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fabric architecture

  1. 1. JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 THE ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCE FOR DESIGNING WITH FABRIC SU STA I N A B L E FA BRI C 1 0 1 First in an on-going series of in-depth reports on an essential topic Wrapping up energy waste in Melbourne AIA Learning Units Green roof basics Subscribe at www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd0108FA-CV1.indd 8 Sec1:cv1 1/15/08 1:49:04 PM 9:55:19 AM
  2. 2. KNOCK IT OUT OF THE PARK with Sunbrella ®. Season after season, the awnings at the St. Louis Cardinals’ awesome new Busch Stadium will welcome crowds thanks to Sunbrella® performance fabrics. With Sunbrella you get stunning colors that are permanently embedded into the very fiber of the fabric. This unique Sunbrella process provides vibrant colors and designs that are guaranteed to last five years in any weather. After all, Sunbrella has been the leader in quality fabrics for decades. For a winning season every year, specify Sunbrella fabric on your next awning project. It will mean less worry for your customers and ultimately less hassle for you. For more information on our variety of styles and colors, contact your Glen Raven sales representative or visit sunbrella.com. www.sunbrella.com Sunbrella® and are registered trademarks of Glen Raven, Inc. Location courtesy of the St. Louis Cardinals. Awning installation by Lawrence Fabric Structures, Inc., St. Louis, MO.0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:cv2 1/15/08 1:49:12 PM
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  5. 5. FABRIC ARCHITECTURE VOLUME 20 NUMBER 1 SUSTAINABLE FABRIC 101 This issue begins an ongoing focus on the topic of sustainable design using fabric. This year, we will examine the subject from many points of view in an effort to bring you the latest industry information, technical data, and resources to help you address this most important (in light of recent global warming concerns, some would say essential) issue facing designers and society today. This issue opens the topic discussion, subsequent issues will address new materials and technologies, regionalism, educational programs, and practice (see “First word” on page 6.) 36 Living lightly on the land Fabric’s sustainable future may help lead design forward. BY Mason Riddle 40 Wrapping it up Inflated plastic bubbles enclose a shopping mall in Melbourne, Australia solving a host of problems, including energy waste. BY Mason Riddle 42 Noble endeavour ON THE Expressive canopy crowns a New Zealand home. BY Shelby Gonzalez COVER COVER DESIGN BY Cathleen Rose PHOTO COURTESY Structurflex FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 PORTFOLIO 32 The best of 2007 Every year we bring you the award winners of the International Achievement Awards. In this issue, the structures category winners. www.fabricarchitecture.info 30108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:3 1/15/08 1:49:23 PM
  6. 6. FABRIC ARCHITECTURE VOLUME 20 NUMBER 1 20 46 8 EXPERTISE PRACTICE FOUNDATION 16 DESIGN | Energy 22 ENVIRONMENT | Wind 6 FIRST WORD Let the sun (not) shine in A mighty wind A new report presents hard evidence Textiles are applied to revolutionize 8 SAMPLES for the benefits of awnings in helping hurricane protection systems. The latest examples of new work, provide more sustainable housing. BY Sonja Hegman exhibitions, conferences and design BY John Carmody, Kerry Haglund from around the world. and Yu Joe Huang 46 MATERIALS | Hospital fabrics Keeping it clean 20 COMMENTARY | Trend watch 14 REPORT | Las Vegas From waiting rooms to surgical suites See the light hospital purchasers look for fabrics Fabric Structures 2007 Symposium New technologies bring light — that protect and promote health. What was said, what the future holds. and the message — to fabric. BY Katherine Carlson BY Bruce N. Wright BY Lou Dzierzak 52 PRACTICE | Acoustics 59 AD INDEX 26 CONTINUING EDUCATION | Clear sound, clean design Green roofs Fabric reflectors make their debut at 60 SKETCHES | Design camp Seeing green up top the new London Royal Festival Hall. BY Zackery Belanger Scaffolds, billboards and cupcakes A green roof primer. BY Bruce Dvorak and Teens find use for recycled billboards, 56 RE | Vision and learn a valuable lesson in Marcus de la fleur FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 Plane Geometry design-build. 31 CONTINUING EDUCATION | A San Antonio elementary school BY John Comazzi, Anselmo Canfora Self test/reporting form improves the educational experience and Wendy Friedmeyer by adding a new canopy. 58 NEW PRODUCTS | Sustainable/eco-friendly Fabric Architecture (ISSN 1045-0483), Volume 20, Issue 1 is published bi-monthly by Industrial Fabrics Association COMING NEXT ISSUE: International, 1801 County Road B W, Roseville, MN 55113-4061. Periodicals Postage Paid at Minneapolis, MN and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster send address changes to Fabric Architecture, 1801 County Road B W, Roseville, MN New materials and new technologies 55113-4061. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5. for sustainable design. We explore a Subscription inquiries, orders and changes contact: Sue Smeed, Assistant Circulation Manager, Fabric Architecture, number of new products and processes 1801 County Road B W, Roseville, MN 55113-4061, Phone 800 225 4324 or +1 651 222 2508, fax +1 651 631 9334 to help you sort out what’s what. e-mail: subscriptions@ifai.com. 1-year USA $39, Canada and Mexico $49, all other countries $69, payable in U.S. funds (includes air mail postage). Reprints: call 800 385 9402, rdgrimes@ifai.com. Back Issues: call 800 207 0729, smdamico@ifai.com, www.bookstore.ifai.com. 4 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:4 1/15/08 2:26:54 PM
