PROFESSIONALSTUDIES3ASTUDENT NO:201103116INITIALS:MZSURNAME: NDABA
KNOWLEDGESOCIETY AGENDA
INFORMATION SOCIETYFacts, comments, opinions,expressed through words, images,sounds...It can be stored, circulated...
KNOWLEDGE SOCIETYThe output of the reconstructionof information by a person, according tohis/her history and context.I...
AGENDA• Knowledge Society• - Network Society• - Collective Intelligence• - The school in the Knowledge Society• - Being a ...
1.KNOWLEDGE SOCIETYKnowledge has always been a factorof productionAnd a driver of economic and socialdevelopment
CONTINUES…..The capacity to manipulate, store andto transmit large quantities ofinformation cheaply has increased ata stag...
INTEGRATING ICT INORDER TO BUILD THEKNOWLEDGESOCIETY:
- NETWORK SOCIETY The term Network Society describes several different phenomenarelated to the social, political, economi...
COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCEPretty much everything Im doing now falls under the broadumbrella that Id call collective intellige...
THE SCHOOL IN THE KNOWLEDGESOCIETY Teachers must take their place again among society’s mostrespected intellectuals – mov...
- B E I N G A T E AC H E R I N T H E K N OW L E D G ES O C I E T Y Teachers must take their place again among society’s m...
THE PERVASIVENESS OFTECHNOLOGY The word technology refers to the making, modification, usage, andknowledge of tools, mach...
THE PERVASIVENESS OFTECHNOLOGYtoolsmachines techniquescraftssolve a problem
MODERN COMMUNICATIONOF TECHNOLOGY We live in the world in which instantaneous communication is acommon place. Tv camera ...
FUTURE NATIONALSTRATEGIC OBJECTIVES Instructional design (ID) is recognised as the systematicdevelopment of instructional...
FIVE STRATEGIC GOALST H AT H AV E B E E N FAC T O R E D I N T O T H EP RO G R A M 1.Improve the quality of teaching and l...
1 . I M P ROV E T H E QUA L I T Y O F T E AC H I N GA N D L E A R N I N G Improving the quality of teaching and learning ...
2 . U N D E R TA K E R E G U L A R A S S E S S M E N T T OT R AC K P RO G R E S S Establish a world class system of stand...
―EDUCATION FOR ALL‖GOAL
―EDUCATION FOR ALL‖GOAL Are we going make it or not by the year 2015? Because the sixmajor goals were supposed to have be...
1.EXPAND EARLY CHILDHOODCARE AND EDUCATION The first goal that remains neglected is the goal of early childhoodcare and e...
2 . P ROV I D E F R E E A N D C O M P U L S O RYP R I M A RYE D U C AT I O N T O A L L . Basic education is recognized as...
3 . P R O M O T E L E A R N I N G A N D L I F E S K I L L S F O RY O U N GP E O P L E A N D A D U L T S .Access to learni...
4. INCREASE ADULT LITERACY BY50 PERCEPT.The most illiterate people are the women, theissue of illiteracy needs to be cover...
5 . A C H I E V E G E N D E R PA R I T Y B Y 2 0 0 5 , G E N D E RE Q UA L I T Y B Y 2 0 1 5 A lot of countries will not ...
6.IMPROVE THE QUALITYOF EDUCATION By 2008 the employment of teachers who were not qualifieddegraded our quality of educat...
BROAD AIMS ICTSTSA- Is organized around the six interrelated domain or boardstandards for teachers, namely they are;•Enga...
1. E NGAGE IN INSTRUCTIONAL DE SIGNPROCE SSE S Instructional design (ID) is recognised as the systematic developmentof in...
2. FACIL ITATE AND INSPIRESTUDE NT L E ARNING, INNOVATION ANDCRE ATIVITY According to a policy brief by the European Comm...
CONTINUE This is true of educational institutions in Africa as well. Educatorsare requirement to cultivate the capabiliti...
3. CREATE AND MANAGEEFFECTIVE LEARNINGENVIRONMENTS Educators are expected to create learning atmosphere for students that...
4. E NGAGE IN ASSE SSME NT ANDCOMMUNICATION OF STUDE NTL E ARNING Assessment, evaluation and communication of learner’sac...
