1. URBAN AFFAIRS ASSOCIATION 40TH CONFERENCE UAA 2010Sustaining Cities in a Time of Globalization: Social, Economic and Political Realities March 10 - 13, 2010 Honolulu, Hawaii Sheraton Waikiki Hotel
2. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment Dr. Mirela NewmanAssociate Professor, Coordinator Urban Studies Graduate ProgramDepartment of Geography & Urban Studies, School of Arts and Sciences,Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven CT Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
3. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment Dr. Mirela Newman, email@example.comPaper Abstract: At the beginning of the twenty‐first century, over three quarters of the total populationof the United States lives in urban places of various sizes. As urban dwellers we seem to agree that ourcities are our urban affairs, that we care about our cities and want them safer, more desirable and moresustainable. As our American cities continue to face increasing environmental, social and economicchallenges, scholars, practitioners and decision‐makers continue to search for an agenda that could helpreshape our cities. The author of this paper assesses the current situation and poses several questions.How can our cities and their urban regions be made more sustainable, livable and desirable? What havewe done so far? Does the United States have a long‐term “urban sustainability” vision and agenda forthe twenty first century? Unlike Europe and European countries, the United States has been slower atembracing the so‐called “urban sustainability” agenda. The author argues that with no national plan ornational organization in charge with shaping the future shape and wellbeing of our American cities andtowns, in the past three decades our pursuit of urban sustainability has primarily stemmed from localand regional organizations and levels encapsulated by several movements including: Ecological Cities,Growth Management, Smart Growth, Livable Cities, New Urbanism, True Urbanism, SustainableDevelopment. What do we need to do now? Could we merge our evolving urban sustainability ideas andconcepts and develop a long‐term, comprehensive, holistic urban sustainability conceptual and practicalframework that could guide urban development throughout the United States? The author examines andcritically assesses the progress we have made so far in the United States, highlights the main urbansustainability principles and tenets and launches several suggestions for policy makers, planners,scholars and practitioners interested in achieving “urban sustainability in the United States.
4. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK THE 21ST CENTURYURBANIZING WORLD & ITS CHALLENGES
5. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK 21ST CENTURY URBANIZING WORLD & CHALLENGES More than 50% of the world’s population lives in towns and cities More than 75% of the US population lives in towns and cities Facing unprecedented urban & population growth Presents high risks and immense socio-political challenges But also offers significant potential for innovative and far-reaching solutions for our towns and cities We need desirable, livable, well- functioning, greener, more sustainable urban areas - cities and towns
6. GLOBAL FRAMEWORKACKNOWLEDGING OUR COMMON GLOBAL PROBLEMS &QUESTIONING OUR CURRENT PRACTICES & PATTERNS Exponential population growth (+urban population) Spatial expansion of cities - Suburban Sprawl Growing automobile use & traffic congestion Air, water & soil pollution Wasteful use of land natural resources Rising social & economic inequities Loss of indigenous landscapes & ecosystems
7. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY APPROACHES AND AGENDAS We and our cities are facing great challenges in this era of globalization: failing global markets climate change oil and natural gas peaks increasing pollution and congestion unprecedented population and urban growth growing consumption and diminishing natural resources environmental degradation and disappearing ecosystems We have identified several threats and risks, but HOW are we to implement a successful blueprint for today’s and tomorrows greener, more sustainable urban places?
