History of Islam Muhammad (610–632) Caliphate and civil war (632–750)-After the death of Muhammad, the "First Fitna”, ”Second Fitna” occurred. Abbasid era (750–1258) which also known as Islamic Golden Age Fall of Abbasids to end of caliphate (1258–1924) Modern times (1924–present)
The Prophet of Islam In the year 570, Muhammad and who would become the Prophet of one of the world’s great religions, Islam, was borned. In his forties, he retired to meditate in a cave on Mount Hira, just outside Mecca, where the first of the great events of Islam took place. One day, as he was sitting in the cave, he heard a voice, later identified as that of the Angel Gabriel, which ordered him to: “Recite: In the name of thy Lord who created, Created man from a clot of blood.” (Quran 96:1-2)
Fall of Abbasids to end ofcaliphate (1258–1924) The Muslim world was generally in political decline, especially relative to the non-Islamic European powers. Large areas of Islamic Central Asia were seriously depopulated largely as a result of Mongol destruction. By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the last Mughal dynasty. The Ottoman era ended after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924.
• five basic acts in Sunni Islam,considered obligatory by believers.•These are summarized in thefamous Hadith of Gabriel.
The 5 Pillars of Islam : Shahadah : Islamic Reading Salat : Prayer Zakat : almsgiving Sawm : Fasting during ramadan Hajj : Pilgrimage to Mecca
Shahadah : Islamic Reading the declaration of faiththe professing that there is only One God Muhammad is Allahs messenger.
Salat : The Prayer Salat consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna The names are according to the prayer times: Fajr (morning dawn), Zuhr (noon) Asr (afternoon), Maghrib (after-sunset) Isha‘ (late evening, night).
Salat : The Prayer All of these prayers are recited while facing the Kabah in Mecca. Muslims must wash themselves before prayer, this washing is called wudū("purification"). The prayer is accompanied by a series of set positions including; bowing with hands on knees, standing, prostrating and sitting in a special position.
Zakat : Alms The practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth. Considered to be a personal responsibility for Muslims to ease economic hardship for others and eliminate inequality. Zakat consists of spending 2.5% of ones wealth for the benefit of the poor or needy, including slaves, debtors and travellers.
Sawm : Fasting during Ramadan Three types of fasting :Ritual fastingFasting as compensation for repentanceascetic fasting
Ritual Fasting Obligatory act during the month of Ramadan Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month and are to be especially mindful of other sins.
Fasting is necessary for every Muslim that has reached puberty (unless he/she suffers from a medical condition which prevents him/her from doing so.) The fast is meant to allow Muslims to seek nearness to God, to express their gratitude to and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, and to remind them of the needy.
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca Occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime . When the pilgrim is around 10 km from Mecca, he must dress in Ihram clothing. Both men and women are required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca. After a Muslim makes the trip to Mecca, he/she is known as a hajj/hajja
The main rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the Black Stone, traveling seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah, and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.
Sharia Law (Shariah) moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law: crime, politics and economics, as well as personal matters such as - sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, and fasting.
According to the Sharia law: • Theft is punishable by amputation of the right hand. • Criticizing or denying any part of the Quran is punishable by death. • A Muslim who becomes a non-Muslim is punishable by death. • A non-Muslim who leads a Muslim away from Islam is punishable by death. • A non-Muslim man who marries a Muslim woman is punishable by death. • A man can marry an infant girl and consummate the marriage when she is 9 years old.
• A man can unilaterally divorce his wife, but a womanneeds her husbands consent to divorce.• A man can beat his wife for insubordination.• A womans testimony in court, allowed only inproperty cases, carries half the weight of a mans.• A female heir is to inherit half as much a male heir.• A woman cannot drive a car, as it leadsto fitnah (upheaval).• A woman cannot speak alone to a man who is not herhusband or relative.• Muslims should engage in taqiyya and lie to non-Muslims to advance Islam.
Laws (The Quran and Sunnah) inheritance marriage restitution for injuries and murder rules for fasting, charity, and prayer. However, these prescriptions and prohibitants may be broad, so their application may be varies.