5 . E N G AG E I N P RO F E S S I O N A LD E V E L O P M E N T A N D M O D E L E T H I C A LR E S P O N S I B I L I T I E ...
6. UNDE RSTAND SUBJ E CT MATTE R FORUSE IN TE ACHING The educators obligation first understand the material to be taught,...
THE COMPETENCES
THE COMPETENCES The term competence has been in the literature for quite sometime. But it appears to be somewhat dissimil...
THE SIX ASPE CTSOF A TE ACHE R’ S WORK UNDERSTANDING ICT IN EDUCATION CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT PEDAGOGY ICT ORGANISA...
UNDERSTANDING ICT INEDUCATION
CURRICULUM ANDASSESSMENTThe teacher realizes that using word processingon the interactive whiteboard would offera new appr...
PEDAGOGY Using the word processing application, the teacher displays on theinteractive whiteboard some examples of poor w...
ICT Initially, the teacher uses a word processing application on theinteractive whiteboard while conducting a discussion ...
O RG A N I Z AT I O NA N DA D M I N I S T R AT I O NUsing the school’s computer network, the teacherrecords her students’ ...
TE ACHE RPROFE SSIONALL E ARNING The teacher searches various websites for mother-tongue teachersto find teaching resourc...
REFERENCES International society for technology in education. (2008). advancing digital age learning , 1-2. Karklins, J....
REFERENCES Department of Education, 2007. Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICT. [Online] A...
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  • Information society: A society in whichinformation is a good that one can exchange,buy, sell, store, transport, process. The societyof the digital divide.
  • Information can be transmitted,Knowledge must be acquired, constructed.Information it transmitted in many ways TV, Books, internet at school….. Knowledge society: A human society, in whichknowledge should bring justice, solidarity,democracy, peace... A society in which knowledge could be a force for changing society.A society which should provide universal andequitable access to information
  • The emergence of the knowledge society, build on the pervasive influence of modern information and communication technologies, is bringing about a fundamental reshaping of the global economy. Its significance goes well beyond the hypig of the internet.
  • For an example economies depend on knowledge about how to farm, how to build and how to manufacture
  • Learning to knowICT and Knowledge, accessing Knowledge .Learning to doNew capacities, do through ICTLearning to live togetherNew communication, the « e-citizen »Learning to be in the knowledge society; personal development
  • While people have talked about collective intelligence for decades, new communication technologies—especially the Internet—now allow huge numbers of people all over the planet to work together in new ways. The recent successes of systems like Google and Wikipedia suggest that the time is now ripe for many more such systems, and the goal of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence is to understand how to take advantage of these possibilities
  • . They must also help their pupils commit to the vitalpublic goods that cannot be taken care of by the corporate interests of the knowledgeeconomy - a strong and vigorous civil society, developing the character that promotesinvolvement in the community, and cultivating the dispositions of sympathy and care forpeople in other nations and cultures that are at the heart of cosmopolitan identity
  • . They must also help their pupils commit to the vitalpublic goods that cannot be taken care of by the corporate interests of the knowledgeeconomy - a strong and vigorous civil society, developing the character that promotesinvolvement in the community, and cultivating the dispositions of sympathy and care forpeople in other nations and cultures that are at the heart of cosmopolitan identity
  • For world's developing communities the most pervasive technology comes in the form of mobile communication devices and associated services. For billions of people across the world, primary access to communication networks, including Internet, comes through their mobile phones - not from personal computers or fixed landlines telephony. This pervasive communication technology is on its way to fundamentally change social networking in local communities and dramatically improving education for remote schools
  • The same pervasive technology combined with sensor technologies is revolutionizing fieldwork in health care for rural areas. For the 3B people in the world that do not have a bank account pervasiveness of the mobile devices allows development of services that help these people to manage their finances and make payments without having to travel long distances or wait hours in line at banks. In this talk we will look at a range of technical and social science research that both helps us to understand the social context of pervasiveness of technology and to develop technological solutions designed for emerging and underserved markets in developing regions. We will use examples from the research performed at Nokia Research Center in Growth Economy initiatives and outline challenges for the research communities interested in ubiquitous computing for the next billion people.