8. UNDERSTANDING THE REALITY OF THE 21ST CENTURY URBANIZING WORLD & CHALLENGESWell-functioning, desirable, livable cities are what we want andneed, and a decisive prerequisite for the economicdevelopment and well-being of any country in the worldLong-term we need to thrive for achieving several goals: Maintaining our cities habitable, safe, livable Enhancing our traffic networks Avoiding environmental and ecological problems Minimizing resources waste Protecting and saving our limited natural resources
9. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKPRINCIPLES AND TENETS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT URBAN SUSTAINABILITY
10. THE “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” CONCEPT Fueled by 1960s & 1970s environmentalism Supported by publications on global urban and environmental problems: “Silent Spring” by Rachel Carson (1962) “The Closing Circle” by Barry Commoner (1971) “The Limits to Growth” (1972)
11. THE “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT” CONCEPT FIRST UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT &DEVELOPMENT (Stockholm, 1972) WORLD WATCH REPORTS (1975-on) BRUNDTLAND REPORT or World Commission on Environment and Development(1987) “Our Common Future ( Brundtlandt Report, 1987) RIO DECLARATION - AGENDA 21 (1992) UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT (UNCED)
12. 1992 RIO DE JANEIRO: EARTH SUMMIT - AGENDA 21UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON ENVIRONMENT & DEVELOPMENT (UNCED)Delegates from over 170 countries discussed and produced: treaties on climate change and biological diversity a set of forestry principles an extensive plan called: AGENDA 21 FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ( now and into the 21st century) within Agenda 21 was a proposal to develop indicators for sustainable development
13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-Definition“ development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Commission, 1987)
14. “SUSTAINABILITY” CONCEPT & TERM“SUSTAINABILITY” & “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT”Concept was born in the 1970s As a result of growth of a new consciousness on global ecological & environmental problems related to ongoing patterns of industrial developmentTerm “SUSTAIN” has old Latin roots: “sub” + “tenere” means “to uphold” “to maintain” “to keep” Used in English since 1290
15. URBAN AREASUrban Areas are: limited spaces, densely populated, evolving, changing Were/are founded for different purposes Industrialization Migration Mass car ownership Economic restructuring political entities biggest consumers and polluters economic and administrative players
16. URBAN AREAS concentrate people, capital and knowledge, buildings, infrastructure, functions centralize capital and prosperity foster social and economic development
17. SUSTAINABLE URBAN AREAS Urban Areas are not merely problem producers Urban Areas must become “sustainable urban areas” Sustainable Urban Areas need support & investment: Political Support Financial Investment Civic Commitment
18. DIMENSIONS OF URBAN SUSTAINABILITYRequires an integrated, holistic, long-term, innovative approach Governance dimension – decision making Legislative dimension – justice, regulation Planning dimension – spatial, land use, design Financial and risk management dimension Monitoring dimension Innovative dimension
19. AN URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA Requires a HOLISTIC, INTEGRATIVE, INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH INTEGRATION of elements that need to be more sustainable
20. “URBAN SUSTAINABILITY” CONCEPT Citizen City Social Cultural City CityMarket BuiltCity URBAN City SUSTAINABILITY Eco Govern logical mental City Historical City City
21. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment MAIN PAPER QUESTIONS
22. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical AssessmentQUESTIONSHow can our American cities and their urban regions bemade more sustainable, livable and desirable?What have we done so far in the United States?Does the United States have a long‐term “urbansustainability” vision and agenda for the twenty first century?
23. US IN THE 21ST CENTURYAMERICAN URBANIZATION PATTERNS AMERICAN CITY MODEL
24. UNDERSTANDING THE REALITY OF THE 21ST CENTURY AMERICAN CITY MODELUnlike the European cities our American urbanization processes are characterized by: Urban sprawl Low density, waste of land and resources Flow of superhighways, shopping centers, baking asphalt Huge parking lots, long commutes, traffic congestion Commercial strip development –roads lined with shopping Leapfrog development: subdivisions, shopping, office parks Single use development: segregation of land uses Long distances to travel Dysfunctional inner city areas – poverty, drugs, … Municipal budgeting struggles We seem to be less prepared for greener, sustainable development
25. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment UNITED STATES CONTEXT 2009 US CONGRESS FINDINGS FACTS AND TRENDS
26. United States Context2009 US Congress Findings: Facts and TrendsUS PATTERN OF METROPLITAN GROWTHCONSUMES LAND AT A FAST PACE1980-2000:growth of largest 99 metropolitan areas consumed 16million areas of rural land (1 acre/new household)
27. SUBURBAN SPRAWLRAPID EXPANSION OFCITIES & METROPOLITANAREASLAND CONSUMINGPATTERN OF GROWTHNORTH EAST & EAST US
28. A SPRAWLING PATTERN OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT: LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
29. Sprawl Destroys Farmland Between 1982-1992, the U.S. lost an average of 45.7 acres of farmland per hour, every day. 4,000,000 acres in total! Source: American Farmland Trust
30. RETHINKING OUR CURRENT PRACTICES CAN WE ALLOW FOR OUR CITIES TO CONTINUE TO EXPAND SPATIALLY, TO SPRAWL? Metropolitan growth Slowing down urban sprawl Land Use Searching for Resource Use “smarter ways” to use and protect land Infrastructure uses and development resources
31. United States Context2009 US Congress: Facts and Trends US POPULATION IS GROWING AND AGING By 2025: 1 in 5 people will be 65 or older
32. United States Context2009 US Congress Findings: Facts and Trends TRANSPORTATION SECTOR CONSUMES OIL,POLLUTES AND IS COSTLY •Transportation accounts for 70% of the oil consumed in US •Nearlya third of carbon emissions come from transportation sector •Burden of transportation costs is very heavy especially for low-income residents
33. We’re Driving Ourselves CrazyNumber of miles we 25% increase in lastdrive 10 yearsTime we spend in 236% increasetraffic since 1982Money lost in timeand fuel over $100 billion
34. United States Context 2009 US Congress Findings: Facts and TrendsDRIVING AND TRAFFIC CONGESTIONAccording to Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy: Driving projected to increase 59% (2005-2030) In 2007 traffic congestion caused Americans to: Waste 4.2 billion hours in traffic Purchase an extra 87 million gallons of fuel Price of congestion cost $87 billion This is a 5-fold increase in wasted time and cost since 1982
35. Sprawl Creates TrafficCongestion
36. United States Context 2009 US Congress Findings: Facts and TrendsDEMAND FOR MORE TRANSPORTATION CHOICES -PUBLIC TRANSPORTAccording to US Census Bureau: only 54 % of households have access to public transportationDemographic groups most likely to use public transport areprojected to increase in size (2009-2025)
37. We need moreTransportation Choices
38. United States Context 2009 US Congress Findings: Facts and TrendsDEMAND FOR MORE DENSE, WALKABLE, MIXED-USEHOUSINGDemographers estimate that:•30% of current demand for housing is for dense,walkable, mixed-use communities
39. DOES THE UNITED STATES HAVE AN URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT
40. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical AssessmentQUESTIONSWhat does US need to do in the 21st century?Could US “merge” all of our evolving urban sustainabilityideas, concepts, approaches, organizations ?Could US develop a long‐term, comprehensive, holistic urbansustainability vision and agenda by fusing the conceptualand practical framework to date and thus guide urbandevelopment throughout the entire United States?
41. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment Unlike Europe and European countries, the United States has been slower at embracing the so‐called “urban sustainability” agenda [at the national level]
42. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment The United States has no national plan or national policy in charge with shaping the future shape and wellbeing of our American cities and towns
43. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment“BOTTOM UP” UPPROACH & GRASSROOTS MOVEMENTIn the past three decades our pursuit of urban sustainability hasprimarily stemmed from local and regional organizations andlevels encapsulated by several movements including: Ecological Cities Growth Management Smart Growth Livable Cities New Urbanism True Urbanism Sustainable Development
44. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical Assessment US Approaches and Organizations in the Past 2 Decades Sustainable Ecological Green Livable Cities Cities Cities Cities Livable Ecological Green Sustainable Communities Cities Plans Plans Green True Sustainable New Urbanism Urbanism Urbanism Urbanism Responsible Growth Sustainable Smart Growth Management Development Growth
45. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical AssessmentSince February 19, 2009 United States has aWHITE HOUSE OFFICE OF URBAN AFFAIRS--established within the Executive Office of the Presidentthe White House Office of Urban Affairs (the "Office").
46. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical AssessmentWHITE HOUSE OFFICE OF URBAN AFFAIRS“About 80 percent of Americans live in urban areas, and the economic health andsocial vitality of our urban communities are critically important to the prosperityand quality of life for Americans………………………………………………………………..……….. In the past, insufficient attention has been paid to the problems facedby urban areas and to coordinating the many Federal programs that affect ourcities. A more comprehensive approach is needed, both to develop an effectivestrategy for urban America and to coordinate the actions of the many executivedepartments and agencies whose actions impact urban life.”Source: The White House, Executive Order, Office of the Press Secretary, Feb 19 2009
47. Does the United States Have an Urban Sustainability Agenda for the 21st Century? A Critical AssessmentFUNCTIONS OF OFFICE OF URBAN AFFAIRS (a) provide leadership for and coordinate the development of the policy agendafor urban America across executive departments and agencies;(b) coordinate all aspects of urban policy; (c) work with executive departments and agencies to ensure that appropriateconsideration is given by such departments and agencies to the potential impactof their actions on urban areas;(d) work with executive departments and agencies to ensure that FederalGovernment dollars targeted to urban areas are effectively spent on the highest-impact programs;(e) engage in outreach and work closely with State and local officials, withnonprofit organizations, and with the private sector,
48. THE CALL FOR “GREENING” OUR THINKING and for URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDASFor any citizen of this planet, for any urban dweller, practicingprofessional planner, decision maker, politician, etc.. the entry point isto “GREEN” OUR THINKING.For national governments the entry point is to shape /have anURBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA AT THENATIONAL LEVEL
49. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? Further research, survey, discuss, and learn from national and international successful, innovative Green Sustainable Urban Programs, Initiatives, Planning and Policies; Compare and contrast International and American urban experiences, initiatives, successes & failures; Understand how green sustainable urban plans are designed and implemented.
50. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? THE UNITED STATES SHOULD CREATE A SOLID, INTEGRATED URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDAUS needs to further: Examine and understand the complex urban challenges and problems Shape a long term vision and strategy on urban sustainability Pursue innovative, comprehensive, integrated, holistic approaches to urban planning and urban management Have good integrated urban management, city, regional and national leadership
51. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?THE US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT SHOULDAPPOINT A NATIONAL COMMISSION/TASKFORCE TO: collect integrate fuse Syn merge distill thesize summarize present implement
52. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?MERGE /INTEGRATE ALL PRINCIPLES, APPROACHES, PRACTICES PROMOTED BY US ORGANIZATIONS THAT EVOLVED IN PAST 3 DECADES Sustainable Ecological Green Livable Cities Cities Cities Cities Livable Ecological Green Sustainable Communities Cities Plans Plans Green True Sustainable New Urbanism Urbanism Urbanism Urbanism Responsible Growth Sustainable Smart Growth Management Development Growth
53. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?WORK CLOSE WITH APA AND TO USE All APA POLICY GUIDESadopted and supported by the American Planning Association (APA) Policy Guide Policy Guide Policy Guide Sustainability Smart Growth Transportation Policy Guide Policy Guide Policy Guide Takings Public Neighborhood Redevelopment Collaborative Planning Policy Guide Policy Guide Policy Guide Impact Fees Housing Homelessness
54. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?APPROVE THE S. 1619 BILL: “LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009” •THE S. 1619 BILL: “LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009” • sponsored by Senator Christopher Dodd (CT) • introduced to US Congress on 08/06/2009
55. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?APPROVE THE S. 1619 BILL: “LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009” •THE S. 1619 BILL: “LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009” seeks to establish: • OFFICE OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND COMMUNITIES (OSHC) – in the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) • Independent INTERAGENCY COUNCIL ON SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES (in the executive branch) • COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING GRANT PROGRAM • SUSTAINABILITY CHALLENGE GRANT PROGRAM
56. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? US GOVERNEMTN SHOLD SUPPORT AND APPROVE THE S. 1619 BILL: LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009OFFICE OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND COMMUNITIES (OSHC)-will establish a program to make comprehensive planning grants andsustainability challenge grants available to eligible entities
57. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?APPROVE THE S. 1619 BILL: LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009 OFFICE OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND COMMUNITIES (OSHC) - Coordinate land use, housing, transportation and infrastructure planning across jurisdictions and agencies - Identify potential regional partnerships for developing and implementing comprehensive plans - Conduct or update housing, infrastructure, transportation, energy and environmental assessments to determine regional needs and promote sustainable development - Develop/update comprehensive regional plans - Implement local zoning and other code changes
58. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?APPROVE THE S. 1619 BILL: LIVABLE COMMUNITIES ACT 0F 2009 OFFICE OF SUSTAINABLE HOUSING AND COMMUNITIES (OSHC) Would require the use of a Sustainability Challenge Grant to: -promote integrated transportation, housing, energy, economic development activities across jurisdictions -promote sustainable and location–efficient urban development -implement projects indentified in a comprehensive regional plan
59. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO?US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OR A NATIONALGOVERNMENTAL AGENCY SHOULD INTEGRATE ALLFINDINGS AND PRODUCE A DOCUMENT:NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR ACHIEVING URBANSUSTAINABILITY IN THE UNITED STATESNot a policy (which many oppose) but guidelines
60. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PURSUE AN URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AGENDA THAT REQUIRES INNOVATION, VISION AND THE COORDINATED IMPLEMENTATION OF SPECIFIC “INGREDIENTS” INNOVATION “VISION” – long-term “SET OF CONCEPTUAL AND PRACTICAL STEPS” A SET OF “INGREDIENTS” mixed in a complex, “magic” FORMULA(?) BUT DOES SUCH A FORMULA EXIST?
61. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? BUT: IS THERE A MAGIC FORMULA OR APROMOTE CLEAR DEFINITION FOR SUSTAINABLE CIITIES“INGREDIENTS” FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES ???
62. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? CREATE TOOLS/MECHANISM THAT EXPAND THE “URBAN SUSTAINABILITY” CONCEPTNOT ONLY GREEN/ECOLOGICAL ELEMENTS More open /green spaces, green parks, bikeways, wildlife, wetlands, watersheds, ecosystemsBUT ALSO (!) Better and more affordable housing Social justice issues Wiser/greener transportation patterns Environmental issues More compact cities versus widely spread cities Spatial form and land use issues Revised energy consumption patterns Energy/Environment issues More sustainable economies Economic issues A better overall urban life Quality of life issues
63. “SUSTAINABILITY ” CONCEPT Requires a HOLISTIC, INTEGRATIVE, INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH INTEGRATION of elements that need to be more sustainable
64. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY* MORE COMPACT EFFICIENT LAND USE THAT WOULD SLOW DOWN URBAN SPRAWL UGB = Urban Growth Boundaries Portland, OR&San Francisco, CA Preserve farm land Preserve ecological habitats Preserve & create open space Promote mixed use development
65. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY*LESS AUTOMOBILE USE Average American spends MORE ALTERNATIVE MODES about 440 hours/year (55 OF TRANSPORTATION days/year) behind the wheel Reduce driving time Cost of traffic congestion in Reduce congestion US: $43 to 168 billion/year!!! Reduce pollution HOW? By 2050, 80% of world’s oil will be used!! Public transit Reversible lanes 80% of US petroleum use is Employer programs goes to cars Congestion pricing High-Occupancy Vehicle US transportation system lanes releases nearly 450 mill tons Smart cars & smart roads of carbon into atmosphere Decrease pollution /year! Decrease ecosystem decrease isolation & social US contributes 1/3 of annual fragmentation world total of CO2 = major greenhouse gas
66. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITYPROVIDE GOOD HOUSING & URBAN ENVIRONMENTS• Build more & better affordable housing• Require developers to include a certain number of affordable housing units• Design pedestrian- friendly, human-scaled streets & sidewalks• Access to public spaces & parks
67. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY *MORE GREEN URBAN Provide UV protection, cool urban INITIATIVES environment, retain CO2, control storm water runoff, foster plants & birds Green Roofs Planting trees, hedges, plants Green streets For educational&recreational Ecology parks purposes Educate students about Greener schools environment – more urban environment courses, students in planting trees & flowers Urban Gardens Small garden plots rented or assigned for flowers or vegetables Urban Wildlife & Habitat conservation
68. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY* ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY We have all seen cities & communities where Cities should have a strong, capital resources have left; sustainable economic life by businesses have closed; retaining money and resources storefronts are abandoned; “Restoration economy” – one natural resources have been which helps restore environmental taken; & social damage done in the past jobs are scarce; and “Human-centered economy” – products and services are providing work at decent pay hard to find “Locally-oriented economy” – HOW? Phase out industries: which emphasizes local ownership - Consume large amounts of local control & investment non-renewable resources Use of local resources - Produce pollutants & toxics Production for local markets - Are based on minerals & oils
69. INGREDIENTS FOR URBAN SUSTAINABILITY* MORE EFFICIENT RESOURCES USE, LESS POLLUTION AND WASTE Home Energy Service• Energy conservation programs Program (Massachusetts) - use of: fluorescent light bulbs, energy efficient refrigerators, air Federal conservation conditioners, water heaters Programs (MA) - Massachusetts farmers and other landowners are• Farmland conservation encouraged to apply for nearly $12.5 million in federal funding for• Recycling programs conservation programs allocated by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) for Massachusetts• Pollution prevention
70. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SOURCES FOR URBAN, URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION (APA) http://www.apa.org AMERICAN PLANNING ASSOCIATION – CONNECTICUT CHAPTER http://www.ccapa.org SUSTAINABLE SITES http://www. sustainablesites.org AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF GEOGRAPHERS (AAG) http://www.aag.org LIVABLE CITIES http://www.livable cities.org
71. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SOURCES FOR URBAN, URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY OUR GREEN CITIES http://www.ourgreencities.com LIVING CITIES http://www.livingcities.org URBANICITY http://www.lurbanicity.org URBANDESIGN http://www. urbandesign.org GREEN PLANS USA http://www. greenplans.rri.org LOW IMPACT LIVING http://www.lowimpactliving.com
72. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SOURCES FOR URBAN, URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY SMART GROWTH http://www.smartgrowth.org NEW URBANISM http://www.newurbanism.org PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACE http://www. pps.org REGIONAL PLAN ASSOCIATION & METRO PLANNING ASSOCIATIONS &BOARDS http://www.rpa.org/ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/architecture/bass/newrochelle/regional_plan/oregon.html http://www.metro-region.org/ (Portland, Oregon)
73. PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND SOURCESFOR URBAN, URBAN PLANNING AND URBAN SUSTAINABILITY CONNECTICUT CONFERENCE OF MUNICIPALITIES http://www. ccm-ct.org CONNECTICUT ECONOMIC RESOURCE CENTER http://www. cerc.org 1001 FRIENDS OF CONNECTICUT http://www. 1001friends of ct..org SIERRA CLUB: US SPRAWL, TRANSPORTATION, CONGESTION, TRANSPORTATION http://www.sierraclub.org/
74. Links to Sustainable Livable Cities/Communitieshttp://www.massland.org/pages/info/lca2003.htmhttp://sustaincommunity.org/http://www.nhcf.org/uploads/reports/1021649919sustainable97.PDFhttp://www.vsn.cape.com/~cccenter/2003SIC.htmhttp://www.cooplife.com/sustainable.htmhttp://sustaincommunity.orghttp://clinton4.nara.gov/textonly/PCSD/Publications/suscomm/ind_suscom.htmlhttp://www.sustainable.doe.gov/measuring/meaction.shtmlhttp://www.tellus.org/sustcomm/CI_sp.htmlhttp://www.tellus.org/sustcomm/PBInitiatives_sp.htmlhttp://www.citnet.org/events/05Dec01-Indicators-Info.aspxhttp://www.citnet.org/regions/newengland/resources.aspxhttp://www.iscvt.orghttp://www.cedo.ci.burlington.vt.us/legacyhttp://www.cleanwateraction.org/ct/index.htmhttp://www.sustainablemeasures.com/SM/Staff.htmlhttp://www.sustainable.doe.gov/measuring/meaction.shtmlhttp://www.sustaincapecod.org/2003SIC.htm