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  8. 8. FIRST WORD Sustainable Fabric 101 Publisher Mary Hennessy mjhennessy@ifai.com Editor Bruce N. Wright, AIA Launching a continuing examination of an bnwright@ifai.com important—no, essential—topic that will change Editorial Director Susan R. Niemi srniemi@ifai.com how you do everything Production Manager Russell Grimes rdgrimes@ifai.com Art Director Marti Naughton A ll the news media these days are talking about global warming. With Al Gore’s Graphic Designer Cathleen Rose 2006 hit film, An Inconvenient Truth, and his subsequent awarding of the No- Promotions and Circulation Manager Mary J. Moore bel Peace Prize last year (shared with the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on mjmoore@ifai.com Climate Change) for his work in bringing the issue of global warming to serious popular Assistant Circulation Manager Susan Smeed subscriptions@ifai.com attention, the topic —and all related environmental issues such as carbon footprint, Advertising Sales Manager Sarah Hyland sustainability in design, green building materials and the urban schyland@ifai.com heat island effect — cannot be ignored, and indeed, are being dis- Advertising Sales Jane Anthone, Terry Brodsky, cussed in a wide number of economic and social arenas. Vivian Cowan, Julia Heath, Karen Lien, Mary Mullowney, Susan Parnell, Elizabeth Welsh The New York Times business section, on Christmas Day re- Contributing Editors Joanna Baymiller, J. Clark, ported that numerous university researchers across the country Jean M. Cook, Helen Elias, Ali Heshmati, Percy Hooper, are establishing, or realigning, centers for sustainable research Barbara K. Hower, Robert Off, Víctor Hugo Roldán Gonzáles, Ron Shaeffer, Jamie Swedberg, Todd Willmert that cross disciplinary boundaries: “The problem of sustainabil- Fabric Architecture Advisory Committee ity cuts across economics, social elements, engineering, every- John Carter, J&J Carter Ltd., Basingstoke, UK thing,” says Nabil Nasr, director of the Rochester Institute of Deborah W. Dalton, ASLA, CELA, Technology’s new Golisano Institute for Sustainability. University of Oklahoma Gerry D’Anza, Naples, Italy We at Fabric Architecture magazine feel so strongly about this topic that we are Bruce Dvorak, ASLA, Texas A&M University devoting all of 2008 to it and will henceforth, in all future editions of FA, examine Nicholas Goldsmith, FAIA, LEED AP FTL, New York Beth Hungiville, Lightweight Structures Association the issues from many sides, with the goal of providing you with better resources and Craig Huntington, P.E., Huntington Design Associates material to help you design responsibly using fabric. Marijke Mollaert, PhD, Free University of Brussels Erik Moncrieff, Berlin, Germany Here is an outline of this year’s topics, starting with this issue: sustainability and Juan Monjo-Carrió, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid fabric (an introduction), or what we call Sustainable Fabric 101 (SF 101); March/April: Nora Norby, MFC, Banner Creations, Minneapolis new materials and technologies — SF 102; May/June: regionalism + sustainable de- Matti Orpana, Tensotech Oy, Kokkola, Finland William Overton, Meridian Mfg. Corp. sign — SF 103; July/August: “school for thought” (educational programs around Michele Sahlin, Professional Awning Manufacturers Association the globe and software reviews) — SF 104; September/October: practice, practice, Goetz Schierle, PhD., FAIA, University of Southern California practice (a “How to” issue) — SF 105; and November/December: Sources (the annual R.E. Shaeffer, P.E., Florida A&M University Sourcing Guide) — SF 106. Pete Weingartner, CPP, Queen City Awning In addition, our annual handy Sourcebook (the half-sized pamphlet that collects useful information on various single topics from 20 years of FA articles) will be an update of our year 2000 Sourcebook on sustainable design techniques using fabric. We think you’ll want to hold onto all of this year’s issues as an office guide for future Fabric Architecture is published by the Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI), a 2,000-member reference. By year’s end you will have received the industry’s knowledge base of green not-for-profit trade association dedicated to promoting the design practices and resources for responsibly designing with fabric. use of specialty fabrics. Later this year, the Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI), the pub- IFAI President Stephen M. Warner lisher of this magazine, will address this topic at its annual Expo by hosting a “Going 800 225 4324, +1 651 222 2508 FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 Green” symposium, October 21–23, 2008 (for more information: www.ifaiexpo.com.) IFAI We hope you agree this subject is worth all the attention. I welcome your thoughts on 1801 County Road B West any of these issues. Roseville, MN 55113 USA +1 651 222 2508 Bruce N. Wright, AIA 800 225 4324 Editor www.ifai.com bnwright@ifai.com Printed in USA. Publications Mail Agreement #40027027. Copyright ©2008 by the Industrial Fabrics Fabric