Environmental Concern and QA/QC in Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing By Jan Krzysiek Operation QA/QC Consultant
Natural methane seepage
Shale Gas presence worldwide
Shale Gas history <ul><li>USA worldwide leader in shale gas production </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300000shale gas drilled. </l...
http://gazlupkowy.pl/koncesje/ http://gazlupkowy.pl/koncesje
Magnetic, resistivity and seismic survey
Magnetic, resistivity and seismic survey data acquisition <ul><li>Aerial survey generates no risk except low flying helico...
Shale gas exploration drilling  <ul><li>Co-operation required </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting  drilling location from 3D surve...
Mud Selection in fresh water zone contact <ul><li>Conductor Pipe   length 20-50m to cover aquifer or artesian aquifer. </l...
Drilling -spudding the well <ul><li>Pre-spud meeting with all parties involved. Discussion all hazard and environmental is...
Drilling QA/QC. <ul><li>Monitoring  active tank and shaker collecting samples </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting mud loss into aq...
Drilling QA/QC <ul><li>Monitoring: </li></ul><ul><li>Mud sample with MWD and sand contain </li></ul><ul><li>Gas presence i...
LWD Drilling in Horizontal QA/QC
Casing and Drill Pipe <ul><li>QA/QC, Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Casing- API standard with VAM-Top thread (energized thre...
Typical cementing design <ul><li>TOC (Top of Cement) </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor Pipe –surface </li></ul><ul><li>Surface C...
Potential risk in gasfield <ul><li>Potential gas seepage risk </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Casing leak ...
Casing cementing CBL/VDL QA/QC <ul><li>CaCl2 accelerator added to cement for conductor and surface pipe. </li></ul><ul><li...
TCP Tubing Conveyed Perforation <ul><li>QA/QC  Potential Risk </li></ul><ul><li>LO (low order) by cable bending, mud leak ...
Hydraulic horses in action
HVHF environmental concern FRAC PACKERS
Water sourcing
MSDS of chemicals data available to authorities
Concern of vertical fracture growth is shale gas
Micro-seismic fracture growth monitoring <ul><li>Each well is different  </li></ul><ul><li>All mathematical models are bas...
Fracturing performance <ul><li>MSDS of used chemicals available on location. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid samples water and fra...
Optimization of frac design vs good cementing practices <ul><li>1.     Rock fractures induced through fracturing could pen...
Myths about hydraulic fracturing The methane in homeowners’ wells is nothing more than naturally-occurring methane that ha...
Methane source identification The number of protons determines what kind of element it is. For example, any atom with six ...
The Drilling Process: Hydraulic Fracturing <ul><li>The hydraulic fracturing process is a complex, multi-stage process, whi...
<ul><li>After the slickwater pad and other additives are injected, a series of “proppant stages” is initiated </li></ul><u...
“ Flowback” and Water Treatment <ul><li>“ Flowback ,” also known as “produced water,” is the waste fluid that is returned ...
Public Health Best Practices and Recommendations <ul><li>Baseline testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing of water wells bef...
Adopting best QA/QC practices <ul><li>(1) Measure and publicly report the composition of water stocks and flow throughout ...
Adopting best QA/QC practices  <ul><li>(4)  Regulations and QA/QC inspections are needed to confirm that operators have ta...
Adopting best QA/QC practices cd. <ul><li>(7) Adopt requirements for background water quality measurements (e.g., existing...
Adopting best QA/QC practices cd. <ul><li>What can make Polish Shale Gas Successful? </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY IS FIRST </l...
Thank you and Questions?
