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BEYOND THE CRISISTowards a New Urban     Paradigm  Laura Burkhalter & Manuel          Castells
CONTENTS   Part 1: The Current Context of Crisis, its Roots    and its Opportunities for Change   Part 2: A Rescue Plan ...
PART 1THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS ROOTS   AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS      ROOTS AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR                 CHANGE   We live in the midst of ...
THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS     ROOTS AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR                CHANGE The urban dimension of the c...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   Urban policies have always been    connected to the managemen...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   . Under the current conditions of confusion and potential    ...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   Change happens because the old system    cannot function any ...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   A shrunk (reduzido) model of capital    accumulation in the u...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   . And so, we want to propose a number of initiatives    that ...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   Because of the tentative character of our    elaboration, we ...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   This stems fromour conviction that    transformation does not...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   While specific spatial and social contexts    call for specif...
Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis   Looking at urban forms and processes    from the people’s per...
some basic needs and desires that      cities should provide   a decent, affordable shelter; [moradia decente acessível]...
some basic needs and desires that          cities should provide    a spatial form that facilitates sociability, anchored...
Need jobs, and income, and a sound local         economic development policy.   Of course,, we contend that while the cur...
Two Different Problems   the failure of 20th century    planning   the global economic and    environmental crisis
The Failure of 20th Century          Planning Approach   This approach assumes a clean slate    [ARDÓSIA LIMPA/TERRA ARRA...
the global economic and            environmental crisis    We will focus onspecific urban functions to    illustrate the ...
PART 2 A RESCUE PLAN [RESGATE]FOR THE POLYCENTRIC CITY   NEW TRANSPORTATION &     LAND USE POLICIES
THE POLYCENTRIC CITY  NEW TRANSPORTATION &    LAND USE POLICIES
NEW TRANSPORTATION & LAND USE POLICIES    Moving People, Saving   Energy, Cleaning the Air
The 21st Century     Multimodal Transportation              System   The economic prosperity of a region is    directly p...
The 21st Century     Multimodal Transportation              System   The quality and number of connections    created by ...
The 21st CenturyMultimodal Transportation System   An idea based economy will never outdate    the need for transporting ...
The 21st Century      Multimodal Transportation     System: Solutions and Angles   i) The level of infrastructural possib...
Infrastructural Possibilities   Looking at cities across the globe, clearly the most    miserably ineffective ones are th...
infrastructural             possibilities   Cities with dual systems are able to    absorb higher urban densities    with...
infrastructural               possibilities   The higher urban density allows for people to    live closer to work and th...
The Infrastructural Interventions   They are the creation of a multi-modal transportation    network. [This new network i...
The Infrastructural Interventions   Bicycles (walking) and similar low impact    modes of individual transport
The multi-modal highway and          freeway solutions   The alternate modalities are to be    superimposed over large th...
The multi-modal highway and          freeway solutions   The most pleasant modalities in terms of    least noise and poll...
Quality of vessels   i) Intelligent city cars,   ii) smart motorcycles   Iii) Self charging electric bicycles.
Landuse and the Need and        Distance of Travel               PROBLEMA Metropolitan transportation depends on  the st...
Landuse and the Need and        Distance of Travel             SOLUÇÃO To increase the multifunctionality of sub-  metro...
Landuse and the Need and          Distance of Travel                        SOLUÇÃO   The polycentric metropolis should ...
PART 3SOFT PROPOSALS:REUSE, COMMUNITY, COMMUNAL    SPACE AND EVERYDAY
REUSE, COMMUNITY,COMMUNAL SPACE AND   EVERYDAY LIFE Creative Re-use of Failed Economic-spatial Models
Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models   the re-use of existing built structures that    lose functionality und...
Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models   We propose that the government should    include in the financial bail...
Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models    We propose to convert failed strip malls    into mixed use housing, c...
Urban Self-RelianceFrom Shopping Malls to Urban         Farming
The Heart (s) of the       City     Public Space
Housing for Living:From Unsustainable Models to Community Based Dwelling          Forms
PART 4CITY OF HOPE HOW TO MAKE IT HAPPEN
CITY OF HOPE HOW TO MAKE IT    HAPPENThe City of Fear, the City of           Hope
How to Make it    HappenGrassrooting the Metropolis
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#Aula de economia urbana além da crise - em direção a um novo paradigma urbano

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Apresenta o esboço de um novo paradigma urbano, tendo como pano de fundo a crise de mercado americano de hipotecas imobiliárias.

Published in: Education, Technology, Real Estate
  • No slide 17 os antores sugerem que o Novo Modelo de Crescimento deve se poiar em 'true value' e em um 'higher human creativity'. Com relação a esta última ela vem sendo tratada na literatura a tendo com referencia diferentes escalas, uns voltam-se para a escala local, dividindo-se entre os lugares urbanos e rurais; outros se voltam para as interações e trocas entre diferentes escalas e, outros tantos dedicam-se a escalas que transcendem o local. Em função disto vamos discutir alguns conceitos relacionados a criatividade tendo em vista fazermos uma discussão de Salvador (ou de sua região ampliada) como o locus criativo e, que, é a partir desta consideração, isto é Salvador com uma cidade Cidade Criativa que discutiremos as possibilidades de construção de uma estratégia de desenvolvimento.
    A referência clássica aqui é Richard Florida, em especial seus livros The Rise of the Creative Class e e Cities and the Creative Class. Mas, como de praxe não vamos nos restringir aos livros, já que vamos mapear a discussão tal como se manifesta hoje, nos principais periódicos.