Architecture inspires and educates To submit story ideas, Association International. readers about the benefits of fabric as an contact Bruce Wright, bnwright@ifai.com Statement of facts and opinions are made on the responsibil- innovative and sustainable building material. Those submitting manuscripts, photographs, artwork or ity of the author alone and do not necessarily imply the other materials to Fabric Architecture for consideration opinion of the magazine, its advisory committee, its editors, Official publication of the Lightweight should not send originals unless specifically requested or the association. Structures Association, and the Professional to do so by Fabric Architecture. Unsolicited manuscripts, photographs and other submitted materials must be Fabric Architecture reserves the right to refuse any and all Awning Manufacturers Association accompanied by a self-addressed overnight delivery return advertising and disclaims all responsibility for claims made envelope, postage prepaid. However, Fabric Architecture by advertisers. Materials may not be reproduced without is not responsible for unsolicited submissions. written permission. 6 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:6 1/15/08 1:49:59 PM
  9. 9. eye catching / breath taking Birdair custom tensioned membrane structures, cable systems, and lightweight building structures expert design/build services, for projects large and small progressive technical methods, premium fabrics and integrated solutions U.S.-based specialty company with global resources Award-winning projects in tensile architecture await you 800-622-2246 www.birdair.com Email: sales@birdair.com 50 years of timeless innovation0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:7 1/15/08 1:50:01 PM
  10. 10. SAMPLES Ultra-green Sustainable prefab debuts at West Coast Green The modular, prefabricated, zero-energy mkLotus Showhouse debuted to rave reviews at the recent West Coast Green Residential Building Conference & Expo 2007. West Coast Green, the largest green residential building conference in the country, took place in San BY Shelby Gonzalez Francisco from September 20–22. It featured over 270 vendors and 250 presentations, including several by mkLotus architect Michelle Kaufman. In all, 10,782 people registered for the conference. An estimated 8,500 attendees toured the Showhouse, which was erected across from City Hall, in front of the Bill Graham Civic Center Auditorium where the vendors and presentations were lo- cated. At times, the line to see it stretched across the plaza. Designed by Michelle Kaufman Designs, an eco-minded Bay Area architectural de- sign firm, and assembled in the firm’s fac- tory in Washington state, the mkLotus boasts 62m2 packed with earth-friendly features. One of the least visible but most interesting of those features is the roof. Solar panels capture enough energy to power the home, while a carpet of native plants reduces rainwater runoff, absorbs carbon dioxide — the greenhouse gas im- plicated in global warming — and reduces the urban “heat island effect.” Living roofs typically include a layer of geotextile filter fabric above the drainage layer to strain debris and stabilize the soil. The mkLotus utilized a proprietary Bio- TrayTM module system provided by Rana Creek Living Architecture. The mkLotus has a base price of $175,000, which does not include tax, solar panels, green roof, graywater recir- culation, or rainwater catchment system. Currently, it is available only in the West- ern states. For more information, check out www. mkd-arc.com, www.ranacreek.com, and www.westcoastgreen.com. FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 Shelby Gonzalez is a California-based freelance writer specializing in environmen- tal issues. ALL IMAGES: WEST COAST GREEN Left: The mkLotus Showhouse installed temporarily for the West Coast Green Building Conference across from the San Francisco City Hall. Top: The prototype, as rendered for a single wilderness lot and in multiple clusters for a community, middle. 8 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:8 1/15/08 1:50:01 PM
  11. 11. Wouldn’t it be nice to have an architectural fabric beautiful enough to herald its arrival? GORE™ TENARA® has redefined architectural fabric, so you can create stunning outdoor designs that capture and filter light like no other building material. Tenara lets in up to 40% more natural light and folds or drapes like real fabric. Plus, with its unique, high-strength expanded PTFE fiber technology, Tenara won’t fail under repeated folding and flexing, and is weldable using any standard equipment— so you can transform any space into a useful work of art. From the inventors of GORE-TEX TM fabric and outerwear, W.L. Gore & Associates has over 30 years of proven product and market experience in the textiles industry. 15 YEAR GUARANTEE gore.com/tenaraaf Tel: +1.800.276.8451 GORE, GORE-TEX, Tenara and designs are trademarks of W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. ©2007 W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:9 1/15/08 1:50:48 PM