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1.5 "Environmental Concern and QA/QC in Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing" - Jan Krzysiek [EN]

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1.5 "Environmental Concern and QA/QC in Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing" - Jan Krzysiek [EN]

  1. 1. Environmental Concern and QA/QC in Shale Gas Drilling and Fracturing By Jan Krzysiek Operation QA/QC Consultant
  2. 2. Natural methane seepage
  3. 3. Shale Gas presence worldwide
  4. 4. Shale Gas history <ul><li>USA worldwide leader in shale gas production </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300000shale gas drilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently over 800 active drilling rigs </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1000 operating companies and service providers. </li></ul>First shale gas well drilled in Fredonia NY in 1821. Lightning streets in 1848
  5. 5. http://gazlupkowy.pl/koncesje/ http://gazlupkowy.pl/koncesje
  6. 6. Magnetic, resistivity and seismic survey
  7. 7. Magnetic, resistivity and seismic survey data acquisition <ul><li>Aerial survey generates no risk except low flying helicopter noise </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic truck generates vibration 20Hz-120Hz not detectable to environment for 3D data acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>In 2D survey is frequently used detonation shock in shallow well. The noise generated is comparable to storm </li></ul><ul><li>Geophones with cable or wireless are handled by seismic crew </li></ul>
  8. 8. Shale gas exploration drilling <ul><li>Co-operation required </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting drilling location from 3D survey </li></ul><ul><li>Access road, bridges capacity to handle the load </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling water source wells and water storage pond </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up drilling crew camp </li></ul><ul><li>Securing surface location </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling program (TD, mud system, casing depths, cementing, testing) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mud Selection in fresh water zone contact <ul><li>Conductor Pipe length 20-50m to cover aquifer or artesian aquifer. </li></ul><ul><li>Method: Pipe driven or hole drilled with: </li></ul><ul><li>natural product - bentonite mud vs </li></ul><ul><li>polymer type mud </li></ul><ul><li>Concern: frequent mud partial loss or </li></ul><ul><li>lost circulation into water </li></ul><ul><li>bearing zone </li></ul><ul><li>Control: Drilling blind (no mud return) LCM (lost circulation material with partial or full return) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Drilling -spudding the well <ul><li>Pre-spud meeting with all parties involved. Discussion all hazard and environmental issues. Contingency plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential partial lost or lost circulation to aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Should bentonite mud be used in conductor and surface casing </li></ul><ul><li>Water and mud sample taken prior to spudding. </li></ul><ul><li>TOC and Cement top job </li></ul>
  11. 11. Drilling QA/QC. <ul><li>Monitoring active tank and shaker collecting samples </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting mud loss into aquifer -action taken, LC material used </li></ul><ul><li>Cementing height tail and lead TOC, </li></ul><ul><li>thickening time, rheology </li></ul><ul><li>Sand in mud monitoring </li></ul>
  12. 12. Drilling QA/QC <ul><li>Monitoring: </li></ul><ul><li>Mud sample with MWD and sand contain </li></ul><ul><li>Gas presence in mud </li></ul><ul><li>Circulated cuttings size and shape </li></ul><ul><li>ROP and drill string vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Active tank level monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Gas kick </li></ul><ul><li>Washouts </li></ul>
  13. 13. LWD Drilling in Horizontal QA/QC
  14. 14. Casing and Drill Pipe <ul><li>QA/QC, Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Casing- API standard with VAM-Top thread (energized thread joints for gas well) MU Torque. </li></ul><ul><li>Drill Pipe HWDP (heavy weight with hard banding) </li></ul><ul><li>Drill Collars(for horizontal drilling) </li></ul><ul><li>Jars, Reamers MWD and LWD assembly, Drill Motors. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Typical cementing design <ul><li>TOC (Top of Cement) </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor Pipe –surface </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Casing- surface </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate Casing - Lead Slurry above CC of SC </li></ul><ul><li>Production Casing -Lead Slurry above CC of IC </li></ul><ul><li>Production Liner packer set above CC of PC. Tail Slurry excess at Packer reversed or circulated out </li></ul>