75. GREEN URBANISM: LEARNING FROM EUROPEAN CITIES. Beatley, Timothy. 2000. Island Press: Washington D.C.
76. TEXTS GREEN URBANISM: LEARNING FROM EUROPEAN CITIES. Beatley, Timothy. 2000. Island Press: Washington D.C. GROWING GREENER CITIES: URBAN SUSTAINABILITY I THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Eugenie L. Birch and Susan M. Wachter (Eds.). 2008. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
77. Why Do We Care?Environment Economics Equity Engagement Air and Transportation Families People water budgets are finding have less pollution are fewer choices and less are larger than in housing time forthreatening food budgets styles, price involvement human ranges, and in their health neighborhoods children’s schools or other civic activities
78. WHAT SHOULD US NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DO? PROMOTE AND SUPPORT UNDERSTANDING THE “INGREDIENTS” NEEDED FOR ACHIEVING URBAN SUSTAINABILITY Use good land use planning ideas, initiatives and practices Show investment of finances and political and civic commitment Minimize environmental impacts Minimize consumption of natural resources and reduce waste Learning from and implementing good ideas, programs and practices from successful cities and towns around the world
79. CAPE COD CENTER FOR SUSTAINABILITY Regional program 1998-99 & 2003: initiated and implemented the first ever Sustainability Indicators Project for Cape Cod Resource Use - Acres of Land Developed and Of Land Protected as Open Space, Waste Generated, Recycled, Composted, Landfilled and Incinerated) Transportation & Mobility - Traffic Congestion by Bridge Crossings Air & Water Quality - Drinking Water Quality Diverse Sustainable Economy - Housing Affordability Gap, Income - Self Sufficiency Standard, Employment and Payroll by Industry, Tourism Health & Human Services - Population Enrolled vs. Not Enrolled In Health Care Plans, Substance Abuse GOALS: assess issues critical to Cape Cod and their interrelationship produce and distribute a list of indicators to educate the general public and their elected officials about trends in specific environmental, social and economic issues, and the need to address problems from an integrated, long-term perspective
80. Cape Cod Sustainability Indicators 2003 Report An Uncertain FutureThe Cape Cod Sustainability Indicators Council Produced in Coordination With The Cape Cod Center for Sustainability 2003
81. NEW ECOLOGY, INC. ("NEI") founded in 1999 to spearhead sustainable development in distressed urban communities in New England dedicated to the pursuit of environmental quality with economic development in urban communities Recognizing that human communities and the physical environment are interdependent systems, and that social and economic health and environmental quality are mutually reinforcing. NEI seeks to change the urban development system NEI has helped influence public policy to support sustainable development
82. WESTERN MASS SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES Conserving Our Forests - Local Activities The New England Forestry Foundation (NEFF) is developing a five-year community forestry initiative in the North Quabbin region, a nine-town area in north-central Massachusetts at the northern end of the protected Quabbin Reservoir watershed. The North Quabbin Woods Project is designed to enhance the economic, social, and ecological health of the region through improved utilization of forest resources Supported by the Ford Foundation as part of their National Community Forestry Demonstration Program, it takes an integrated approach to community development. targeting to improving the economic and social health of the community
83. URBAN SUSTAINABILITY WHAT CAN I/ YOU/WE DO? Think long-term: “Green Thinking” what and how we do now matters 50 -100 years down the road! Preserve natural resources – they are limited and will be exhausted! Stop driving those “cool” SUV’s! Question our current urban development patterns Do we really need a huge house on a large size lot (say 3 to 5 acres)? SMALLER HOUSES & LOTS HELP PRESERVE LAND Could we consider taking alternating driving with car pooling and taking public transit – when available? DRIVING = SPENDING MONEY = POLLUTION = TRAFFIC CONGESTION