  12. 12. SAMPLES Sports fans under fabric The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) has released HOK Sport’s design of London’s 2012 stadium. The bowl-shaped stadium will hold 25,000 permanent and 55,000 tem- porary seats, allowing for the stadium to be used as a local venue after the Games. The stadium covers two thirds of the spectators with a cable supported roof and is wrapped by a fabric curtain to ensure additional protection. Olympics minister Tessa Jowell said, “We will ensure that the Olympic stadium leaves a lasting legacy for London and the UK—a flexible venue with athletics at its heart, but also capable of multi-sport, educational and community use.” For more information, www.hoksport.com Green roof report Hightex gets high sign The American Society of Landscape Archi- The polymer membrane tensile structure producer Hightex Group PLC has won a 7 million tects (ASLA) has released the first perfor- euro contract to provide a membrane roof that will be part of the upgrading of the First mance report since the society’s green roof National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg for the 2010 FIFA Football World Cup. was installed in July 2006. For more information, www.hightexworld.com ASLA’s green roof retained 27,500 gal- lons of storm water between July 2006 and May 2007, reduced building energy costs by hundreds of dollars a month and sig- Green building moves outdoors nificantly lowered outdoor air temperature ASLA, the Univeristy of Texas at Austin’s Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center and the according to a report from the society. The United States Botanic Garden have announced the development of a new rating system for report examined various components of sustainable landscape design called the Sustainable Sites Initiative. The new rating system ASLA’s green roof demonstration project, was created to encourage sustainable landscape design. FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 in downtown Washington, D.C., ranging The Sites Initiative will measure the sustainability of designed landscapes of all types, from water and temperature monitoring to including public, commercial and residential projects. The U.S. Green Building Council plans individual plant performance. to adopt the Sustainable Sites metrics into its LEED® system once they are finished. For more information, www.asla.org For more information, www.asla.org Larger than life Corrections American Spaceframe Fabricators Interna- The client for the Las Vegas Motor Speedway project featured in the Sept/Oct issue was tional has been contracted to build a fabric incorrectly listed as NASCAR (Sept/Oct, pg. 40.) This should have been Speedway Motors- structure in Puerto Rico that, when com- ports (SMI). plete, will be the largest of its type in the The Product Profiles section of the Nov/Dec issue (“Sourcing Guide 2008”) incorrectly world. The company is moving its opera- listed the contact information for Transformit (pg. 64.) The e-mail address should have tions to Ocala, Florida. been cparent@transformitdesign.com, and the Web site address www.transformit.com. For more information, www.asfi.net We regret these errors. 10 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:10 1/15/08 1:50:49 PM
  13. 13. Wolfsburg Stadium - Germany Lords Cricket Club - UK Silver Spur - USA Louvre Museum - France Premium Outlets - USA Glaskubus Offices - Germany St Louis Children Hospital - USA Paul Klee Museum - Switzerland Lorenzi Hotel - Italy www.ferrari-architecture.com Discover our complete range of architecture and solar protection textiles for energy reduction options FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 (AIA classes available). www.ferrari-architecture.com www.soltis-textiles.com www.stamisol.com FERRARI TEXTILES CORP. Pompano Beach, FL, USA Tel: (954) 942-3600 - Fax: (954) 942-5555 - steve@ferraritextiles.com www.fabricarchitecture.info 110108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:11 1/15/08 1:50:52 PM
  14. 14. SAMPLES Off the grid Conferences A recent design probe from Philips called Off the grid: Sustainable Habitat 2020 is ex- Winnipeg, Canada 16–18 May 2008 ploring the possibility of using sensitive textile skins on buildings to create energy inde- “Fabric Formwork for Architectural pendent structures. Structures” The probe explores the integration of electronics and bio chemical functionalities into The first international conference explor- the inert material of the built environment. This future habitat shifts from the current state ing recent developments in flexible fabric where the building surfaces are benign in- formworks for concrete structures will fo- ert materials only used for construction cus on new architectural forms, hear invit- and shielding purposes, to sensitive func- ed speakers from numerous countries and tional skins that are alive and act as mem- hold workshop demonstrations. branes to harness energy. A membrane For more information, creates a strong link between the interior www.umanitoba.ca/architecture/ffc/ and exterior of the habitat, used as a trans- porter of air, water and light, taking build- Turin, Italy 1–2 July 2008 ings off the grid. “Architex” For more information, As part of the international gathering cel- www.design.philips.com ebrating Turin World Design Capital 2008, Architex brings professionals together from the textile industries with architects and designers. Tied also with the XXIII World Congress of Architecture, this ex- hibition and symposium will examine the latest developments for textiles, including phase change materials, reflecting and lu- minescent fabrics, color, and architectural components for fabric structures. For more information, http://architextorino.com/index.php?eng FA FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 12 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:12 1/15/08 1:50:53 PM
