, Seminoff JA, Madon B (2012) Small-scale gill-net fisheries cause massive green turtleChelonia mydas mortality in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Oryx 1: 1-9Nichols WJ (2003) Biology and conservation of sea turtles in Baja California, Mexico. PhD Dissertation. School ofRenewable Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ USANichols WJ, Resendiz A, Seminoff JA, Resendiz B (2000) Transpacific migration of a loggerhead turtle monitoredby satellite telemetry. Bulletin of Marine Science 67: 937-947NMFS (2007) NMFS and USFWS 5-year status review for the loggerhead sea turtle as listed under the EndangeredSpecies Act of 1973. In: NMFS N, US Department of Commerce and USFWS, Department of the Interior.NMFS, USFWS (2011) Determination of Nine Distinct Population Segments of Loggerhead Sea Turtles asEndangered or Threatened. US Federal Register, pp 58868-58952Peckham SH, Maldonado D, Walli A, Ruiz G, Nichols WJ, Crowder L (2007) Small-scale fisheries bycatchjeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles. PLoS One 2(10) doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0001041Peckham SH, Maldonado-Diaz D, Koch V, Mancini A, Gaos A, Tinker MT, Nichols WJ (2008) High mortality ofloggerhead turtles due to bycatch, human consumption and strandings at Baja California Sur, Mexico,2003-7. Endangered Species Research 5: 171-183 doi 10.3354/esr00123
  • 8. 4Peckham SH, Maldonado-Diaz D, Tremblay Y, Ochoa R, Polovina J, Balazs G, Dutton PH, Nichols WJ (2011)Demographic implications of alternative foraging strategies in juvenile loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta ofthe North Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 425: 269-280 doi 10.3354/meps08995Ramirez-Cruz JC, Ramirez IP, Flores DV (1991) Distribución y abundancia de la tortuga perica en la costaoccidental de Baja California Sur, Mexico. Archelon 1: 1-4Ramírez-Rodríguez M, Ojeda-Ruíz MÅ (2011) Spatial management of small-scale fisheries on the west coast ofBaja California Sur, Mexico. Marine PolicyReséndiz E, C Valle, H Peckham, A Zavala, AL Sandoval, V De la Toba and AA Aguirre. (2009) Interdisciplinaryresearch project in conservation medicine of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in Puerto Adolfo LopezMateos, Baja California Sur –Preliminary data. 1stDisease Ecology and Conservation Medicine Congress,4-6 November, Kalaan Kab, UNAM, Universidad Veracruzana and Wildlife Trust, Veracruz, MexicoRomero V, LD Soriano, AL Sandoval, J Bravo, L Aguilar, H Peckam, M Olivera, M Harfush, HM Zepeda-Lopezand AA Aguirre. (2008). Sea turtle fibropapillomatosis in Mexico: Is it a viral etiology? Proceedings ofthe Twenty-Eight Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. 18-26 January, Loreto,Baja California, Mexico, no. 42Rossi NA, H Peckham, V de la Toba, R Ochoa, E Flores, AA Aguirre, and WJ Nichols (2008) Size distribution andreproductive status of loggerhead turtles at Baja California Sur, Mexico. Proceedings of the Twenty-EightAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. 18-26 January, Loreto, Baja California,Mexico, no. 213Rossi NA, SE Hayhurst, SH Peckam, V De la Toba, R Ochoa, E Flores, WJ Nichols, and AA Aguirre. (2009).Assessing the health of loggerhead sea turltes in Playa San Lazaro, Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. MilsteinScience Symposium: Exploring the dynamic relationship between health and the environment. 2-3 April,Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History, New York, posterabstracts pp. 18.Seminoff JA, Resendiz A, Resendiz B, Nichols WJ (2004) Occurrence of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) inthe Gulf of California, Mexico: Evidence of life-history variation in the Pacific Ocean. HerpetologicalReview 35: 24-27Wallace BP, Kot CY, DiMatteo AD, Lee T, Crowder LB, Lewison RL (2013) Impacts of fisheries bycatch onmarine turtle populations worldwide: toward conservation and research priorities. Ecosphere 4: 40-49Wingfield D, Peckham SH, Foley DG, Palacios DM, Lavaniegos BE, Durazo R, Nichois WJ, Croll DA, Bograd SJ(2011) The making of a predator hotspot in the coastal ocean. PLOS One 6(11): e27874 doi10.1371/journal.pone.0027874Zavala-Norzagaray, A., C. E. Hart, A. Canizales-Roman, P. Aguilar-Claussell, C. P. Ley-Quiñones, and A. A.Aguirre. (2013). First record of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in Sinaloa, Gulf of California,Mexico. 33rdAnnual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation, 2-8 February, Baltimore,Maryland, USA.

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