    Ihering Guedes
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#Aula de economia urbana além da crise - em direção a um novo paradigma urbano

  1. 1. BEYOND THE CRISISTowards a New Urban Paradigm Laura Burkhalter & Manuel Castells
  2. 2. CONTENTS Part 1: The Current Context of Crisis, its Roots and its Opportunities for Change Part 2: A Rescue Plan for the Polycentric City: New Transportation & Landuse Policies Part 3: Soft Proposals: Reuse, Community, Communal Space and Everyday Life Part 4: The City of Hope: How to Make it Happen
  3. 3. PART 1THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS ROOTS AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE
  4. 4. THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS ROOTS AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE We live in the midst of a structural crisis that affects everything and everybody. It is not the end of the world, but it is the end of one particular world, the world built in the last two decades on a card house of speculative global finance. The current crisis is not just economic. It is a social,environmental, spiritual and spatial crisis that has resulted in an economic collapse, and may usher in anumber of ominous developments
  5. 5. THE CURRENT CONTEXT OF CRISIS, ITS ROOTS AND ITS OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHANGE The urban dimension of the crisis is not peripheral, but central to the model of social and economic organization. The trigger of the crisis was the crumbling of the housing mortgage market as a result of the high risk lending practices, the so-called subprime loans.
  6. 6. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis Urban policies have always been connected to the management of the transition from one economic model to another.
  7. 7. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis . Under the current conditions of confusion and potential chaos, we believe in the power of ideas as levers of transformation. Thus, we want to contribute to the growing debate on which kind of city may better respond to the economic, environmental, social and functional challenges of the new world we are entering,reluctantly for most people and institutions, as a result of the bankruptcy of the economic and spatial modelon which our lives have been based.
  8. 8. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis Change happens because the old system cannot function any longer. However, change does not necessarily mean improvement.
  9. 9. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis A shrunk (reduzido) model of capital accumulation in the urban environment may result in retrenched urban fortresses surrounded by marginalized settlements rather than in a redeployment of our ability to live together.
  10. 10. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis . And so, we want to propose a number of initiatives that could change the course of urbanization towards a sustainable city with abetter quality of life. We do not indulge in utopia. The problems we are facing are too serious to play with dreams, in spite of the energizing value of dreams. We are identifying some of the decisive flaws of our urban living, and suggesting a number of practical initiatives to induce the transformation of our built environment.
  11. 11. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis Because of the tentative character of our elaboration, we have chosen to open a series of windows on a possible new urban world, rather than articulating a systematic urban vision.
  12. 12. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis This stems fromour conviction that transformation does not follow an orderly rationale but rather it results from multiple mutations in various dimensions of the urban system that, in their convergence, end up modifying the overall dynamics of urban space.
  13. 13. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis While specific spatial and social contexts call for specific policy proposals, we believe that the underlying principles of our urban intervention apply, with the proper adaptation, to most of the forms of human settlements on our urbanized, endangered planet.
  14. 14. Urban Transformation and theTaming of the Economic Crisis Looking at urban forms and processes from the people’s perspective, there are some basic needs and desires that cities should provide: [..?..] We must add from the point of view of humankind and its future, the environmental sustainability of the metropolis, and of the earth’s eco- system at large.
  15. 15. some basic needs and desires that cities should provide a decent, affordable shelter; [moradia decente acessível] a healthy environment; adequate urban infrastructure; a communication/transportation system that ensures mobility and connectivity; personal safety and psychological peace of mind; access to health and education; .
  16. 16. some basic needs and desires that cities should provide a spatial form that facilitates sociability, anchored in public spaces throughout the metropolitan area; the capacity to satisfy a share of the basic needs without depending on commercial consumption, for instance, growing their own food within the territory of the metropolitan area (urban farming); the ability to express peoples’ culture at large, placing art and cultureat the heart of social practice; the integration between the built environment and the natural environment.
  17. 17. Need jobs, and income, and a sound local economic development policy. Of course,, we contend that while the current system is broken, both economically and spatially, the process of urban transformation we are suggesting may support a new model of economic growth based on true value, higher human creativity and a regulatory system that would maximize economic yields, including employment, while minimizing waste and speculation. [AQUE ENTRA A POLÍTICA ESTRUTURAL]
  18. 18. Two Different Problems the failure of 20th century planning the global economic and environmental crisis
  19. 19. The Failure of 20th Century Planning Approach This approach assumes a clean slate [ARDÓSIA LIMPA/TERRA ARRASADA] as a starting point and may serve as a template for creating new patterns of spatial development in parts of the world engaged in building brand new metropolitan regions adjacent to current cities or in rare cases, in the middle of nothing.