  16. 16. Potential risk in gasfield <ul><li>Potential gas seepage risk </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Casing leak </li></ul><ul><li>2.No cement in production casing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Poor cement bond in production casing </li></ul><ul><li>Free water in cement setting </li></ul><ul><li>4. Poor cement bond in liner 4. Frac fluid entry in production casing annulus. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Natural fracture accelerate upward fracture development </li></ul><ul><li>Gas entry into aquifer and percolation to surface </li></ul>
  17. 17. Casing cementing CBL/VDL QA/QC <ul><li>CaCl2 accelerator added to cement for conductor and surface pipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Re>1000>2000 flow regime for liner or production casing </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of cement scavenger as a spacer </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe reciprocation or rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Liner shale protection system during RIH </li></ul><ul><li>Cement slurry overdisplacement and/or underdisplacement issues to bump the plug </li></ul>
  18. 18. TCP Tubing Conveyed Perforation <ul><li>QA/QC Potential Risk </li></ul><ul><li>LO (low order) by cable bending, mud leak of tandem joints, buster malfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial perforation, bursting gun, parting gun </li></ul><ul><li>Results: limited perforation, frac flow cumulation, fishing, side track </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hydraulic horses in action
  20. 20. HVHF environmental concern FRAC PACKERS
  21. 21. Water sourcing
  22. 22. MSDS of chemicals data available to authorities
  23. 23. Concern of vertical fracture growth is shale gas
  24. 24. Micro-seismic fracture growth monitoring <ul><li>Each well is different </li></ul><ul><li>All mathematical models are based on certain assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>In experts opinion shale fracturing is considered as nightmare. All got in common that growth is orientated upward </li></ul><ul><li>What frac optimization gives us? </li></ul><ul><li>How we can optimize unknown? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Fracturing performance <ul><li>MSDS of used chemicals available on location. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid samples water and frac fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid samples of beckflow fluid. TSS, TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling drinking water from neighbor wells before drilling and before fracturing </li></ul><ul><li>Sample drinking water once a month </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize frac design </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure testing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Recording pressure/flow data and ppg </li></ul><ul><li>Special care to blender and chemicals handling </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring fracture height grow </li></ul>
  26. 26. Optimization of frac design vs good cementing practices <ul><li>1.     Rock fractures induced through fracturing could penetrate a fresh water aquifer, contaminating it with frac fluid and possibly natural gas? </li></ul><ul><li>2.     Frac fluid or natural gas could enter these aquifers and thereby contaminate the fresh water supply as it is transported up (or down) the wellbore to the surface? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Myths about hydraulic fracturing The methane in homeowners’ wells is nothing more than naturally-occurring methane that has been there for centuries and is unrelated to drilling activities; and The idea that fracking fluids injected at roughly 1,000-2,000 meters below the surface would migrate up into shallow groundwater aquifers makes no geologic sense.
  28. 28. Methane source identification The number of protons determines what kind of element it is. For example, any atom with six protons is carbon (C). But an element can have different numbers of neutrons and these are known as different isotopes of the same element. For example, carbon with six neutrons (called C-12) and carbon with seven neutrons (C-13) are two carbon isotopes. The cool thing about isotopes? Their abundance in a given chemical can vary depending on how the chemical is produced. So scientists can use isotopic labels to identify the chemical’s origins. That’s exactly what Osborn et al did to determine the source of methane in the wells. And lo and behold they found: that the methane composition in the most contaminated wells was consistent with thermogenic methane (methane formed at high temperatures deep underground), that the methane in a subset of water samples from Pennsylvania’s Susquehanna County isotopically matched methane from nearby gas wells, but that outside the one-kilometer zone of active drilling, the isotopic fingerprint was significantly different, representing a mixture of both shallow natural biogenic and deeper thermogenic methane.