  15. 15. Bernburg Dessau Köthen Hochschule Anhalt (FH) Anhalt University of Applied Sciences0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:13 1/15/08 1:50:59 PM
  16. 16. REPORT | Las Vegas Fabric Structures discussed at symposium T BY Bruce N. Wright his past year’s Fabric Structures symposium—held the day before IFAI Expo in Las Vegas, Oct. 2, 2007—focused on a single theme that had everyone abuzz: the future and im- portance of sustainable practices in business. The day-long session opened with a rousing call to action by noted architect and expert on sustainable design Lance Hosey, AIA, LEED AP, partner in what is perhaps the leading sustainability consulting design firm in the world, William McDonough & Partners. Hosey touched on all the key issues that all designers (indeed, all businesses) must address in the near future: adapting existing materials to a more sustain- able position, embracing aesthetics as part of successful sustain- able designs (not ignoring aesthetics as early practitioners often did during environmentalism’s beginnings in the 1970s), and integrating sustainable con- “Designs can utilize new cepts into today’s built environment so that technologies, such as LED lighting these new sustainable-driven forms actually enhance a building’s performance. and integrated photovoltaics, to Hosey made the trenchant observation that much of sustainabil- ity practice today is doing old things better. He notes that many of increase a building’s efficiency and the earlier environmental movement’s concepts—recycling plastics, rainwater collection for reuse, minimizing biomass impact on eco- minimize its negative impact on systems, etc.—was right minded, just not resolved in sustainable ways so that each concept could contribute to the greater health of the environment, while providing the world. He also admitted that much of what was done in the ’70s was ugly. “It doesn’t have to look this way,” he says. “Aesthetics are a delightful, enriching setting.” not ‘icing on the cake’ but integral with design.” However, he warned designers that sustainable designs need to accommodate the unique —Cindy Thompson, Transformit circumstances of each building—only styles that are appropriate to a region should be used—and that across-the-board, cookie-cutter designs slapped down without regard to local history or styles will not in the end be sustainable. Hosey was followed by Cindy Thompson, president of Transformit, and FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 a partner in the new collaborative The Fabric Alliance, a sustainability- focused research group that promotes the use of fabrics and fabric struc- ture technology as a sustainable method. Thompson emphasized interior applications, how they can contribute to sustainable efforts, and how important it is to “design for delight.” Designs can utilize new technolo- gies, such as LED lighting and integrated photovoltaics, to increase a building’s efficiency and minimize its negative im- pact on the environment, while providing a delightful, enriching setting. Architect Douglas Kozel discussed Right: Fabric sculptor Jens J. Meyer several modest but highly sophis- inspired and delighted attendees at the ticated designs for office buildings Fabric Structures 2007 symposium held in the Madison, Wisconsin area, all in Las Vegas, last October. Opposite, above: Naturally integrated shade fins by naturally integrating fabric shade KEE Architects, Madison, Wisconsin. fins on the south sides of the build- 14 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:14 1/15/08 2:35:41 PM
  17. 17. I M A G I N AT I O N & I N N O V AT I O N I N FA B R I C A R C H I T E C T U R E ings. Landscape architect and professor Bruce Dvorak spoke about the advantages of using green roof technology, geotextiles and geofilters in roof assemblies, and Jeff Galland of S2 and Richard L. Warren of JCI Engineering rounded out the mid-day ses- sion with examples of applied sustainable design in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. To explore the future for sustainable de- sign using fabric, structural engineer Craig Huntington of Huntington Design Associ- ates presented an experimental, but suc- cessful application of photovoltaic systems FabriTec Structures can help make your project concept a reality with virtually on the roof of a Las Vegas parking struc- unlimited design options and applications.We utilize the most advanced architectural ture. The project placed reflective tensioned fabrics available to create structures that are practical as well as visually spectacular. FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 fabric sails underneath the extensive light collectors of the rooftop system, showing Design/Build Services Include: us yet another way to integrate fabric ele- ments in cutting-edge designs. Ending the • 3D/CAD Rendering & Engineering information-packed day, German artist • Construction Documents Jens J. Meyer delighted and inspired the • In-house Fabrication & Manufacturing audience with numerous examples of his beautiful fabric sculptures, most often in- • Experienced Project Management stalled in gritty or urban settings. By day’s • Nationwide Installation end, the symposium left everyone with re- newed energy and inspiration for a future 350 Kalmus Drive Costa Mesa, CA 92626 toll free 877.887.4233 fax 714.427.6983 of sustainable design that bodes well for F www.fabritecstructures.com the fabric structures industry. A FabriTec Structures is a brand of USA SHADE & Fabric Structures, Inc. —Bruce N. Wright, Editor, Fabric Archi- www.usa-shade.com tecture magazine www.fabricarchitecture.info 150108FA_cv1-p15.indd Sec1:15 1/15/08 1:51:06 PM