  • Policies are being finalised that will see the national Department developing new training packages, to a large degree through distance education and e-Education, and leveraging the development of relevant training programmes by universities and private training providers. Plans for a monitoring system for the development of teachers, to be run by the South African Council for Educators (SACE), are already at an advanced stage. This system would require teachers to report on an annual basis on the professional development activities that they had undertaken.The importance of teacher competence in improving the quality of teaching and learning finds expression in the six indicators in the Action Plan to monitor teacher capacity and practice.
  • It is envisaged that ANA will expand and improve and become a cornerstone of quality improvements inSouth Africa’s schools, providing important information on learning and its context to teachers, parents,district officials and the public in general. Targets based on performance in ANA have already been setat the national and provincial levels. In addition, targets based on performance within the internationaltesting programme have been determined.
  • Free education for all
  • Each area of teaching or teacher standard has its own capability or performance indicators that focus the minimum knowledge, skills and attitudes expected of 21st century teachers in Africa. Teachers who have the minimum of these interrelated standards are believed to have aced the ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa
  • The technology offers wonderful opportunity for educators and students to achieve the task of creating and managing effective learning environments. However, in spite of the fact that web technologies have made the Internet more creative, collaborative and socializing, therefore it is not quite obvious that this enhancement also activates an uprising in learning in students and in the education system as a whole. In this regard, Blees and Rittberger (2009) question whether education and learning require re-thinking in view of the continuous change of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and whether we need new concepts and designs for respective working and learning environments”.
  • Throughout the assessment and communication processes educators need to gather information about student performance and achievements’ from variety of sources and involve all students in measuring their own learning. Moreover they will also need to exchange information about pupil learning with students, families and support personal in ways that increase understanding and encourage support academic progress. Such practices should be carried out in such a way that they support continuous learning and development. The use technology supports and facilitates the assessment and communication processes
  • Such conception of educators’ skilled progress is comprehensive than career development—the growth that occurs as the teacher moves through the professional career cycle—and also extensive than staff development—the provision of organized in-service programs designed to substitute the growth of groups of teachers (Villegas-Reimers, 2003). Educators have instantly recognizable ethical accountabilities and duties to their learners and colleagues.
  • Though there is no direct reference to this standard during the various workshops for the development of ICTeTSA, it is believed that understanding subject matter for use in teaching should be one of the broad standards for teachers. It is specifically believed that understanding subject matter for use in teaching using ICTs should be one of the minimum standards for 21st century teachers.
  • For the purpose of ICTeTSA, competence is hypothesized in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes expected of teachers to effectively accomplish their duties as teachers of a given subject area in the 21st century Africa. In other words, ICTeTSA expects teachers to have and demonstrate the knowledge, skills and attitudes composed of subject matter, pedagogy and technology in order to help their students learn best in a given context. Teacher competence a way of looking at teacher quality, as it can provide a framework for talking about essential qualities that are expected
  • A mother-tongue teacher understands the basic principles of using ICT in teaching, so he/she7considers how to make the best use of an interactive whiteboard recently installed in his/her8classroom. Until now, she has only used it as a projector screen.
  • Word processing can also be used for formative assessment. She composes a long, badlyworded sentence which she will give all the students on their computers and ask them to seehow many different improved versions they can produce within fi ve minutes
  • Then, by questioning the class, offering them suggestions and pointing out weaknesses insentences, she gets them to improve some further examples of writing. She makes the changes onthe interactive whiteboard as the students suggest them, so the whole class can see the process.Finally, she sits down to one side of the room and asks students to come to the interactivewhiteboard and operate it themselves to show how they can improve sentences.
  • In the next lesson, each student uses a laptop computer. Since the laptops and the teacher’scomputer are networked, the teacher can easily display on the interactive whiteboardinteresting examples of re-worded sentences which the students have been able to devise inthe five minute test. The whole class can then discuss and evaluate different wordings
  • For the second lesson, the teacher uses the school’s trolley of laptop computers so that eachstudent is able to carry out word processing on their own. She devises the two lessons in sucha way that students will know exactly what to do in the second lesson, without the need forquestions or discussion. This ensures the students make the fullest use of the laptops whilethey are available to them
  • The teacher regularly visits an Internet discussion forum hosted by the professional associationfor PE teachers. The forum is a useful source of new ideas on how to get students moreinterested in PE and exercise. He, for example, posts a question asking for technical advice onan aspect of a new fi tness programme the students want to try out
  • Professional studies3 a,

    1. 1. PROFESSIONALSTUDIES3ASTUDENT NO:201103116INITIALS:MZSURNAME: NDABA
    2. 2. KNOWLEDGESOCIETY AGENDA
    3. 3. INFORMATION SOCIETYFacts, comments, opinions,expressed through words, images,sounds...It can be stored, circulated...
