SlideShare a Scribd company logo
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS
FOR CONCRETE
2
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
Concrete is a material especially used in civil engineering structures for its strength and durability.
For buildings it also has to achieve the look and beauty envisaged by the owner and their architect.
To enhance these aesthetics and bring more colors, or for example to increase the durability of the
concrete by preventing water ingress and to seal and accommodate surface cracks, protective
coating systems can provide the ideal solution.
We have developed and produced coating systems that are used all around the world to protect
concrete surfaces and structures for many decades. This includes the protection of all types of
buildings and structures, in various types of environment and climatic conditions, from the winter
cold of North America and Eastern Europe, the heat and humidity of Central and Southern America
or Asia, to the dry, arid heat of the Middle East and desert regions.
SIKA – YOUR PARTNER
3
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CONTENT
04 Sika’s Life Cycle Assessment Approach
05 Sustainable Concrete Protection
08 Proven Long-Term Durability
10 Concrete Structures and their Exposure
12 Key Stages in the Concrete Refurbishment Process
13 Sika Principles in Accordance with European Standard EN 1504
14 Assessment of Typical Causes and Effects of Damage
16 Concrete Refurbishment Strategy
17 General Concrete Refurbishment Procedures
18 Refurbishment Process
22 Key Parameters for Selection of the Concrete Protection System
24 Barrier to Carbon Dioxide
26 Sika Organic Coating
28 Sika Cement Based Coating
30 Sika Reactive Coatings
32 Sika Product Selection Guide
34 Case Studies
4
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SIKA’S LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
APPROACH
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a standardized method to as-
sess and compare the inputs, outputs and potential environ-
mental impacts of products and services over their life cycle.
LCA’s are increasingly recognized as the best way to evaluate
the sustainability of products and systems.
Sika carries out LCA’s according to the ISO 14040 series and
the Standard EN 15804. The impact assessment methodology
used is CML 2001. The data for the Sika LCA is based on public
databases, such as those from ecoinvent, the European Refer-
ence Life Cycle Database (ELCD) and PE-GaBi, plus the specific
data from Sika production plants and products.
Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), Global Warming Potential
(GWP) and Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP)
are considered to be the most relevant for concrete repair
and protection:
́́ Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) is the total amount of
primary energy from renewable and non-renewable re-
sources.
́́ Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the potential contribu-
tion to climate change due to greenhouse gases emissions.
́́ Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) is the
potential contribution to summer smog, related to ozone
induced by sunlight on volatile organic compounds (VOC) and
nitrous oxides (NOx).
Application
Natural Resources Raw Materials
Cradle to Gate
End-of-LifeWaste
Productio
n
Cradle to GraveCradle to Grave
Use and Maintenance
5
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE
PROTECTION
Sika LCAs for Concrete Protection are based on a ‘Cradle to
Grave’ approach, whereby the potential environmental impact
of coatings are investigated right from their raw materials
extraction, through production, application and service, to any
final disposal necessary at end of life (construction and end-
of-life scenario of the structure itself are excluded).
The LCA below compares three products with similar long-
term durability, including solvent borne acrylic and a poly-
urethane, plus a newly developed water borne polyurethane
coating.
Bridge concrete protection – 20’000 m² over a 60 years period
Scenario A:
PU water borne
Scenario B:
Acrylic solvent borne
Scenario C:
PU solvent borne
New construction 2 coats over a water borne primer 2 coats over a solvent borne acrylic
primer
2 coats over an epoxy based
primer
Maintenance every 20 years 1 refresher coat 1 refresher coat 1 refresher coat
6
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE
PROTECTION
When the durability of a coating system is important, it is
usually solvent borne products that are being considered,
and based on acrylic or polyurethane binders. Although their
technology is continually improving, water borne acrylic coat-
ings still do not have the performance of their solvent borne
counter parts that are normally 1-component products. Poly-
urethane products are available with solvent and water borne
binders and are generally supplied as 2-component products.
Sika recently launched a 1-component water borne polyure-
thane coating that is equal, if not higher performing than the
acrylic solvent based coating. Comparative tests carried out
on the new coating show outstanding performance in term of
color retention, UV light stability and CO
²
diffusion resistance
after accelerated weathering. The LCA carried out on these
three types of coating allows verification of their impact in
term of sustainability.
There is no significant difference between the water borne PU
and the solvent borne acrylic with regards to Global Warming.
This is due to the relative high impact from the production of
water borne PU.
Conversely, when compared to the solvent borne PU, the new
product has a much higher positive impact.
The difference between the two PU products is actually equiv-
alent to the CO
²
emissions of a 15 tons truck covering more
than 1’000 km every year.
There is also no significant difference between the water
borne PU and the solvent borne acrylic with regards to Cumu-
lative Energy Demand. This is due to the same impact from
production of the water dispersed PU. Conversely, when com-
pared to the solvent borne PU, the new product has a much
higher impact on the environment. The difference between
the two PU is equivalent to the release of more than 3 drums
of 200 liters of oil per year.
20 000 500
40 000 1000
60 000 1500
80 000 2000
100 000 2500
120 000 3000
140 000 3500
0 0
End of life
Product application
Surface pre-treatment
Transport to site
Product stage
Scenario A
kCO
²
-equivalent
Gjoules
Scenario AScenario B Scenario BScenario C Scenario C
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
Over 60 years period and 20’000 m²
Cumulative Energy Demand (CED)
Over 60 years period and 20’000 m²
End of life
Product application
Surface pre-treatment
Transport to site
Product stage
7
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CONCLUSION
All three products have similar durability in term of protec-
tion against CO
²
. For UV light stability and color retention,
polyurethane coatings are known to generally perform
better than the acrylic coatings. This LCA also clearly show
the advantages of Sika’s new water borne polyurethane
(PU) coating versus solvent based, with the drastic reduc-
tion in its impact on the environment with regards to ozone
creation.
The new water borne PU coating product also has a huge
reduction in ozone creation as it is much reduced compared to
the other two solvent borne coatings.
The difference between the new water borne coating and
the other two products is actually directly equivalent to the
release of 300 to 500 liters of solvent per year in this example
alone.
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
0
KgEtheneequivalent
Scenario A Scenario B Scenario C
Photochemical Ozone Creation (POCP)
Over 60 years period and 20’000 m²
End of life
Product application
Surface pre-treatment
Transport to site
Product stage
REFURBISHMENT
ICRI AWARD-WINNING
PROJECTS 1998–2013
SIKA – STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE IN CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT
SIKA AT WORK
TURÓW POWER PLANT,
POLAND
CONCRETE REPAIR: Sika MonoTop® System, Sikacrete® PP1 TU
PROTECTIV COATINGS: Sikagard®-700, Sikagard®-680 S,
Sikagard®-550 W Elastic,
Sika® Poxicolor, Sika® Icosit-2406,
SikaCor® EG 5
TECHNICAL ARTICLE
Albert Barnes House, London, UK
Original Constsruction: 1963, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1982, Inspection and Assessment: 1997
MARCH 2016 / VERSION 3 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO
FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION
 
 
 
TECHNICAL ARTICLE 
CONCRETE BRIDGES IN JUTLAND, DENMARK 
Original Construction: 1960’s, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1983, 
Inspection and Assessment: 1988, 1991 and 1994 
SEPT‐2013 / V‐2 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO 
FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION 
 