  18. 18. DESIGN | Energy Let the sun (not) shine in A new report presents hard evidence for the benefits of awnings in helping provide more sustainable housing Editor’s note: This is the second of two energy The benefits of awnings in residential buildings studies conducted by the University of Minnesota’s Awnings have advantages that contribute to more sustainable buildings. First, awnings re- Center for Sustainable Building Research under the support of the Professional Awning Manufacturers sult in cooling energy savings by reducing direct solar gain through windows. This directly Association (see FA May/June 2007, pg. 14.) reduces the impact of global warming from greenhouse gas emissions. A second benefit is Copies of the full reports can be obtained at: that peak electricity demand is also reduced by awnings potentially resulting in reduced www.awninginfo.com. mechanical equipment costs. Reduced peak demand may also result in energy cost savings in the future if residential customers are charged higher rates during peak periods. Another outcome of peak demand reduction is the overall savings to utility companies and the pub- lic from a decreased need to build new generating capacity. Table 1: Summary of awning impacts on cooling energy in 12 U.S. cities Table 2: Summary of awning impacts on peak demand in 12 U.S. cities FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 TURE NOTE: The annual energy performance figures shown here were generated glazed windows are used in all cases. For all cities, the awning deployment using RESFEN for a typical (new construction) 2000 sq ft house with 300 sq ft shown is either a 12- month or summer only condition, whichever produces the of window area. In the first case, the windows are equally distributed on all four best result. RESFEN is a computer program for calculating the annual cooling sides of the house. Where windows are predominately on the west side, the and heating energy use and costs due to window selection. It is available from distribution is 240 sq ft on that side and 20 sq ft on the others. Clear double Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (windows.lbl.gov/software/resfen) 16 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:16 1/15/08 1:31:22 PM
  19. 19. Cooling energy savings and predominantly cold climate (Boston) and a ing and whether the awnings are in place 12 peak demand reduction predominantly hot climate (Phoenix). Win- months per year or only in the summer. Tables 1 and 2 show the impact of aw- dow types shown are clear double glazing, For a house with windows equally dis- nings on reducing cooling energy and peak high-solar-gain low-E glazing, and low-so- tributed on the four sides, Table 3 shows demand in 12 U.S. cities with different cli- lar-gain low-E glazing. Shading conditions the annual heating and cooling energy use mates. The cities are listed starting with include: no shading, awnings deployed 12 and the peak electricity demand for each the lowest cooling energy use (Seattle) up months a year, and awnings deployed in combination of glazing and shading condi- to the highest (Phoenix). For each city, the summer only. tion. Table 3 also shows the impact on the results are shown for two typical houses. total cost of heating and cooling. In each The first house has windows equally dis- Cold Climate Impacts case, the table shows the percent savings tributed on all four orientations while the Table 3 shows the impact of awnings on a compared to the unshaded condition. second house has 80 percent of the win- typical house in Boston, Massachusetts, a As shown in Table 3, the awnings reduce dows facing west (the case with the high- predominantly cold climate. The impact var- the cooling energy 23–24 percent compared est cooling energy use from heat gain). ies depending on the type of window glaz- to a completely unshaded case. The actual The results in Tables 1 and 2 represent the best case for savings when awnings are ap- plied to clear double-glazed windows and operated seasonally (details appear in the full report). Table 1 shows cooling energy savings in all cities for all orientations, while Table 2 shows peak demand savings in most cit- ies. In all cases, the cooling energy and peak demand savings from awnings are greater in the house with predominately west-facing windows. The highest percent- age savings do not necessarily produce the highest actual savings. This occurs because some of the warmer cities with lower per- centage savings have greater actual cool- ing energy and peak demand savings than colder climate cities with higher percentage FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUAR savings and lower actual savings. Surpris- ingly, there can be little or no peak demand savings from awnings in some hot, humid cities. This is due to climatic variations that influence whether peak demand is driven more by solar gain through windows or by factors such as temperature and humidity. It is important to remember that these re- JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 sults are for a 2000 sq ft house and should be interpolated for larger houses. In addi- tion, the energy prices may rise in the fu- ture increasing the savings and shortening the payback for investing in awnings. Tables 3 and 4 show more extensive set of impacts from awnings for two cities: a www.fabricarchitecture.info 170108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:17 1/15/08 1:31:32 PM