    4. 4. KNOWLEDGE SOCIETYThe output of the reconstructionof information by a person, according tohis/her history and context.It depends on the person
    5. 5. AGENDA• Knowledge Society• - Network Society• - Collective Intelligence• - The school in the Knowledge Society• - Being a Teacher in the KnowledgeSociety
    6. 6. 1.KNOWLEDGE SOCIETYKnowledge has always been a factorof productionAnd a driver of economic and socialdevelopment
    7. 7. CONTINUES…..The capacity to manipulate, store andto transmit large quantities ofinformation cheaply has increased ata staggering rate recent years
    8. 8. INTEGRATING ICT INORDER TO BUILD THEKNOWLEDGESOCIETY:
    9. 9. - NETWORK SOCIETY The term Network Society describes several different phenomenarelated to the social, political, economic and cultural changes causedby the spread of networked, digital information and communicationstechnologies
    10. 10. COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCEPretty much everything Im doing now falls under the broadumbrella that Id call collective intelligence. What does collectiveintelligence mean? Its important to realize that intelligence is notjust something that happens inside individual brains. It also ariseswith groups of individuals. In fact, Id define collective intelligenceas groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seemintelligent. By that definition, of course, collective intelligence hasbeen around for a very long time. Families, companies, countries,and armies: those are all examples of groups of people workingtogether in ways that at least sometimes seem intelligent.
    11. 11. THE SCHOOL IN THE KNOWLEDGESOCIETY Teachers must take their place again among society’s mostrespected intellectuals – moving beyond the citadel of the classroomto being, and preparing their pupils to be, citizens of the world. They must do their best to ensure that their pupils promote andprosper from the private goods of the knowledge economy.
    12. 12. - B E I N G A T E AC H E R I N T H E K N OW L E D G ES O C I E T Y Teachers must take their place again among society’s most respectedintellectuals – moving beyond the citadel of the classroom to being, andpreparing their pupils to be, citizens of the world. They must do their best to ensure that their pupils promote andprosper from the private goods of the knowledge economy
    13. 13. THE PERVASIVENESS OFTECHNOLOGY The word technology refers to the making, modification, usage, andknowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods oforganization in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem,achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specificfunction. , It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery,modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affecthuman as well as other animal species ability to control and adapt to theirnatural environments
    14. 14. THE PERVASIVENESS OFTECHNOLOGYtoolsmachines techniquescraftssolve a problem
    15. 15. MODERN COMMUNICATIONOF TECHNOLOGY We live in the world in which instantaneous communication is acommon place. Tv camera can cover and transmit live any significant even aroundthe globe. Modern communication technology has immensely increasedman’s ability to witness events as they happen.
    16. 16. FUTURE NATIONALSTRATEGIC OBJECTIVES Instructional design (ID) is recognised as the systematicdevelopment of instructional qualifications using learning andinstructional theory to ensure the quality of teaching. As suchthis standard of teaching involves educators’ contentknowledge, pedagogical knowledge, technological knowledgeand their combination knowledge areas. It also includesprogress of teaching materials and activities; and assessmentand evaluation of all instruction and apprentice activities.
    17. 17. FIVE STRATEGIC GOALST H AT H AV E B E E N FAC T O R E D I N T O T H EP RO G R A M 1.Improve the quality of teaching and learning 2.Undertake regular assessment to track progress 3.Improve early childhood development 4.Ensure a credible outcomes- focused planning and accountability system 5.Improvement in the capacity of the department of basic education
    18. 18. 1 . I M P ROV E T H E QUA L I T Y O F T E AC H I N GA N D L E A R N I N G Improving the quality of teaching and learning involves acombination of variables including:• Teacher capacity and practice• • Teachers being in class, on time andteaching
    19. 19. 2 . U N D E R TA K E R E G U L A R A S S E S S M E N T T OT R AC K P RO G R E S S Establish a world class system of standardised national assessments
    20. 20. ―EDUCATION FOR ALL‖GOAL
    21. 21. ―EDUCATION FOR ALL‖GOAL Are we going make it or not by the year 2015? Because the sixmajor goals were supposed to have been met by 2005 but not all ofthem were successful. These goals are as follow; six Education for All goals.
