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Ch08

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  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS T E N T H E D I T I O N© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  • 2. O B J E C T I V E S AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Differentiate between formal and informal groups. 2. Compare two models of group development.L E A R N I N G 3. Explain how group interaction can be analyzed. 4. Identify the key factors in explaining group behavior. 5. Explain how role requirements change in different situations. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–2
  • 3. O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 6. Describe how norms exert influence on an individual’s behavior. 7. Define social loafing and its effect on group performance. 8. Identify the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups. 9. List the strengths and weaknesses of groupL E A R N I N G decision making. 10. Contrast the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal and electronic meeting © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. groups. All rights reserved. 8–3
  • 4. Defining and Classifying GroupsDefining and Classifying Groups© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–4
  • 5. Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d)Defining and Classifying Groups (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–5
  • 6. Why People Join GroupsWhy People Join Groups • Security • Status • Self-esteem • Affiliation • Power • Goal Achievement© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-1All rights reserved. 8–6
  • 7. Stages of Group DevelopmentStages of Group Development© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–7
  • 8. Stages of Group Development (cont’d)Stages of Group Development (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–8
  • 9. Stages of Group DevelopmentStages of Group Development© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-2All rights reserved. 8–9
  • 10. An Alternative Model: For Temporary GroupsAn Alternative Model: For Temporary Groupswith Deadlineswith Deadlines Sequence of actions: Sequence of actions: 1. 1. Setting group direction Setting group direction 2. 2. First phase of inertia First phase of inertia 3. 3. Half-way point transition Half-way point transition 4. 4. Major changes Major changes 5. 5. Second phase of inertia Second phase of inertia 6. 6. Accelerated activity Accelerated activity© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–10
  • 11. The Punctuated-Equilibrium ModelThe Punctuated-Equilibrium Model© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-3All rights reserved. 8–11
  • 12. Group Behavior ModelGroup Behavior Model© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-4All rights reserved. 8–12
  • 13. External Conditions Imposed on the GroupExternal Conditions Imposed on the Group Imposed Conditions:: Imposed Conditions •• Organization’s overall strategy Organization’s overall strategy •• Authority structures Authority structures •• Formal regulations Formal regulations •• Resource constraints Resource constraints •• Selection process Selection process •• Performance and evaluation system Performance and evaluation system •• Organization’s culture Organization’s culture •• Physical work setting Physical work setting© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–13
  • 14. Group Member ResourcesGroup Member Resources Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities – Interpersonal skills • Conflict management and resolution • Collaborative problem solving • Communication – Personality Characteristics • Sociability • Initiative • Openness • Flexibility© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–14
  • 15. Group Structure -- RolesGroup Structure Roles Formal Leadership – Leadership that is imposed on the group by the organization. – Leaders who derive their power from the positions they occupy in the organizational structure. – Formal leaders may or may not also be the informal leaders of the groups in which they function.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–15
  • 16. Group Structure -- Roles (cont’d)Group Structure Roles (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–16
  • 17. Group Structure -- Roles (cont’d)Group Structure Roles (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–17
  • 18. Group Structure -- NormsGroup Structure Norms Classes of Norms: Classes of Norms: •• Performance norms Performance norms •• Appearance norms Appearance norms •• Social arrangement norms Social arrangement norms •• Allocation of resources Allocation of resources norms norms© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–18
  • 19. Group Structure -- Norms (cont’d)Group Structure Norms (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–19
  • 20. Group Structure -- Norms (cont’d)Group Structure Norms (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–20
  • 21. Examples of Cards Used in Asch’s StudyExamples of Cards Used in Asch’s Study© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-5All rights reserved. 8–21
  • 22. Typology of Deviant Workplace BehaviorTypology of Deviant Workplace Behavior© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-6All rights reserved. 8–22
  • 23. Group Structure -- StatusGroup Structure Status Group Norms Group Norms Group Member Group Member Status Equity Status Equity Status Status Culture Culture© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–23
  • 24. Group Structure -- SizeGroup Structure SizePerformance ) ng d fi te a ec lo p o et Ex u (d Other conclusions: al Other conclusions: tu Ac • • Odd number groups do Odd number groups do better than even. better than even. Group Size • • Groups of 77or 99perform Groups of or perform better overall than larger better overall than larger or smaller groups. or smaller groups.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–24
  • 25. Group Structure -- CompositionGroup Structure Composition© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–25
  • 26. Group Structure -- CohesivenessGroup Structure Cohesiveness Increasing group cohesiveness: Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. 1. Make the group smaller. Make the group smaller. 2. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. 3. Increase time members spend together. Increase time members spend together. 4. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. 7. Physically isolate the group. Physically isolate the group.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–26
  • 27. Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness,Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness,Performance Norms, and ProductivityPerformance Norms, and Productivity© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-7All rights reserved. 8–27
  • 28. Group ProcessesGroup Processes© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–28
  • 29. Effects of Group ProcessesEffects of Group Processes + – =©X 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.E HIBIT 8-8All rights reserved. 8–29
  • 30. Group TasksGroup Tasks Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–30
  • 31. Group Decision MakingGroup Decision Making Strengths  Weaknesses – More complete – More time information consuming – Increased diversity of – Increased pressure views to conform – Higher quality of – Domination by one decisions or a few members – Increased – Ambiguous acceptance of responsibility solutions© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–31
  • 32. Group Decision Making (cont’d)Group Decision Making (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–32
  • 33. Group Decision-Making TechniquesGroup Decision-Making Techniques© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 8–33
  • 34. Evaluating Group EffectivenessEvaluating Group Effectiveness© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 8-10All rights reserved. 8–34

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