  20. 20. the global economic and environmental crisis We will focus onspecific urban functions to illustrate the kind of new urban strategies that could deal with the current economic crisis, alleviate the global environmental crisis, and induce new forms of urban life that would be people-centered rather than profit- centered.
  21. 21. PART 2 A RESCUE PLAN [RESGATE]FOR THE POLYCENTRIC CITY NEW TRANSPORTATION & LAND USE POLICIES
  22. 22. THE POLYCENTRIC CITY NEW TRANSPORTATION & LAND USE POLICIES
  23. 23. NEW TRANSPORTATION & LAND USE POLICIES Moving People, Saving Energy, Cleaning the Air
  24. 24. The 21st Century Multimodal Transportation System The economic prosperity of a region is directly proportional to this matrix of movement.
  25. 25. The 21st Century Multimodal Transportation System The quality and number of connections created by people to people and people to information is an essential factor of productivity.
  26. 26. The 21st CenturyMultimodal Transportation System An idea based economy will never outdate the need for transporting goods to the users.
  27. 27. The 21st Century Multimodal Transportation System: Solutions and Angles i) The level of infrastructural possibilities; ii) The quality of the individual carriages; iii) To address the overall need and distance of travel.
  28. 28. Infrastructural Possibilities Looking at cities across the globe, clearly the most miserably ineffective ones are the ones that rely on a single mode of transportation, usually the surface street catering to the automobile with the bus as its onlyalternative. [...] In contrast, the cities that have at least two existing modalities, such as surface streets and a thorough subway or light rail systems already function exponentially better than their mono- transportation counterparts. .
  29. 29. infrastructural possibilities Cities with dual systems are able to absorb higher urban densities without collapse and they provide residents with options that fit and include a more diverse range of social classes and personal circumstances.
  30. 30. infrastructural possibilities The higher urban density allows for people to live closer to work and the transportation options help people effectively avoid unnecessary financial and personal hardship (dificuldade) over their mobility. This is a key factor in giving people and a city its competitive edge and providing its region with economic prosperity.
  31. 31. The Infrastructural Interventions They are the creation of a multi-modal transportation network. [This new network is to be superimposed over the existing infrastructure] In other words, existing cuts through the city fabric (major roads, freeways, etc) would now be utilized for multiple purposes, rather than the current mono function, in a multi-tiered approach
  32. 32. The Infrastructural Interventions Bicycles (walking) and similar low impact modes of individual transport
  33. 33. The multi-modal highway and freeway solutions The alternate modalities are to be superimposed over large thorough streets and freeways [?!!] by creating an upper level street in a way to maximize the benefits and minimize the disadvantages of each mode.
  34. 34. The multi-modal highway and freeway solutions The most pleasant modalities in terms of least noise and pollution and greatest esthetic value get the most privileged position, the top.
  35. 35. Quality of vessels i) Intelligent city cars, ii) smart motorcycles Iii) Self charging electric bicycles.
  36. 36. Landuse and the Need and Distance of Travel PROBLEMA Metropolitan transportation depends on the structure of transportation flows that ultimately depends on land use patterns dictated by the interests of real estate developers.
  37. 37. Landuse and the Need and Distance of Travel SOLUÇÃO To increase the multifunctionality of sub- metropolitan urban areas, so that residences, services, commercial facilities, and jobs, are clustered, thus limiting travel between mono-functional spatial units.
  38. 38. Landuse and the Need and Distance of Travel SOLUÇÃO The polycentric metropolis should establish a regulatory framework that would allow the mixed uses of space, would sharply curtail the exclusive residential uses of certain areas, and would limit the concentration of services and retail shopping in freeway dependent mega-centers. In other words, zoning should not be left to the local planning agencies but should be designed on a metropolitan scale, taking into account the transportation consequences of landuse patterns.
  39. 39. PART 3SOFT PROPOSALS:REUSE, COMMUNITY, COMMUNAL SPACE AND EVERYDAY
  40. 40. REUSE, COMMUNITY,COMMUNAL SPACE AND EVERYDAY LIFE Creative Re-use of Failed Economic-spatial Models
  41. 41. Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models the re-use of existing built structures that lose functionality under the conditions of an economy characterized by the crisis of financialand real estate corporations, and by a substantial reduction of consumption levels.
  42. 42. Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models We propose that the government should include in the financial bailout packages (Planos de Resgates) handed to large corporations the right to manage this corporate office space to rent it, at a subsidized rate, for start up, entrepreneurial business firms in the knowledge services sector.
  43. 43. Creative Re-use of FailedEconomic-Spatial Models We propose to convert failed strip malls into mixed use housing, commercial and communal services, and use their huge parking lots for a gardened courtyard, including some areas of community farming.
  44. 44. Urban Self-RelianceFrom Shopping Malls to Urban Farming
  45. 45. The Heart (s) of the City Public Space
  46. 46. Housing for Living:From Unsustainable Models to Community Based Dwelling Forms
  47. 47. PART 4CITY OF HOPE HOW TO MAKE IT HAPPEN
  48. 48. CITY OF HOPE HOW TO MAKE IT HAPPENThe City of Fear, the City of Hope
  49. 49. How to Make it HappenGrassrooting the Metropolis

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