Water pollution in petroleum industry


Published on

1 Comment
  • the future of water pollution decontamination is in the nano technology - source:

    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water pollution in petroleum industry

  2. 2. Water Pollution<br />Water pollution can be defined as presence of solid, liquid or gaseous contaminants in such concentration that may alter the quality of water. <br />Water pollution is defined as the addition to water of an excess material or heat that is harmful to the living organism or which impairs the beneficial use of water.<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5. WATER POLLUTION <br />The principal sources of water pollution resulting from exploration and production operations are :<br />Produced Water.<br />Drilling fluids, Cuttings and well treatment chemicals.<br />Process, wash and Drainage water.<br />Sewerage, sanitary and domestic wastes.<br />Spills and leakages and<br />Cooling water. <br />
  6. 6. Volumes of waste produced depend on the stage of the exploration and production process.<br />During seismic operations, waste volumes are minimal and relate mainly to vessel activities.<br />In exploratory drilling the main aqueous effluents are drilling fluids and cuttings.<br />In production operations – after the development wells are completed – the primary effluent is produced water.<br />
  7. 7. Oil based drilling fluids and cuttings on the other hand have an increased effect due to its toxicity. <br />Ocean discharges of water-based mud and cuttings have been shown to affect benthic organisms.<br />Oil based mud and cuttings affect benthic organisms.<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li> The high pH and salt content of drilling fluids and cuttings poses a potential impact to fresh-water sources.
  9. 9. Other aqueous waste streams such as leakage and discharge of drainage waters may result in pollution of ground and surface waters. </li></li></ul><li>Produced Water<br /><ul><li>Water coming out from reservoir, is separated from the oil and gas in the production facility.
  10. 10. The produced water can be one of the largest waste products, by volume, which needs to be managed and disposed off by the oil and gas industry.
  11. 11. Produced water contains a complex mixture of inorganic (dissolved salts, trace metals, suspended particles) and organic (dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbons, organic acids) compounds.</li></li></ul><li>Feasible alternatives for the management and disposal of produced water should be evaluated and integrated into production design.<br />The main disposal alternatives may include: <br />injection into the reservoir to enhance oil recovery<br />injection into a dedicated disposal well drilled in a suitable subsurface geological formation.<br />Produced water discharging to surface waters or to land should be the last option considered and only if there is no other option available.<br />Discharged produced water should be treated to meet the guidelines.<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li> Disposal into evaporation ponds may be an option for produced waters.</li></li></ul><li>Emissions, Effluent & Waste Levels from Onshore oil & Gas Development<br />
  13. 13. Indian Standards for Industrial Effluents<br />
  14. 14. Indian Standards for Industrial Effluents<br />
  15. 15. Indian Standards for Industrial Effluents<br />
  16. 16. Indian Standards for Industrial Effluents<br />
  17. 17. Indian Standards for Industrial Effluents<br />
  18. 18. Drilling Fluids and Drill Cuttings<br /><ul><li>The primary functions of drilling fluids used in oil and gas field drilling operations include removal of drilled cuttings (rock chippings) from the wellbore and control of formation pressures.
  19. 19. Other important functions include cooling and lubricating the drill bit, and transmitting hydraulic energy to the drilling tools and bit.
  20. 20. Drilled cuttings removed from the wellbore and spent drilling fluids are typically the largest waste streams generated during oil and gas drilling activities.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Feasible alternatives for the treatment and disposal of drilling fluids and drilled cuttings should be evaluated and included in the planning for the drilling program. Alternative options may include one, or a combination of, the following:
  21. 21. Injection of the fluid and cuttings mixture into a dedicated disposal well. Storage in dedicated storage tanks or lined pits prior to treatment, recycling, and / or final treatment and disposal.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Final disposal routes for the nonhazardous cuttings solid material should be established, and may include use in road construction material, construction fill, or disposal through landfill including landfill cover and capping material where appropriate. </li></li></ul><li>Sewage & Process Drainage<br /><ul><li>Is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants.
  22. 22. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge also suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. Sewage can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks or on site package plants and other aerobic treatment systems), or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant.</li></li></ul><li>Wastewater Treatment<br /><ul><li>Typically, sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. First, the solids are separated from the wastewater stream.
  23. 23. Then dissolved biological matter is progressively converted into a solid mass by using indigenous, water-borne bacteria.
  24. 24. Finally, the biological solids are neutralized then disposed of or re-used, and the treated water may be disinfected chemically or physically (for example by lagoons and micro-filtration).</li></li></ul><li>Oil Spill Control & Prevention<br />Presented By:<br />ArpitAtreya (09)<br />AnkurBajpai (10)<br />NirmalChandran (11)<br />23<br />
  25. 25. What’s an oil spill?<br /> When oil of any type is released into the natural environment, the result is termed an oil spill. <br />24<br />
  26. 26. Effects of Oil Spills<br />-Environmental effects<br />Because oil floats on top of water, less light penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. This, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem.<br />Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water-repelling abilities of a bird's feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements. <br />Many birds and animals also ingest (swallow) oil when they try to clean themselves, which can poison them. Depending on just where and when a spill happens, from just a few up to hundreds or thousands of birds and mammals can be killed or injured.<br />The effects of Exxon Valdez oil spill can be seen even now, after 20 years the incident took place.<br />25<br />
  27. 27. How do they clean up the oil on the beaches or the water after a spill?<br />The Oil that gets washed up on the shores are mechanically cleaned by Humans. The oil is first absorbed using sorbents. Then the remaining parts are cleaned using shovels. The residual parts are then allowed to break up naturally or biological agents are used to decompose them to carbon dioxide and other less toxic components<br />26<br />
  28. 28. Tools for controlling Oil Spills<br />Mechanical:-<br />Booms: large floating barriers that round up oil and lift the oil off the water<br />Skimmers: skim the oil<br />Sorbents: large absorbents that absorb oil<br />27<br />
  29. 29. Contd…..<br />Chemical:-<br />Chemical and biological agents: helps to break down the oil<br />Vacuums: remove oil from beaches and water surface<br />28<br />