  29. 29. The Drilling Process: Hydraulic Fracturing <ul><li>The hydraulic fracturing process is a complex, multi-stage process, which can be broken down into several steps </li></ul><ul><li>The first step in the hydraulic fracturing process is bringing in materials, mostly fresh water, onto the drilling pad – this is done via a pipeline or tanker trucks. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is then held in lined holding ponds or in steel containers for later use in the multi-stage hydraulic fracturing operation </li></ul>Lined Fresh Water Supply Pit from the Marcellus Shale Development in PA Source: ALL Consulting, 2008 Hydraulic Fracturing of a Marcellus Shale Well in West Virginia (notice yellow holding tanks) Source: Chesapeake Energy Corporation, 2008 Pipes for pumping fresh water to a “frac job” Source: AXPC A fluid transport truck – used for transporting water or other additives Source: FSMF Resources
  30. 30. <ul><li>After the slickwater pad and other additives are injected, a series of “proppant stages” is initiated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A proppant is a material used to “prop” open new fractures to maintain fluid conductivity for the gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proppant mixture is typically water, sand, and a viscosifier called a “gellant” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The proppant stages do most of the rock fracturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As hydraulic pressure is increased, proppant and gellant is forced into the newly formed cracks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A typical gellant is a complex carbohydrate that is polymerized to form a reversibly viscous gel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gellants are typically composed of modified guar gum (CMHPG) or modified cellulose (HEC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be polymerized in a pH-sensitive complex with a metal ion (such as borate or zirconium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This system is used to help carry proppant further into the induced fractures, and is useful because the viscosity of the gellant is easily pH-controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical called a breaker (oxidizer or strong acid) is used to lower the viscosity of the gel for extraction </li></ul></ul>The Drilling Process: Hydraulic Fracturing Source: ProPublica Sand truck delivering proppant Source: Cudd Energy Services
  31. 31. “ Flowback” and Water Treatment <ul><li>“ Flowback ,” also known as “produced water,” is the waste fluid that is returned to the surface after hydraulic fracturing </li></ul><ul><li>Produced water contains fracturing fluids and formation waters (typically brines) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These present potentially major considerations if improperly managed or if there are accidents, such as surface spills, natural disasters, leaks, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brines are ubiquitous in flowback because of the marine origins of the shale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metals and naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may also be present in flowback, posing further potential health risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produced water must be properly disposed of to prevent public health problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many municipal wastewater treatment plants have been designated for disposing of flowback, but are not equipped or designed to handle these fluids, particularly because of high Total Dissolved Solids (from brine), NORMs, & other chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground injection is another option for disposal of “produced water,” but may also create longer-term health risks </li></ul></ul>Flowback (left) to distilled water (right) Source: 212 Resources
  32. 32. Public Health Best Practices and Recommendations <ul><li>Baseline testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing of water wells before drilling begins is essential for both liability purposes and health reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Closed-loop” (pitless) drilling systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowback goes into steel tanks (not lined pits) and is purified and recycled onsite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is much safer than pits since waste is handled immediately and only solid waste is shipped </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setback distances and secondary containment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setback distances are a buffer area between drilling sites and surface water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary containment and spill detection methods, along with setbacks, are important to mitigate contamination risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NYS DEC regulates drilling operations in NYS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement sGEIS) in Final Review stages at present </li></ul></ul>Closed-loop drilling site in Colorado Photo credit: Dan Randolph Water Testing Source: Community Science Institute
  33. 33. Adopting best QA/QC practices <ul><li>(1) Measure and publicly report the composition of water stocks and flow throughout the fracturing and clean-up process. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Manifest all transfers of water among different locations . </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Adopt best practices in well development and construction, especially casing, cementing, and pressure management. Pressure testing of cemented casing and state-of-the-art cement bond logs should be used to confirm formation isolation. Microseismic surveys should be carried out to assure that hydraulic fracture growth is limited to the gas producing formations. Regulations and inspections are needed to confirm that operators have taken prompt action to repair defective cementing jobs. The regulation of shale gas development should include inspections at safety-critical stages of well construction and hydraulic fracturing . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Adopting best QA/QC practices <ul><li>(4) Regulations and QA/QC inspections are needed to confirm that operators have taken prompt action to repair defective cementing jobs. The regulation of shale gas development should include inspections at safety-critical stages of well construction and hydraulic fracturing. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) Optimization of frac design. </li></ul><ul><li>(6) Additional field studies on possible methane leakage from shale gas wells to water reservoirs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Adopting best QA/QC practices cd. <ul><li>(7) Adopt requirements for background water quality measurements (e.g., existing methane levels in nearby water wells prior to drilling for gas) and report in advance of shale gas production activity. </li></ul><ul><li>( 8 ) Agencies should review field experience and modernize rules and enforcement practices to ensure protection of drinking and surface waters. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Adopting best QA/QC practices cd. <ul><li>What can make Polish Shale Gas Successful? </li></ul><ul><li>SAFETY IS FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY OPERATION </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody’s perfect but wants to be perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Each technology has its limitations and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop/field independent inspection is must </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody can stop the work seeing wrong thing </li></ul><ul><li>PJSM, awareness buildup, team work, PAKAT system and no excuses </li></ul><ul><li>Continues education at all level s </li></ul>
  37. 37. Thank you and Questions?

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