  20. 20. DESIGN | Energy savings are greater with the clear glass (A) The total cost of heating and cooling is tem. The actual reduction is greater with and less with the low-solar-gain low-E glass about equal in Boston when awnings are the clear glass (A). (C). Because awnings block passive solar only used in the summer, but the total gain in winter, heating energy increases by cost is increased if they remain in place 12 Hot Climate Impacts 6–9 percent if the awnings remain in place months a year. Table 4 shows the impact of awnings on a typ- 12 months a year. By removing or retract- Table 3 also shows that awnings reduce ical house in Phoenix, Arizona with different ing the awnings in winter while keeping peak electricity demand by 17–22 percent orientation conditions. The same window ori- them in place in the summer, the lowest in Boston. This may contribute to the abil- entation, window types, and shading condi- total energy use is achieved. ity to downsize the mechanical cooling sys- tions used for Boston are applied in Phoenix. Table 3: Impact of awnings on a house—Boston, Massachusetts Table 4: Impact of awnings—Phoenix, Arizona FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 NOTE: The annual energy performance figures shown here were generated using RESFEN for a typical (new construction) 2000 sq ft EBRUARY house with 300 sq ft of window area. All cases in this report assume that there are no other shading devices such as overhangs or blinds and that the house is not shaded by trees or other buildings. The costs shown here are annual costs for space heating and space cooling only and thus will be less than total utility bills. Costs for lights, appliances, hot water, cooking, and other uses are not included in these figures. The mechanical system uses a gas furnace for heating and air conditioning for cooling. Electricity costs used in the analysis are $0.18 per kWh in Boston and $0.12 per kWh per in Phoenix. Natural gas costs used in the analysis are $16.20 per MBTU in Boston and $12.84 per MBTU in Phoenix. These figures are based on 25 year projected average costs for electricity during the cooling season and for natural gas during the heating season. All data is provided by the Energy Information Administration (www.eia.doe.gov). RESFEN is a computer program for calculating the annual cooling and heating energy use and costs due to window selection. 18 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:18 1/15/08 1:31:33 PM
  21. 21. In Phoenix, the awnings reduce the cool- ing energy 14–20 percent compared to a completely unshaded case. As in Boston, because awnings block passive solar gain in winter, heating energy increases if the awnings remain in place 12 months a year. Of course, the relative importance of the heating versus the cooling season impacts varies by climate. In predominantly warm climates like Phoenix, the impact of aw- nings on reducing passive solar gain is less of a concern. The total cost of heating and cooling is Helping you reduced 13–18 percent in Phoenix when awnings are only used in the summer. Table 4 also shows that awnings reduce peak elec- cover the world. tricity demand by 9–12 percent in Phoenix, potentially contributing to the ability to downsize the mechanical cooling system. The actual savings are greater with the clear glass (A) and less with the low solar-gain low-E glass (C). In comparing Tables 3 and 4, it is clear that the impacts of awnings are differ- ent depending on the building location and whether the awnings are deployed 800 387 2764 I www.naizilcanada.com I paulp@naizilcanada.com year-round or only in the summer. A very important consideration in assessing the benefits of awnings is window orientation. A house in any climate with the windows predominantly facing to the east, south, and west will have greater cooling energy use and cooling peak demand than the equal orientation case. This is particularly true with peak demand in the west orienta- tion. Generally, this means energy and cost savings from using awnings is greater with predominantly east, south, and west ori- entations than when windows are equally distributed. Specific energy and cost sav- ings multiple orientation conditions can be found in the full report. FA FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 John Carmody and Kerry Haglund Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota Yu Joe Huang Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory December 2007 Copyright © 2007 Regents of the University of Minnesota. Used with permission. www.fabricarchitecture.info 190108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:19 1/15/08 1:31:36 PM