   
TECHNICAL ARTICLE
THE LÄMERSHAGEN BRIDGE A2 MOTORWAY, GERMANY
Original Construction: Late 1940’s, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1981-82,
Inspection and Assessment: 1997
MAY 2014 / V-2 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO
FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION
8
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
PROVEN LONG-TERM DURABILITY
SIKA PROTECTIVE COATINGS have been applied all over the world for several decades.
Extensive references and Case Studies are available for all types of structures and exposures.
In the late 1990’s Sika commissioned various external insti-
tutes to investigate the performance of Sika concrete repair
and protection systems that had been applied some years
before. This in-depth investigation was carried out in Europe
(England, Germany, Denmark and Norway), and revealed the
outstanding performance of the different Sika protective
coatings that had been applied from 10 to 20 years ago on the
different projects.
In 2008, a similar investigation was made into the perfor-
mance of the protective coating systems applied 16 years ago
at that time, on multiple Cooling Towers of a power plant in
Poland. This revealed that despite the harsh conditions, both
internally and externally the Sika protective coating systems
still achieved, and even still outperformed, the protective
performance requirements of the latest European Standard
EN 1504-2.
It is therefore also no surprise that Sika won more than 100
awards from the prestigious ICRI institute, for projects suc-
cessfully completed and having proven durability using Sika
Concrete Repair and Protection Systems. Among them many
ICRI awards of longevity were won when using Sika protective
coatings.
10
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND THEIR
EXPOSURE
DEPENDENT ON THEIR LOCATION AND USE, concrete structures are subjected to a wide range of
exposure conditions – from normal atmospheric carbonation to the aggressive influences in polluted
urban and/or industrial environments, plus marine atmospheres and other chemicals (liquid and
gaseous) etc., together with other influences and actions that can damage or attack the concrete
and / or its embedded steel reinforcement.
Water Ingress
Water can penetrate naturally through the capillary
pore structures of reinforced concrete. In areas of
carbonated concrete, or where there is a high chloride
content on the surface of the steel reinforcing bars,
reinforcement corrosion, cracks or spalling can occur
on the surface.
Dynamic and Static Load
Overloading due to increasing traffic loads, inad-
equate design, damage to the structure, stress/
fatigue failure, earthquake effects, or any other me-
chanical impact such as vehicle impact, can all
exceed or reduce the load capacity of the structure.
Wide Temperature Variation
Buildings and bridges may be subjected to a wide
variation of temperatures between day and night /
winter and summer conditions, or between different
sides or surfaces of the structure. These frequent
cycles result in thermal stresses and movement in
the concrete structure that can also result in cracks.
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon Dioxide (CO
²
) reacts with the Calcium Hydrox-
ide (Ca(OH)
²
) in the pore liquid of the cement matrix
of concrete structures and deposits as calcium car-
bonate (CaCO
³
). This process known as carbonation
reduces the protection of embedded steel reinforce-
ment, when the process reaches the reinforcement
bars.
Chlorides Ingress
Chlorides come from de-icing salts used in winter, or
from salt water in marine environments. They can
penetrate the concrete structure and once they reach
the reinforcement bars, they can locally destroy the
passivation film causing fast pitting corrosion.
Freeze / Thaw Action
The freeze thaw process creates stresses in the
concrete matrix due to the expansion of free water
in the capillary pores during freezing conditions; this
can result in scaling of the surface of poor quality
concrete. This action is also greatly accelerated by
the presence of chlorides in the water.
Chemical
Some structures such chemical plants or sewer sys-
tem or waste water treatment plants are subjected
to different level of chemical attacks. Some special
coatings may be required – refer to the relevant Sika
brochure.
Fire
Reinforced concrete may be damaged from fire ex-
posure. Special intumescent coatings may be used
to protect against the structures against the effect
of fire. What is expected from normal coating is they
should not bring food to the fire in order not to in-
crease its intensity. Some structures like tunnel have
special consideration with this particular risk.
11
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
KEYSTAGESINTHECONCRETE
REFURBISHMENTPROCESS
THE SUCCESSFUL REPAIR, PROTECTION AND CORROSION MANAGEMENT of concrete
structures always requires an initial professional assessment and an appropriate detailed
condition survey.
1. ASSESSMENT OF THE STRUCTURE
A condition survey by qualified and experienced people to in-
clude the condition of the structure and its surfaces, including
visible, non-visible and potential defects.
2. IDENTIFICATION AND DEGREE OF THE CAUSE(S)
OF DAMAGE
A review of the original construction details and any previous
refurbishment works, plus analysis and diagnosis from the
condition survey to identify:
́́ 	Damage due to concrete defects or attack (mechanical,
chemical or physical types)
́́ Damage due to reinforcement corrosion (carbonation or
chloride attack)
3. DETERMINATION OF REPAIR AND PROTECTION
OBJECTIVES AND OPTIONS
Owners and engineers always have a number of options for
deciding the appropriate refurbishment strategy to meet the
future requirements of the structure.
KEY STAGES IN THE CORRECT REPAIR AND REFURBISHMENT PROCESS:
4. SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE REPAIR PRINCIPLES
AND METHODS
In accordance with EN 1504-9 the appropriate “repair prin-
ciples” should be selected and then the best “method” of
achieving each principle can be defined.
Following this selection, the performance requirements of
suitable products are defined, using European Standards EN
1504 Parts 2 to 7 in conjunction with Part 10, which also pro-
vides guidelines for the work preparation and site application
including quality control. On these substantial structures with
their very specific exposure and damage potential, the mate-
rials selected must also be tested and proven in these very
specific conditions.
5. FUTURE MAINTENANCE
As with all refurbishment projects, the need and likely time
schedule for future inspection and maintenance should be
defined. Complete and fully detailed records of the works un-
dertaken must always be maintained.
SIKAPRINCIPLESINACCORDANCEWITH
EUROPEANSTANDARDEN1504
SIKA IS THE GLOBAL MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY LEADER in research, development and
production of concrete repair systems for all types of buildings and civil engineering structures.
For every owner or consultant, their own project, building or
structure is always the most important. Sika is the ideal part-
ner for owners and their architects, engineers, contractors and
access equipment suppliers focused on these works, whatever
the type, sizes and age of the structure.
All of the products and systems required for the successful
repair and protectionof the concrete structure, including all of
the exposed surfaces are produced by Sika and fully in accor-
dance with European Standards EN 1504. This includes grades
of the materials developed for application in all of the different
exposure and climatic conditions that can be encountered all
over the world.
Sika also provides a complete package of documentation to as-
sist all of our partners with the selection of the most appropri-
ate concrete repair and protection principles and methods, the
necessary detailed specifications and tender documents, plus
complete integrated Method Statements for the correct use of
all of the products and systems. Then Sika’s Technical Services
Department will train your engineers and contractors in the
Quality Controlled use and application of the products both off
and on site.
Extensive independent testing with all relevant approvals and
certificates, supported by an equally extensive portfolio of
successfully completed case studies and reference projects
around the world, provides maximum confidence and security
for everyone involved in the project.
Whatever damage has occurred, whatever the future expo-
sure requirements are, and wherever the location – Sika is the
ideal partner for your project.
14
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
ASSESSMENTOFTYPICALCAUSES
ANDEFFECTSOFDAMAGE
CHEMICAL
́́ Aggressive exhaust gases
́́ Condensation leaching
́́ Waste water
́́ Chemical spillage
PHYSICAL
́́ Thermal movement
cracking
́́ Adverse thermal gradient
cracking
́́ Freeze/thaw action
́́ Shrinkage (from hydration)
́́ Erosion
DAMAGE DUE TO CONCRETE DEFECTS OR ATTACK
Severe detoriation of concrete and corrosion of reinforcing steel despite a previously applied unadequate coating in the internal face of a
cooling tower.
Chimneys in direct sunlight indicating variations in thermal exposure which are further exacerbated by the effects of the downward flow of