    22. 22. 1.EXPAND EARLY CHILDHOODCARE AND EDUCATION The first goal that remains neglected is the goal of early childhoodcare and education which needs to be improved because it allowschildren to develop emotionally, physically, mentally, socially. It alsoreduces disadvantages and prepares children for better formalschooling.Free education for all
    23. 23. 2 . P ROV I D E F R E E A N D C O M P U L S O RYP R I M A RYE D U C AT I O N T O A L L . Basic education is recognized as a framework in which EFA goalscan be reached, matching quality and equity. Children need to beeducated from an early age as 3 years old. In order for this earlychildhood learning to progress there must be enough funding,department of health and social welfare must be involved for theirwell being. Education for All includes pre-primary schooling which isstill poor in many countries or not enough.
    24. 24. 3 . P R O M O T E L E A R N I N G A N D L I F E S K I L L S F O RY O U N GP E O P L E A N D A D U L T S .Access to learning resources, first and foremost textbooks, is a key factor.Learning must take place in a safe and healthy environment. learning arealso disadvantaged when pupils attend school overcrowded buildings, in loud or in classrooms that are poorly supplied or poorly ventilated. Life skills must be promoted through prelearning.
    25. 25. 4. INCREASE ADULT LITERACY BY50 PERCEPT.The most illiterate people are the women, theissue of illiteracy needs to be covered because alot of adults cannot read or write.
    26. 26. 5 . A C H I E V E G E N D E R PA R I T Y B Y 2 0 0 5 , G E N D E RE Q UA L I T Y B Y 2 0 1 5 A lot of countries will not meet the gender parity goal in 2015 whilethere were met in 2005. The reason for 2015 is that a lot of girls are stilldenied their right to education. There need for changes so that girls canget equal treatment for education. Therefore by 2015 girls and women can live free of aggression, can participate in institutions, can gain access and control over resources and services
    27. 27. 6.IMPROVE THE QUALITYOF EDUCATION By 2008 the employment of teachers who were not qualifieddegraded our quality of education . There are three challenges in education for all• Learning outcomes are not monitored• Learning environments are not proper and they need tobe improved• There’s a shortage of teachers
    28. 28. BROAD AIMS ICTSTSA- Is organized around the six interrelated domain or boardstandards for teachers, namely they are;•Engage in Instructional Design Processes,•Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning, Innovation and Creativity•Create and Manage Effective Learning Environments•Engage in Assessment and Communication of Student Learning,•Engage in Professional Development and Model EthicalResponsibilities•Understand Subject Matter for Use in Teaching.
    29. 29. 1. E NGAGE IN INSTRUCTIONAL DE SIGNPROCE SSE S Instructional design (ID) is recognised as the systematic developmentof instructional qualifications using learning and instructional theory toensure the quality of teaching. As such this standard of teaching involveseducators’ content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, technologicalknowledge and their combination knowledge areas. It also includesprogress of teaching materials and activities; and assessment andevaluation of all instruction and apprentice activities.
    30. 30. 2. FACIL ITATE AND INSPIRESTUDE NT L E ARNING, INNOVATION ANDCRE ATIVITY According to a policy brief by the European Communities (2008),ICT has not had a transformative impression or impact on teachingand learning in education and training institutions. However manyeducation institutions entirely over Europe are currentlyexperimenting with diverse digital tools, the methodologies developedare not continuously creative or innovative. This is imperative, as the influence of ICT use on students ishighly dependent on teaching approaches, and enhanced skillsoutcome when student-cantered guidance, group work and inquiryprojects are used.
    31. 31. CONTINUE This is true of educational institutions in Africa as well. Educatorsare requirement to cultivate the capabilities to facilitate and motivatepupil learning that lead to innovation and creativity. Launching andcontributing in teachers’ networks and successive innovative practicedevelopment of the field should become part of teacher training.