  22. 22. COMMENTARY | Trend watch See the light New technologies bring light— and the message—to fabric BY Lou Dzierzak B usinesses operate on a 24-hour clock today. Capturing the attention of customers once the sun goes down requires ingenuity, creativity and staying abreast of new technologies. Since commerce after dark is too big of a market to ignore, new cutting edge technologies are offering new solutions to traditional backlit fabrics. Oracal USA, Black Creek, GA recently introduced two vinyl film products certified by Cee- Lite LLC that use the company’s cutting edge LEC (light-emitting capacitor) technology. CeeLite LEC panels can turn any surface into a light source. The paper-thin LEC panels do not generate heat and require very little power for illumination. CeeLite panels use a LEC structure with Sylvania phosphors placed between a series of electrodes. Powered by AC voltage, the electricity generates a changing field within the phosphors that causes the phosphors to emit light. Craig Campbell, product applications manager at ORACAL sees tremendous opportu- nities ahead, “The growth potential is truly immeasurable. By providing the only CeeLite- certified inkjet media that is currently available, our Orajet Series 3880 is generating “Using the combination of these technologies has allowed graphic providers to think outside the box and put illuminated images where never thought possible.” Top: CeeLite LEC panels were used to create a gi- Craig Campbell, product applications manager ORACAL ant 160m2 interactive display illuminating five two- story high images of Madonna to produce a fully interactive fashion show that lights up New York’s Fifth Avenue. Opposite, below: CeeLite technology interest on a global scale. Projects using the combination of these technologies has al- also was used on indoor billboards in the Grand FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 lowed graphic providers to think outside the box and put illuminated images where never Central Station subway for Westin Hotels. thought possible.” Blue Ocean Worldwide, a creative services and production firm in New York, NY has used CeeLite technology to create illuminated Absolut Vodka bus vehicle wraps, sig- nage for the Washington Redskin’s Fedex Field and indoor billboards for the Westin Hotels on display in New York’s Grand Central Station subway. David Stadler, ceo of Blue Ocean states, “I truly believe this product will completely CONTACTS change the industry. It’s such a versatile product that can do so many things.” Blue Ocean Herculite Products Inc. uses litho, screen or digital printing to apply graphics. Limitations are few but include ad- www.herculite.com dressing size limitations if seams are needed. Oracal Stadler often has to calm overly enthusiastic customers after they see CeeLite presented. www.oracal.com “Once that is panel on, people’s minds take off and they have lots of ideas. You have to CeeLite sometimes slow them down a little bit.” FA www.ceelite.com Lou Dzierzak is a freelance writer/editor who covers technical topics on a regular basis for nu- Blue Ocean Worldwide merous trade journals. www. blueoceanworldwide.com 20 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:20 1/15/08 1:31:38 PM
  23. 23. FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 www.fabricarchitecture.info 210108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:21 1/15/08 1:31:41 PM
  24. 24. ENVIRONMENT | Wind A mighty wind Textiles are applied to revolutionize the capacity of hurricane protection systems BY Sonja Hegman T he hurricane barrier/protection in- dustry started about 50 years ago. Initially, only wood planks were used to board up windows, and the more well-to-do homeowner used wood shutters with iron clasps to keep out the elements. “Now, wood shutters are commonly used for decoration,” says Dennis Grubb, found- er of Wave Guide Technologies in Jackson- ville, Fla. As technology marched forward, alumi- num became the popular choice for protection, Grubb said, but it was cumbersome and expensive. Aluminum was generally used as a manual shutter that had to be closed using a fastener. Eventually, aluminum was replaced with roll down products [that were] originally developed and used in Europe, Grubb says. “They were used to control heat loss or heat gain. In World War II, roll downs were used as security.” The roll-down technology was brought to the U.S. about 20 years ago, and it was devel- oped and sold—in either motorized or manual form—as a hurricane protection product. But, Grubb says, these products were still expensive. “About five years ago, I decided that needed to change,” he said. FABRIC ARCHI TECTURE • JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2008 So Grubb developed a product that was more affordable and easier to deploy that used industrial fabrics: the Clearlar system, which is designed to custom fit to the window using an aluminum mounting system that works manually or motorized. Made from an industri- al/military grade of super reinforced polymer-based fabric, Clearlar is coated with multiple layers of an ultraviolet- and mildew-resistant PVC coating material. It is certified by the National Accreditation & Management Institute Inc. for installation in any hurricane prone area, as it complies with the state of Florida’s hurricane protection building codes. When tested by the state of Florida, Grubb claims that Clearlar withstood winds of 330km/hr; it’s guaranteed up to wind speeds of 282km/hr by Grubb’s company. “It has never failed me on a test,” he says. Fending off flying debris Though Dr. Patrick Hook’s company doesn’t manufacture products specifically for hurri- cane protection, Auxetix Ltd. has developed preventive fabrics that stretch and can contain flying debris. As managing director of the company in Witheridge, Devon, England, U.K., 22 www.fabricarchitecture.info0108FA_p16-p25.indd Sec2:22 1/15/08 1:31:45 PM

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