hot exhaust gases during periods of temperature inversions.
15
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CARBONATION
Atmospheric carbon dioxide
ingress (loss of alkaline pro-
tection).
Ca(OH)
²
+ CO
²
• CaCO
³
+ H
²
O
Carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere penetrates pro-
gressively into the concrete
and reacts with the calcium
hydroxide in the pore liquid.
This eventually reduces the
protective alkalinity around
the steel, allowing corrosion
to start in presence of water.
This phenomenon is often
associates with low concrete
cover.
CHLORIDES
Dependent on their location
and use (e.g. bridges or build-
ings and structures near the
sea), corrosion of the rein-
forcement can also occur due
to attack from chlorides in
marine atmospheres or from
de-icing salts (e.g. bridge
piers on roads in northern
Europe).
DAMAGE DUE TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT CORROSION
General corrosion induced by carbonation aggravated with low concrete cover issue.
Reinforcing steel corrosion in a pier.
16
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT
STRATEGY
The faster carbon dioxide or chlorides penetrate the concrete,
the sooner the passive layer around the reinforcement bars is
destroyed and the corrosion process initiated.
To ensure long lasting durability, an appropriate maintenance
strategy should also be followed by the owners and their con-
struction management. Protective coatings can be an impor-
tant part of this strategy, to ensure a long service-life for new
structures and also to increase the durability of existing ones.
IN THE 21ST CENTURY, REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES ARE BUILT TO LAST
(e.g. most bridges are now designed to last more than 100 – 150 years). The two most universal
causes of reinforcement corrosion and concrete damage are carbonation and chloride attack.
17
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
GENERAL CONCRETE
REFURBISHMENT PROCEDURES
Types of Damage/
Defects (Examples)
Possible Principles/Methods EN 1504-9
For the Repair For the Protection
Concrete spalling/
scaling of concrete
surface
Principle 3:
Concrete restoration
(Method 3.1/3.2/3.3)
Principle 1:
Protection against ingress
(Methods 1.1/1.2/1.3)
Principle 5:
Physical resistance (Method 5.1/5.2/5.3)
Steel
reinforcement
corrosion
Principle 7:
Restoring passivity
(Method 7.1/7.2)
Principle 8:
Increasing resistivity (Method 8.1/8.2/8.3)
Principle 9:
Cathodic control (Method 9.1)
Principle 10:
Cathodic protection (Method 10.1)
Control of anodic areas (Methods
11.1/11.2/11.3)
Structural cracks Concrete restoration
(Methods 3.1/3.3)
Crack Injection
(Methods 4.5/4.6)
Structural strengthening
(Methods 4.1/4.3/4.4/4.7)
Not applicable
Non-structural
cracks
Principle 1:
Filling of cracks
(Method 1.5)
Principle 1:
Protection against ingress (Method
1.1/1.2/1.3)
Principle 2:
Moisture control (Method 2.1/2.2/2.3)
Principle 5:
Physical resistance (Methods 5.1/5.2/5.3)
Chemical attacks Principle 6:
Adding mortar or concrete
(Method 6.3)
Principle 6:
Resistance to chemicals with coating
(Method 6.1)
Not treated in this document – refer to Sika
Waste Water Treatment Plant brochure
After a detailed condition survey and root cause analysis, the
right procedures for successful refurbishment can be defined.
Standards (such as European Standard EN 1504-9) define
principles and methods to refurbish damaged concrete. Please
refer to our Brochure “The Repair and Protection of Reinforced
Concrete with Sika” for more information relating to repair and
protection according to EN 1504.
THE REPAIR AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES must always be executed according
to all relevant local Standards and Regulations.
18
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
REFURBISHMENT PROCESS
THE FIRST STAGE OF THE REPAIR WORK ITSELF ON SITE is usually to remove the damaged
concrete and then to clean any exposed steel reinforcement.
Any exposed steel reinforcement should be cleaned to remove
rust and corrosion products. EN 1504 Part 10 recommends the
steel be prepared to Sa 2½ (if a barrier coating is to be applied)
or to Sa 2 (if an active protective coating is to be applied) ac-
cording to the classification in ISO 8501-1.
This cleaning and preparatory work should all be carried out in
accordance with the site works and application guidelines of
EN 1504 Part 10 Section 7.
EXPOSED STEEL PROTECTION
Sika has several products for this purpose; all using active cor-
rosion inhibitors. The selection of the most appropriate prod-
uct is dependent on the environmental exposure level:
́́ For normal environments (e.g. typical urban atmosphere):
Sika MonoTop®-910 one-component, cement based, active
corrosion protection is used,.
́́ For aggressive environments (e.g. marine, chemical, sewage,
etc.): SikaTop® Armatec®-110 EpoCem® epoxy modified, ce-
ment based, active corrosion protection is used.
These products with EN 1504 Part 9 Principle 11 Control of
anodic areas: Method 11.1 Painting reinforcement with active
coatings also comply with EN1504 Part 7 reinforcement corro-
sion protection.
EMBEDDED STEEL
Additional protection can also be provided to steel that is not
actually exposed, but is at risk of corroding, i.e. in carbonated
concrete. This is done by the application of Sika® FerroGard®
corrosion inhibitors.
Sika® FerroGard® corrosion inhibitors are based on amino-alco-
hol or nitrite technology.
Amino-alcohol materials form a mono-molecular passivating
film or barrier layer over the surface of the steel, whilst nitrite
based materials help to oxidize the steel and form ferric oxide,
which resists chloride attack. These Sika® FerroGard® corro-
sion inhibitors can be applied at the surface or mixed within
the concrete:
́́ Surface applied inhibitor: Sika® FerroGard®-903 Plus (Amino-
alcohol based).
́́ Mixed in the concrete: Sika® FerroGard®-901 S (amino-alcohol
based) or Sika® FerroGard-910 CNI (nitrite based).
This technique conforms with EN 1504-9 Principle 11 Control of
Anodic Areas, Method 11.3 Applying corrosion inhibitors in, or
to the concrete, but currently there is no harmonized perfor-
mance standard available.
The use of deep penetrating hydrophobic impregnations is
also a proven and efficient technology to mitigate corrosion in
carbonated concrete or in chloride environment.
This technique conforms with EN 1504-9 Principle 8 Increasing
Resistivity, Method 8.1 hydrophobic impregnation.
These products shall comply with highest requirements of EN
1504-2.
20
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
These include cement-bound, polymer modified, cement-
based and epoxy resin based products, for selection according
to the specific project application and performance require-
ments.
All of these repair materials are in accordance with EN 1504-9
Principle 3 (CR) Concrete Restoration and comply with
EN 1504-3. The class of mortar to be used is generally deter-
mined in relation to the nature and function of the concrete in
the structure.
Repair materials can be applied using different application
techniques. For each different application technique, there are
correspondingly different products available.
SIKA PRODUCES A COMPLETE RANGE OF REPAIR MORTARS AND MICRO CONCRETES, which
are specifically designed for restoring or replacing the original profile and function of the damaged
concrete, with grades suitable for all types of structures (buildings, cooling towers, bridges, WWT
plants etc.).
Sika MonoTop® CONCRETE REPAIR MORTAR SYSTEM
Reinforcement Corrosion
Protection
́́ To prevent further corrosion
of steel reinforcement
Bonding Primer
́́ To promote adhesion of the
repair mortar on demanding
substrates
Repair Mortar
́́ To repair concrete defects
́́ To restore structural integrity
́́ To improve durability
́́ To improve appearance
́́ To extend the structure’s
design life
Pore Sealer / Levelling Mortar
́́ To restore durability
́́ To restore aesthetic appear-
ance
́́ To restore geometric appear-
ance
́́ To provide a surface for over-
coating
1
2
3
4
4
1
2
3
Sika MonoTop® CONCRETE REPAIR
MORTAR SYSTEM
21
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
Sika MonoTop® RANGE FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS
Requirement Main features Products
Multi-functional products Products for normal and demanding applications:
• 2 in 1 Bonding Primer  Reinforcement Corrosion
Protection
́́ Sika MonoTop®-910 N
or
́́ SikaTop® Armatec®-110
EpoCem®
Durable and long-lasting repair
mortars
Increased performances above standard requirements:
• Successfully tested with 400 freeze and thaw cycles
• Increase sulfate resistance
• Low chloride diffusion
́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 NFG /-SFG
Reduce the number of applica-
tion steps
3 in 1 product solution
• Improved fresh adhesion – bonding primer not required
• Corrosion inhibitor – no reinforcement corrosion protection
• Smooth finishing – no levelling mortar necessary
́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 NFG /-SFG
or
́́ Sika® MonoTop®-352 NFG /
-SFG
Minimizing transport disruption
and closures
A new application system:
• Successfully tested under live dynamic loading
́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 N /-S
with
́́ SikaTop® Armatec®-110
EpoCem®
Value for money A better yield from each bag:
• Low density lightweight mortars