    32. 32. 3. CREATE AND MANAGEEFFECTIVE LEARNINGENVIRONMENTS Educators are expected to create learning atmosphere for students thatare supposed to be best for learning. Although various learning theories and educational philosopherspropose different learning environments, learner-centred ones advocatefor an environment that encourage active relationship construction andthe achievement of problem-solving skills. Educators need to create such learning environments that fosteractive learning, thinking and problem solving skills and try to managethem during teaching-learning practices
    33. 33. 4. E NGAGE IN ASSE SSME NT ANDCOMMUNICATION OF STUDE NTL E ARNING Assessment, evaluation and communication of learner’saccomplishment and growth are crucial parts of the teaching andlearning progression. Educators are being duty-bound to create and clearly communicatelearning goals for all students. Each part of the teaching and learning process should be aconstructive experience for learners and promote personal growth.
    34. 34. 5 . E N G AG E I N P RO F E S S I O N A LD E V E L O P M E N T A N D M O D E L E T H I C A LR E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S Teachers’ professional development (TPD) is assumed here as ―thebody of orderly activities to formulate educators for their profession,including preliminary training, induction courses, occupationaltraining, and continuous professional development within schoolsettings‖ (EU, 2010, p.19).
    35. 35. 6. UNDE RSTAND SUBJ E CT MATTE R FORUSE IN TE ACHING The educators obligation first understand the material to be taught,that is, grasp the relevant content knowledge (CK). But a teacher’sknowledge of subject matter should go beyond understanding of thematerial to be taught—she must understand the subject matter forteaching purposes. Teachers use their students for pupil development, subject matter,instructional means and teaching strategies to create topic matterreachable to all apprentices
    36. 36. THE COMPETENCES
    37. 37. THE COMPETENCES The term competence has been in the literature for quite sometime. But it appears to be somewhat dissimilar, at intervals it iscontradicting, conceptions of competence. Many international organizations such as UNESCO have alsobeen operational on it for quite some time to reach at a corporateconceptual basis for the term competence
    38. 38. THE SIX ASPE CTSOF A TE ACHE R’ S WORK UNDERSTANDING ICT IN EDUCATION CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT PEDAGOGY ICT ORGANISATION AND ADMINISTRATION TEACHER PROFESSIONAL LEARNING
    39. 39. UNDERSTANDING ICT INEDUCATION
    40. 40. CURRICULUM ANDASSESSMENTThe teacher realizes that using word processingon the interactive whiteboard would offera new approach to one of the basic skills in thecurriculum - how to improve the wording ofsentences. Word processing allows words to bechanged and moved around without having toendlessly re-write whole sentences on paper.
    41. 41. PEDAGOGY Using the word processing application, the teacher displays on theinteractive whiteboard some examples of poor writing. Shedemonstrates how, with a few changes in the choice of words and theword order, sentences can be made simpler and clearer
    42. 42. ICT Initially, the teacher uses a word processing application on theinteractive whiteboard while conducting a discussion with the class.
    43. 43. O RG A N I Z AT I O NA N DA D M I N I S T R AT I O NUsing the school’s computer network, the teacherrecords her students’ grades on a central fi lewhich other teachers and the schooladministration can also access.
    44. 44. TE ACHE RPROFE SSIONALL E ARNING The teacher searches various websites for mother-tongue teachersto find teaching resources on writing skills, including exercises andwriting assignments, stimulus material and ideas for lessons
    45. 45. REFERENCES International society for technology in education. (2008). advancing digital age learning , 1-2. Karklins, J. A. (2008). Unesco. Competency framework for teachers , 1-90. Manuel, T. (2011, november 11). National development plan vision for 2030. pp. 1-237. Motshekga, A. S. (2011, March 09). Department of Education. Strategic plan for 2011-2014 , pp.3-53. Pandor, G. (2004, September 02). white paper 7 on e- Education. transforming learning andteaching through information and communication technologies (ICTS) , pp. 3-42.
    46. 46. REFERENCES Department of Education, 2007. Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICT. [Online] Availableat: http://www.thutong.doe.gov.za/ResourceDownload.aspx?id=35998 [Accessed 22 February 2013]. Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2011. UNESCO ICT competency framework for teachers. [Online] Available at:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf [Accessed 22 February 2013]. (Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2011) Department of Education, 2007. Guidelines for Teacher Training and Professional Development in ICT. [Online] Availableat: http://www.thutong.doe.gov.za/ResourceDownload.aspx?id=35998 [Accessed 22 February 2013]. Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2011. UNESCO ICT competency framework for teachers. [Online] Available at:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475e.pdf [Accessed 22 February 2013].

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