Fiqh ("jurisprudence“) knowledge of the practical rules of the religion. prevent innovation or alteration in the original religion, known as bidah. Islamic jurists use to derive rulings is known as usul al- fiqh ("legal theory", or "principles of jurisprudence"). According to Islamic legal theory, law has four fundamental roots, which are given precedence in this order:>> the Quran, the Sunnah , the consensus of the Muslim jurists (ijma), and analogical reasoning (qiyas).
Adab ( Islamic etiquette) greeting others with "as-salamu `alaykum" ("peace be unto you") saying bismillah ("in the name of God") before meals, using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet. Prohibitedfoods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal.Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.
Marriage in Islam♥ Is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses.♥ The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.♥ A woman can have 1 husband, but a man can have up to 4 wives; Muhammad can have more.
Political aspects of IslamTraditional political concepts in Islam include: leadership by successors to the Prophet known as Caliphs the importance of following Islamic law or Shariathe duty of rulers to seek Shura or consultation from their subjectsthe importance of rebuking unjust rulers but not encouraging rebellion against them.
Introduction :• in Arabic, Allah means the One True God.• Western philosophers attempt to reach God in their own way.• The philosophers seek God though pure reason .• According to Islam, the correct way of finding God is through the preserved teachings of the prophets.
Belief in God in Islamconsists of four matters:(I) Belief in God’sexistence.(II) God is the SupremeLord.(III) God Alone isentitled to worship.(IV) God is known by HisMost Beautiful Names andAttributes.
Belief in Angel Angels are thought of as good forces of nature, hologram images, or illusions. In Islamic doctrine, they are real created beings. They all submit to God and carry out His commands. Angels were created from light before human beings were created. The greatest of them is Gabriel. The Prophet of Islam actually saw him in his original form.
Names of Angels : Muslims believe in specific angels mentioned in the Islamic sources.Angelic Abilities : They can take on different forms. E.g. Angels visited Abraham in human form. Gabriel used to visit Prophet Muhammad in different forms. Gabriel is God’s heavenly messenger to mankind.
Tasks of Angels : Some angels are put in charge of executing God’s law in the physical world. guardian angels responsible for protecting the believer throughout his life for recording the deeds of man, good and bad angels responsible for breathing the soul into the foetus. Some angels are roamers, traveling around the world in search of gatherings where God is remembered.
Belief in the scripturesReasons for the revelation ofscriptures: reference to learn the religion and obligations towards God and fellow human beings. disputes and differences between its followers in matter of religious belief. The scriptures are meant to keep the religion safe from corruption and deterioration. It is God’s proof against human beings.
The Quran is different from other scriptures in thefollowing respects:(1) The Quran is miraculous and inimitable.(2) After the Quran, no more scriptures will be revealedby God. Prophet Muhammad-last prophet, the Quran-last scripture.(3) God has taken it upon Himself to protect the Quranfrom alteration.(4) The Quran is a trustworthy witness over them.(5) The Quran abrogates them, meaning it cancels therulings of the previous scriptures and renders theminapplicable.
Belief in prophets God conveys His message and relates His will through human prophets. believe that God chose morally upright men to bear His message and pass it to humanity. Muslims firmly believe the final prophet was the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad.
Reasons for sending prophets: Guiding humanity humanity from the worship of created beings Clarifying to humanity the purpose of creation Showing humanity the right path that will lead them to Paradise Establishing proof against humanity by sending prophets Uncovering the unseen ‘world’ Providing human beings practical examples Purifying the soul from materialism, sin, and heedlessness Conveying to humanity the teachings of God
Belief in life after death after the death of the human body in the form of spiritual and physical resurrection. Paradise and Hell will be the final dwelling places Paradise is the eternal garden of physical pleasures and spiritual delights. Hell is an infernal place of punishment for unbelievers and purification for sinful believers.
Belief in divine decree means that everything good or bad, all moments of happiness or sorrow, pleasure or pain, come from God.1. God’s foreknowledge is infallible.2. God has recorded everything that will occur until the Day of Judgment in the Preserved Tablet.3. Nothing occurs in the heavens or on earth without the Will of God.4. God is the Creator of everything.