́́ Sika MonoTop®-352 NFG /-SFG
or
́́ Sika® MonoTop®-352 N /-S
Fast over-coating within one
day
Complete system compatibility:
• Proven  tested with thin film coatings
́́ Sika MonoTop®-211 RFG /-FG
and
́́ Sikagard®-675 W
Sika MonoTop®-723 N: resurfacing mortar for hand and spray application.
22
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
KEY PARAMETERS FOR SELECTION
OF THE CONCRETE PROTECTION
SYSTEM
Principles Protection
against
ingress
Moisture
control
Increasing
Physical
Resistance
Resistance
to chemicals
Increasing
resistivity
Test methods Performance Characteristics 1.3 (C) 2.3 (C) 5.1 (C) 6.1 (C) 8.3 (C)
EN 12617-1 Linear shrinkage • • • • •
EN 12190 Compressive strength • •
EN 1770 Coefficient of thermal expansion • • • • •
EN ISO 5470-1 Abrasion resistance •
EN ISO 2409 Adhesion by cross-cut test • • • • •
EN 1062-6 Permeability to CO
²
•
EN ISO 7783-1
EN ISO 7783-2 Permeability to water vapour • • •
EN 1062-3 Capillary absorption and permeability
to water
• • • • •
Adhesion after thermal compatibility
EN 13687-1 Freeze-thaw cycling with de-icing salt
immersion
• • • • •
EN 13687-2 Thunder-shower cycling (thermal shock) • • • • •
EN 13687-3 Thermal cycling without de-icing salt
impact
• • • • •
EN 1062-11:2002 4.1: Ageing: 7 days at 70 °C • • • • •
EN 13687-5 Resistance to thermal shock • • • •
EN 1062-11:2002 4.2: Behaviour after artificial
weathering
• • • • •
EN ISO 2812-1 Chemical resistance • •
EN 13529 Resistance to severe chemical attack •
EN 1062-7 Crack bridging ability • • • • •
EN ISO 6272-1 Impact resistance •
EN 1542 Adhesion strength by pull-off test • • • • •
EN 13501-1 Fire classification of construction prod-
ucts and building elements
Part 1: Classification using test data
from reaction to fire test
• • • • •
EN 13036-4 Slip/skid resistance • • • • •
EN 13578 Adhesion on wet concrete • • • •
Key: • Characteristic for all intended uses • Characteristic for certain intended uses within the scope of EN 1504-9:2008
For protective coatings, the only global standard that covers
this range of product is the EN 1504-2. An example of the key
criteria for the protective coating product/system selection
“ACCORDING TO THE EXPOSURE CONDITIONS (e.g. marine or urban environment, resistance to
freeze-thaw etc.), and the requirements of the owner in terms of aesthetics and durability etc., the
responsible design consultant can determine and specify consider the characteristics of the protec-
tive coating system to be used.”
and based on this European Standard is given in the table
below (as table 1 of EN 1504-2:2004)
24
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
BARRIER TO CARBON DIOXIDE
If CO
²
penetrates the concrete, it will react with free lime
present as calcium hydroxide in the pore liquid, which pro-
duces insoluble calcium carbonate and reduces the protec-
tive alkalinity (pH level) of the concrete. This natural process
is known as carbonation and it progresses inwards from the
surface over time.
When the carbonation front reaches the level of the reinforce-
ment, the steel bars are no longer in a passive environment
due to the loss of protective alkalinity, and if oxygen and
moisture are present, then the steel bars will start to corrode.
Evolution of carbonation depth over time when different coatings are being used:
́́ No protection
́́ A basic decorative paint with no protection performance (SD = 1.2 m)
́́ A protective coating complying with the threshold of EN 1504-2 (SD = 50 m) and
́́ A complete stop of the carbonation progression (equivalent to an SD which has an infinite value).
Therefore an effective protective coating for concrete must
prevent or very significantly reduce diffusion of CO
²
into the
concrete. The European Standard EN 1504-2 places a minimum
threshold for this as being equivalent to a 50 m barrier of air.
One of the founders of this test method, Dr.-Ing. Robert
Engelfried, in a paper published in New Orleans in 1996 (ICRI
International Concrete Repair Institute Annual Meeting) clear-
ly demonstrates that this 50 meter threshold provides a suf-
ficiently effective long term barrier protection to be regarded
as completely stopping the progression of carbonation.
8
10
12 No protection
SD = 1,2 m
SD = 50 m
SD = ∞
6
4
2
3
0 1 4 9 16 25
Carbonation depth in mm
Square root of time
0
ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF A PROTECTIVE COATING ON CONCRETE
structures is its ability to prevent or significantly reduce the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO
²
) into the
concrete.
25
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
An even concrete surface
with appropriate surface
preparation leads to homo-
geneous film thickness and a
surface free of defects. This
will ensure the applied pro-
tective coating can perform
as expected.
An uneven surface or inade-
quate surface preparation will
lead to defects – entrapped
air, variable thickness, etc. –
in the coating that will reduce
its performance (e.g. lower
crack bridging capability,
lower protection against CO
²
or even direct water ingress).
210 µm
250 µm
Air bubbles
210 µm
105 µm
26
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SIKA ORGANIC COATING
́́ Level of water tightness to liquid water – e.g. Is the project
near the sea? The ability to reduce or prevent chloride migra-
tion
́́ Permeability to water vapor – e.g. Highly breathable or
restricting vapor exchange?
́́ Barrier against CO
²
diffusion – e.g. At which thickness?
́́ Crack bridging – e.g. Static or dynamic? Which minimum
temperature?
In the same time, any selected protective coating shall have
good resistant to weathering and ageing, shall exhibit good
hiding power and low dirt pick up.
Sika range of protective coatings cover all the different re-
quirements for almost all project types and can performed in
completely opposite environmental conditions e.g. from the
cold climate of Sweden, to the hot and dry weather of Saudi
Arabia and the humid and hot conditions of Colombia.
WHEN SELECTING A PROTECTIVE COATING, designers/engineers shall consider the following
parameters:
27
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
ELASTIC COATINGS
Elastic protective coating shall retain
their elastic properties at very low tem-
perature (As elastomeric material tends
to become more brittle when tempera-
ture is decreasing) – this parameter is
important for countries with heavy
winter:
Sikagard®-550 W Elastic
́́ Water dispersed elastomeric coating
with low dirt pick up
Sikagard®-545 W Elastofill
́́ Intermediate coat for heavy crack
bridging behaviour
Sikagard®-690 W HD
́́ Water dispersed 1-comp polyurethane
́́ Surface crazing crack bridging
(A2 at -10°C)
́́ Extremely low dirt pick up and very
long colour retention
́́ Maintain CO
²
diffusion resistance
overtime
PROTECTIVE COATINGS
The use of highly elastic coatings may
not be desirable in some structures or
part of them in order to be able to be in
the position to detect potential develop-
ment of severe structural cracks.
These coatings nevertheless may be
able to bridge surface crazing in order to
be able to provide the relevant protec-
tion.
Sikagard®-675 W ElastoColor
́́ Water dispersed protective coating
Sikagard®-674 W Lazur
́́ Water dispersed transparent protec-
tive coating
Sikagard®-680 S BetonColor
́́ Solvent based high performance
coating
28
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SIKA CEMENT BASED COATING
SOME DESIGNERS WOULD PREFER USING CEMENT BASED PROTECTIVE COATING as they
prefer to maintain a “mineral look” at their structure whilst protecting it against aggressive environ-
ment.
Concrete has been the most common building material of the
20th century and still being largely used nowadays. Many fa-
mous internationally known architects such as Auguste Perret
or Le Corbusier used concrete as decorative elements. These
magnificent structures required sometimes to be protected.
However the use of organic coating may denature the original
aesthetic of the bare concrete. Therefore some designers will
prefer to use cement based protective coatings to protect
their structures against aggressive environments. Addition-
ally to comply to EN 1504-2, some of these cement based
coatings are also used as surface repair materials and as such
shall also comply to EN 1504-3.
29
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CEMENT BASED PROTECTIVE COATINGS
Sikagard®-720 EpoCem®
́́ Epoxy-cement resurfacing mortar
́́ Surface repair as per EN 1504-3
́́ Concrete protection as per EN 1504-2
́́ Temporary moisture barrier
SikaTop® Seal 107
́́ Polymer modified cement based protec-
tive coating and waterproofing mortar
́́ Can be tinted with water based pig-
ment
́́ Concrete protection EN 1504-2
Sikalastic-152
́́ Elastic polymer modified cement based
protective coating and waterproofing
mortar
́́ Crack bridging
́́ Concrete protection as per EN 1504-2
30
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SIKA REACTIVE COATINGS
Therefore for particularly aggressive or special exposure situa-
tions such as in tunnels, on marine structures or bridges, they
can potentially be used for both requirements.
However, if epoxy resin based coatings are considered, con-
sideration must be given to their relatively poor resistance to
UV light exposure - For example an additional top coat of a
lightfast UV resistant polyurethane coating may be required
in these situations.
REACTIVE COATINGS are sometimes used for the protection of concrete against normal aggressive
atmospheric influences (preventing CO
²
chlorides and water ingress), as well as when additional
chemical protection is needed.
31
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
TUNNELS
Protective coatings in tunnels need to withstand
the harsh environment (deicing salts, SOX and NOX
pollution, plus abrasive cleaning procedures, etc.).
Additionally they can be used in colours to improve
the lighting and visual aspects and to prevent dust
pick-up on the walls.
́́ Water borne epoxy Sikagard® WallCoat T
or
́́ Water borne polyurethane Sikagard®-260 WPU
MARINE STRUCTURES
Concrete structures in marine environments are
subjected to severe aggression – abrasion from the
force of the waves and sand, plus potentially severe
corrosion issues due to chloride penetration. The
concrete can be protected using a reactive coating
such as:
́́ Solvent-free, 100% solids, epoxy based
SikaCor® SW-500
BRIDGE STRUCTURES
Reactive coatings can be used to protect concrete
surfaces on bridge structures for the long-term e.g.
using:
́́ 100% solid epoxy Sikagard®-62
Followed by:
́́ A two part, elastic polyurethane top coating
32
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
SIKA PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE
Aesthetic Parameters Performance Parameters
Color
retention*
UV
resistance*
Dirt pick up
resistance
Crack
bridging
Long term
performance
Sikagard®-550 W Elastic xxx xxx xx xxx xxx
Sikagard®-545 W ElastoFill +
Sikagard®-550 W Elastic
xxx xxx xx xxxx xxx
Sikagard®-690 W HD xxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxx
Sikagard®-675 W ElastoColor xxx xxx xxx x xxx
Sikagard®-680 S BetonColor xxx xxxx xxx – xxxx
Sikagard®-720 EpoCem® – xxx x – xx
SikaTop® Seal-107 xx xx x x xx
Sikagard® WallCoat T x – xxx – xxx
Sikagard®-260 W PU xxx xxxx xxx – xxx
Sikagard®-62 + Sikagard®-363 xxx xxxx xxx – xxx
SikaCor SW-500 x – xx – xxx
Sikalastic®-152 xx xx x xxx xx
The table below is intended to provide an overview of the Sika protective concrete coatings range, using key parameters such as
the required level of performance, method of application or aesthetics, together with their typical use.
Legend:	 xxxx: Best performance xxx: Very suitable xx: Suitable x: can be considered for short to medium term – : Not suitable
Note*:	 Color retention and UV resistance are dependent on the color, as darker, more intense shades will always have lower UV resistance and color retention.
33
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
Application Parameters Usage
Mechanical
cleaning
resistance
VOC
Hand
application
Machine
application
Civil
engineered
structures
Buildings Tunnels
Marine
structures
– xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx – xx
– xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx – xx
x xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx x xxxx
x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx x xx
x – xxxx xxxx xxxx xx x xx
– xxx xxx xxx xxx – xxx xx
– xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx – xx
xxxx xx xxxx xxx – – xxxx –
xxxx xx xxxx xxx – – xxxx –
xx x xxx xxx xxx – – –
xxx x xxx xxx – – – xxxx
– xxxx xxx xxx xx xxx – xx
34
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
CASE STUDIES
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
A full refurbishment of the tangential A1 highway North of
the City of Berne took place in the early 2010’s including the
Felsenau Viaduct (1.1 km long and up to 60 m high).
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
Full refurbishment of the concrete structures and protection
of the exposed concrete surfaces against carbonation and
freeze-thaw attack accelerated by the use of de-icing salts.
This work is designed to maintain the serviceability of the
structure for the next 30 years.
SIKA SOLUTION
The horizontal concrete deck refurbishment was done using
SikaTop®-122 SP, then Sikadur®-186 was used to waterproof
the deck. The reinforced concrete parapet walls and other
surfaces were given long term protection with Sikagard®-706
Thixo, Sikagard®-551 S Primer, Sikagard®-545 W Elastic and
Sikagard®- 550 W, the crack-bridging protective coating.
PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
Client: Federal Roads Office FEDRO (ASTRA)
Consulting Engineers: IUB , Bern; Emch+Berger, Bern
Contractor: ARGE Felsenau: Marti AG; Bern;
Frutiger AG, Thun; Implenia Bau AG, Bern
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Arenc silos were originally erected in the late 1920’s and
they have become a well-known landmark in Marseille.
However the grain silos were out of use for many years and
concrete was showing severe decays.
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
A complete redevelopment of the whole port and docks area
was undertaken by the city of Marseille. This concrete silos
was planned to be converted into a cultural complex. Thorough
survey was carried out by the LERM to set out the project
requirements.
SIKA SOLUTION
Refurbishment of concrete was carried out using repair
mortar Sika MonoTop® system, corrosion inhibitor Sika® Fer-
roGard®-903, strengthening using carbon fabric SikaWrap®
and finally concrete protection using a cement based coating
SikaTop®-107 which provided carbonation protection and main-
tain the original appearance of the structure.
PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
Client: City of Marseille
Project Manager: Éric CASTALDI Architect
QA / QC Laboratory: LERM
Contractor: MIDI FACADES
VIADUCT BRIDGE BERN, SWITZERLAND ARENC SILOS MARSEILLE, FRANCE
35
REFURBISHMENT
PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Stuttgart’s Heslach Tunnel is the longest urban bi-directional
tunnel in Germany. Around 50,000 vehicles use the centrally
sited tunnel on a daily basis. The tunnel was built in the 1980’s.
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
After full refurbishing of the fire system, the renewal of the
tunnel wall coating was carried out. The product had to comply
with OS 4 coating system and provide a bright look to improve
the safety of users
SIKA SOLUTION
Wall coating was carried out using Sikagard®-260 WPU, a
waterborne 2-component polyurethane coating that complied
with the OS4 system and the prescribed fire protection.
The product is dirt-repellent, scrub resistant, highly inflam-
mable, UV resistant and non yellowing.
PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
Client: Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt)
Main Contractor: Osmo Anlagenbau GmbH  Co. KG
Coating Applicator: BIK Uhr GmbH
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Refurbishment of a 40-years old industrial jetty in Saldahan,
South Africa. The jetty is used by the National Port to receive
iron ore ships and by Petro SA for crude oil tankers.
Despite remedial works carried out 15 years ago using system
comprising of 8 to 9 coats of elastomeric coating, the jetty
was already in need of repair.
PROJECT REQUIREMENTS
The Specifiers requested system offering multi stages of
protection and prevention – they did not want to rely only on a
single protective system.
SIKA SOLUTION
After adequate concrete repair using Sika MonoTop® repair
material and proper removal of the existing multiple layers of
protective coating, Sika offers a multiple level of protection
system:
́́ Surface applied corrosion inhibitor Sika® FerroGard®-903 to
protect the embedded rebars.
́́ Silane cream Sikagard®-706 Thixo acting as moisture control
and primer underneath the final top protective coating.
́́ Concrete protection against ingress with elastomeric Sika-
gard®-550 W
PROJECT PARTICIPANTS
Owners: National Port and Petro SA
Contractors: PEAK Projects SA
HESLACH TUNNEL, GERMANY SALDAHAN JETTY, SOUTH AFRICA
ALSO AVAILABLE
FROM SIKA
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON SIKA
REFURBISHMENT SYSTEMS AND
SOLUTIONS:
SIKA SERVICES AG
Tueffenwies 16
CH-8048 Zurich
Switzerland
Contact
Phone 	 +41 58 436 40 40
Fax 	 +41 58 436 41 50
www.sika.com
Our most current General Sales Conditions shall apply. Please consult
the most current local Product Data Sheet prior to any use.
©SIKASERVICESAG/WATERPROOFING/CMDL/SIKASOLUTIONSFORBRIDGES/06.2016/ID:64968
REFURBISHMENT
SIKA TECHNOLOGIES AND
SOLUTIONS FOR WASTE WATER
TREATMENT PLANTS
REFURBISHMENT
CONCRETE REPAIR AND
PROTECTION OF CHIMNEYS
AND COOLING TOWERS
REFURBISHMENT
SIKA TECHNOLOGY AND
CONCEPTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC
IMPREGNATIONS
IN ACCORDANCE WITH EUROPEAN STANDARDS EN 1504
REFURBISHMENT
THE REPAIR AND PROTECTION
OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
WITH SIKA
CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS
LONG-LASTING, HIGH-QUALITY
HEALTH-CARE FACILITIES
CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS
SYSTEMS FOR NEW BUILD
BRIDGES AND REFURBISHMENT
PROJECTS
WE ARE SIKA
Sika is a specialty chemicals company with a leading position in the
development and production of systems and products for bonding,
sealing, damping, reinforcing and protecting in the building sector
and the motor vehicle industry. Sika's product lines feature concrete
admixtures, mortars, sealants and adhesives, structural strengthening
systems, flooring as well as roofing and waterproofing systems.

More Related Content

What's hot

RETROFITTING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE
RETROFITTING OFCONCRETE STRUCTURERETROFITTING OFCONCRETE STRUCTURE
RETROFITTING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE
shakti modi
 
Repair and strengthening of concrete structures
Repair and strengthening of concrete structuresRepair and strengthening of concrete structures
Repair and strengthening of concrete structures
Abdallah Shaheen
 
Concrete Durability and water resistance
Concrete Durability and water resistanceConcrete Durability and water resistance
Concrete Durability and water resistance
MECandPMV
 
Concrete repair
Concrete repairConcrete repair
Concrete repair
Hoda Yahyaei
 
Properties of concrete
Properties of concrete Properties of concrete
Aggregates of Concrete
Aggregates of ConcreteAggregates of Concrete
Aggregates of Concrete
GAURAV. H .TANDON
 
chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
 chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
Pratap Shinde
 
Corrosion on Concrete
Corrosion on ConcreteCorrosion on Concrete
Corrosion on Concrete
Leema Margret A
 
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beamsretrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
Nayana 54321
 
Cracks in concrete
Cracks in concreteCracks in concrete
Cracks in concrete
rao_pannem
 
Durability of concrete
Durability of concreteDurability of concrete
Durability of concrete
Shan Joy
 
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatmentRehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
ShivRam G Krishnan
 
Durability of Concrete
Durability of ConcreteDurability of Concrete
Durability of Concrete
Prakash Singh
 
High strength concrete
High strength concreteHigh strength concrete
High strength concrete
Dr K M SONI
 
Retrofitting
RetrofittingRetrofitting
Retrofitting
Roshni K G
 
Concrete
ConcreteConcrete
specification of Rcc
specification of Rccspecification of Rcc
specification of Rcc
Prabhat chhirolya
 
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
Aqib Ahmed
 
Rcc jacketing
Rcc jacketingRcc jacketing
Rcc jacketing
Kunal Chakraborty
 
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairsChapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
Ankit Patel
 

What's hot (20)

RETROFITTING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE
RETROFITTING OFCONCRETE STRUCTURERETROFITTING OFCONCRETE STRUCTURE
RETROFITTING OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE
 
Repair and strengthening of concrete structures
Repair and strengthening of concrete structuresRepair and strengthening of concrete structures
Repair and strengthening of concrete structures
 
Concrete Durability and water resistance
Concrete Durability and water resistanceConcrete Durability and water resistance
Concrete Durability and water resistance
 
Concrete repair
Concrete repairConcrete repair
Concrete repair
 
Properties of concrete
Properties of concrete Properties of concrete
Properties of concrete
 
Aggregates of Concrete
Aggregates of ConcreteAggregates of Concrete
Aggregates of Concrete
 
chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
 chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
chloride attack and sulphate attack on concrete
 
Corrosion on Concrete
Corrosion on ConcreteCorrosion on Concrete
Corrosion on Concrete
 
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beamsretrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
retrofitting of fire damaged rcc slabs,colums,beams
 
Cracks in concrete
Cracks in concreteCracks in concrete
Cracks in concrete
 
Durability of concrete
Durability of concreteDurability of concrete
Durability of concrete
 
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatmentRehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
Rehabilitation of concrete structures, surface treatment
 
Durability of Concrete
Durability of ConcreteDurability of Concrete
Durability of Concrete
 
High strength concrete
High strength concreteHigh strength concrete
High strength concrete
 
Retrofitting
RetrofittingRetrofitting
Retrofitting
 
Concrete
ConcreteConcrete
Concrete
 
specification of Rcc
specification of Rccspecification of Rcc
specification of Rcc
 
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
4.corrosion of reinforcement in concrete
 
Rcc jacketing
Rcc jacketingRcc jacketing
Rcc jacketing
 
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairsChapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
Chapter 3 materials & techniques for repairs
 

Similar to Protective coating for concrete

IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
IRJET Journal
 
corrocoat newsletter web
corrocoat newsletter webcorrocoat newsletter web
corrocoat newsletter web
bus dev
 
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
Craig Thomas
 
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building MaterialSustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
Editor IJMTER
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete BlockIRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
IRJET Journal
 
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
Owens Corning Composites Solution Business
 
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
Carignano
 
Issue 15
Issue 15Issue 15
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
AKKO2010
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
IRJET Journal
 
Building Maintenance Solutions
Building Maintenance SolutionsBuilding Maintenance Solutions
Building Maintenance Solutions
it-monarch
 
Insulated metal panels edc1
Insulated metal panels edc1Insulated metal panels edc1
Insulated metal panels edc1
Derrick Teal
 
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson PublishersConcrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
Crimsonpublishers-Mechanicalengineering
 
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
IRJET Journal
 
IJSRED-V2I4P9
IJSRED-V2I4P9IJSRED-V2I4P9
IJSRED-V2I4P9
IJSRED
 
IRJET- Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
IRJET-  	  Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...IRJET-  	  Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
IRJET- Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
IRJET Journal
 
Alucobond sustainability
Alucobond sustainabilityAlucobond sustainability
Alucobond sustainability
Architectura
 
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
Sirris
 
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
Vicky Evans (Kench)
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
IRJET Journal
 

Similar to Protective coating for concrete (20)

IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
IRJET- Design of UPVC Windows for Lateral Wind Loads Sandwich with Hurricane ...
 
corrocoat newsletter web
corrocoat newsletter webcorrocoat newsletter web
corrocoat newsletter web
 
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
04_WP-CPL_0804_LR
 
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building MaterialSustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
Sustainable Construction With Foam Concrete As A Green Green Building Material
 
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete BlockIRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
IRJET- A Review Paper on Light Weight Autoclave Aerated Concrete Block
 
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
Advances in Reinforcement Materials (Glass Fiber Materials)
 
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
ABRAFATI 2015 OVERVIEW OF LOW ENERGY EB FOR INDUSTRIAL COATINGS 100915
 
Issue 15
Issue 15Issue 15
Issue 15
 
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
Introducing AKKO Sept 2011
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SELFCOMPACTING RC BEAMS REINFORCED WITH POLY-VINYL MESH...
 
Building Maintenance Solutions
Building Maintenance SolutionsBuilding Maintenance Solutions
Building Maintenance Solutions
 
Insulated metal panels edc1
Insulated metal panels edc1Insulated metal panels edc1
Insulated metal panels edc1
 
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson PublishersConcrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
Concrete-A Great Challenge and Role of Nano-Materials: Crimson Publishers
 
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
IRJET- Lightweight Aggregate Concrete using Expanded Polystyrene Beads - A Re...
 
IJSRED-V2I4P9
IJSRED-V2I4P9IJSRED-V2I4P9
IJSRED-V2I4P9
 
IRJET- Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
IRJET-  	  Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...IRJET-  	  Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
IRJET- Design of 300 Years Durable Concrete for Nuclear Confinement Zone ...
 
Alucobond sustainability
Alucobond sustainabilityAlucobond sustainability
Alucobond sustainability
 
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
Challenges and solutions for improved durability of materials - Coatings done...
 
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
MLP-Brochure-WEB-FEB16
 
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DURABILITY ASPECTS OF SELF- COMPACTING CONCRETE USING...
 

Recently uploaded

CSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
CSM Cloud Service Management PresentarionCSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
CSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
rpskprasana
 
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdfModelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
camseq
 
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball playEric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
enizeyimana36
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
IJECEIAES
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
IJECEIAES
 
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdfbasic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
NidhalKahouli2
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Aditya Rajan Patra
 
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have oneISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
Las Vegas Warehouse
 
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of contentGenerative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Hitesh Mohapatra
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
gerogepatton
 
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdfBPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
MIGUELANGEL966976
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
kandramariana6
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
abbyasa1014
 
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptxML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
JamalHussainArman
 
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMSA SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
IJNSA Journal
 
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTCHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
jpsjournal1
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
MDSABBIROJJAMANPAYEL
 
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
Yasser Mahgoub
 
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
ihlasbinance2003
 
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH PresentationComputational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
co23btech11018
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
CSM Cloud Service Management PresentarionCSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
CSM Cloud Service Management Presentarion
 
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdfModelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
Modelagem de um CSTR com reação endotermica.pdf
 
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball playEric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
Eric Nizeyimana's document 2006 from gicumbi to ttc nyamata handball play
 
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
Redefining brain tumor segmentation: a cutting-edge convolutional neural netw...
 
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
Advanced control scheme of doubly fed induction generator for wind turbine us...
 
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdfbasic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
basic-wireline-operations-course-mahmoud-f-radwan.pdf
 
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part IIRecycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Construction Part II
 
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have oneISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
ISPM 15 Heat Treated Wood Stamps and why your shipping must have one
 
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of contentGenerative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
Generative AI leverages algorithms to create various forms of content
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
 
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdfBPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
BPV-GUI-01-Guide-for-ASME-Review-Teams-(General)-10-10-2023.pdf
 
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation132/33KV substation case study Presentation
132/33KV substation case study Presentation
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
 
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptxML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
ML Based Model for NIDS MSc Updated Presentation.v2.pptx
 
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMSA SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
A SYSTEMATIC RISK ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR SECURING THE SMART IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
 
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECTCHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
CHINA’S GEO-ECONOMIC OUTREACH IN CENTRAL ASIAN COUNTRIES AND FUTURE PROSPECT
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
 
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
 
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
5214-1693458878915-Unit 6 2023 to 2024 academic year assignment (AutoRecovere...
 
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH PresentationComputational Engineering IITH Presentation
Computational Engineering IITH Presentation
 

Protective coating for concrete

  • 2. 2 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE Concrete is a material especially used in civil engineering structures for its strength and durability. For buildings it also has to achieve the look and beauty envisaged by the owner and their architect. To enhance these aesthetics and bring more colors, or for example to increase the durability of the concrete by preventing water ingress and to seal and accommodate surface cracks, protective coating systems can provide the ideal solution. We have developed and produced coating systems that are used all around the world to protect concrete surfaces and structures for many decades. This includes the protection of all types of buildings and structures, in various types of environment and climatic conditions, from the winter cold of North America and Eastern Europe, the heat and humidity of Central and Southern America or Asia, to the dry, arid heat of the Middle East and desert regions. SIKA – YOUR PARTNER
  • 3. 3 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CONTENT 04 Sika’s Life Cycle Assessment Approach 05 Sustainable Concrete Protection 08 Proven Long-Term Durability 10 Concrete Structures and their Exposure 12 Key Stages in the Concrete Refurbishment Process 13 Sika Principles in Accordance with European Standard EN 1504 14 Assessment of Typical Causes and Effects of Damage 16 Concrete Refurbishment Strategy 17 General Concrete Refurbishment Procedures 18 Refurbishment Process 22 Key Parameters for Selection of the Concrete Protection System 24 Barrier to Carbon Dioxide 26 Sika Organic Coating 28 Sika Cement Based Coating 30 Sika Reactive Coatings 32 Sika Product Selection Guide 34 Case Studies
  • 4. 4 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SIKA’S LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT APPROACH Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a standardized method to as- sess and compare the inputs, outputs and potential environ- mental impacts of products and services over their life cycle. LCA’s are increasingly recognized as the best way to evaluate the sustainability of products and systems. Sika carries out LCA’s according to the ISO 14040 series and the Standard EN 15804. The impact assessment methodology used is CML 2001. The data for the Sika LCA is based on public databases, such as those from ecoinvent, the European Refer- ence Life Cycle Database (ELCD) and PE-GaBi, plus the specific data from Sika production plants and products. Cumulative Energy Demand (CED), Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) are considered to be the most relevant for concrete repair and protection: ́́ Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) is the total amount of primary energy from renewable and non-renewable re- sources. ́́ Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the potential contribu- tion to climate change due to greenhouse gases emissions. ́́ Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) is the potential contribution to summer smog, related to ozone induced by sunlight on volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrous oxides (NOx). Application Natural Resources Raw Materials Cradle to Gate End-of-LifeWaste Productio n Cradle to GraveCradle to Grave Use and Maintenance
  • 5. 5 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE PROTECTION Sika LCAs for Concrete Protection are based on a ‘Cradle to Grave’ approach, whereby the potential environmental impact of coatings are investigated right from their raw materials extraction, through production, application and service, to any final disposal necessary at end of life (construction and end- of-life scenario of the structure itself are excluded). The LCA below compares three products with similar long- term durability, including solvent borne acrylic and a poly- urethane, plus a newly developed water borne polyurethane coating. Bridge concrete protection – 20’000 m² over a 60 years period Scenario A: PU water borne Scenario B: Acrylic solvent borne Scenario C: PU solvent borne New construction 2 coats over a water borne primer 2 coats over a solvent borne acrylic primer 2 coats over an epoxy based primer Maintenance every 20 years 1 refresher coat 1 refresher coat 1 refresher coat
  • 6. 6 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE PROTECTION When the durability of a coating system is important, it is usually solvent borne products that are being considered, and based on acrylic or polyurethane binders. Although their technology is continually improving, water borne acrylic coat- ings still do not have the performance of their solvent borne counter parts that are normally 1-component products. Poly- urethane products are available with solvent and water borne binders and are generally supplied as 2-component products. Sika recently launched a 1-component water borne polyure- thane coating that is equal, if not higher performing than the acrylic solvent based coating. Comparative tests carried out on the new coating show outstanding performance in term of color retention, UV light stability and CO ² diffusion resistance after accelerated weathering. The LCA carried out on these three types of coating allows verification of their impact in term of sustainability. There is no significant difference between the water borne PU and the solvent borne acrylic with regards to Global Warming. This is due to the relative high impact from the production of water borne PU. Conversely, when compared to the solvent borne PU, the new product has a much higher positive impact. The difference between the two PU products is actually equiv- alent to the CO ² emissions of a 15 tons truck covering more than 1’000 km every year. There is also no significant difference between the water borne PU and the solvent borne acrylic with regards to Cumu- lative Energy Demand. This is due to the same impact from production of the water dispersed PU. Conversely, when com- pared to the solvent borne PU, the new product has a much higher impact on the environment. The difference between the two PU is equivalent to the release of more than 3 drums of 200 liters of oil per year. 20 000 500 40 000 1000 60 000 1500 80 000 2000 100 000 2500 120 000 3000 140 000 3500 0 0 End of life Product application Surface pre-treatment Transport to site Product stage Scenario A kCO ² -equivalent Gjoules Scenario AScenario B Scenario BScenario C Scenario C Global Warming Potential (GWP) Over 60 years period and 20’000 m² Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) Over 60 years period and 20’000 m² End of life Product application Surface pre-treatment Transport to site Product stage
  • 7. 7 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CONCLUSION All three products have similar durability in term of protec- tion against CO ² . For UV light stability and color retention, polyurethane coatings are known to generally perform better than the acrylic coatings. This LCA also clearly show the advantages of Sika’s new water borne polyurethane (PU) coating versus solvent based, with the drastic reduc- tion in its impact on the environment with regards to ozone creation. The new water borne PU coating product also has a huge reduction in ozone creation as it is much reduced compared to the other two solvent borne coatings. The difference between the new water borne coating and the other two products is actually directly equivalent to the release of 300 to 500 liters of solvent per year in this example alone. 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 KgEtheneequivalent Scenario A Scenario B Scenario C Photochemical Ozone Creation (POCP) Over 60 years period and 20’000 m² End of life Product application Surface pre-treatment Transport to site Product stage
  • 8. REFURBISHMENT ICRI AWARD-WINNING PROJECTS 1998–2013 SIKA – STRIVING FOR EXCELLENCE IN CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT SIKA AT WORK TURÓW POWER PLANT, POLAND CONCRETE REPAIR: Sika MonoTop® System, Sikacrete® PP1 TU PROTECTIV COATINGS: Sikagard®-700, Sikagard®-680 S, Sikagard®-550 W Elastic, Sika® Poxicolor, Sika® Icosit-2406, SikaCor® EG 5 TECHNICAL ARTICLE Albert Barnes House, London, UK Original Constsruction: 1963, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1982, Inspection and Assessment: 1997 MARCH 2016 / VERSION 3 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION       TECHNICAL ARTICLE  CONCRETE BRIDGES IN JUTLAND, DENMARK  Original Construction: 1960’s, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1983,  Inspection and Assessment: 1988, 1991 and 1994  SEPT‐2013 / V‐2 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO  FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION        TECHNICAL ARTICLE THE LÄMERSHAGEN BRIDGE A2 MOTORWAY, GERMANY Original Construction: Late 1940’s, Concrete Repair and Protection: 1981-82, Inspection and Assessment: 1997 MAY 2014 / V-2 / SIKA SERVICES AG / MICHEL DONADIO FOR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION 8 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE PROVEN LONG-TERM DURABILITY SIKA PROTECTIVE COATINGS have been applied all over the world for several decades. Extensive references and Case Studies are available for all types of structures and exposures. In the late 1990’s Sika commissioned various external insti- tutes to investigate the performance of Sika concrete repair and protection systems that had been applied some years before. This in-depth investigation was carried out in Europe (England, Germany, Denmark and Norway), and revealed the outstanding performance of the different Sika protective coatings that had been applied from 10 to 20 years ago on the different projects. In 2008, a similar investigation was made into the perfor- mance of the protective coating systems applied 16 years ago at that time, on multiple Cooling Towers of a power plant in Poland. This revealed that despite the harsh conditions, both internally and externally the Sika protective coating systems still achieved, and even still outperformed, the protective performance requirements of the latest European Standard EN 1504-2. It is therefore also no surprise that Sika won more than 100 awards from the prestigious ICRI institute, for projects suc- cessfully completed and having proven durability using Sika Concrete Repair and Protection Systems. Among them many ICRI awards of longevity were won when using Sika protective coatings.
  • 9.
  • 10. 10 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CONCRETE STRUCTURES AND THEIR EXPOSURE DEPENDENT ON THEIR LOCATION AND USE, concrete structures are subjected to a wide range of exposure conditions – from normal atmospheric carbonation to the aggressive influences in polluted urban and/or industrial environments, plus marine atmospheres and other chemicals (liquid and gaseous) etc., together with other influences and actions that can damage or attack the concrete and / or its embedded steel reinforcement. Water Ingress Water can penetrate naturally through the capillary pore structures of reinforced concrete. In areas of carbonated concrete, or where there is a high chloride content on the surface of the steel reinforcing bars, reinforcement corrosion, cracks or spalling can occur on the surface. Dynamic and Static Load Overloading due to increasing traffic loads, inad- equate design, damage to the structure, stress/ fatigue failure, earthquake effects, or any other me- chanical impact such as vehicle impact, can all exceed or reduce the load capacity of the structure. Wide Temperature Variation Buildings and bridges may be subjected to a wide variation of temperatures between day and night / winter and summer conditions, or between different sides or surfaces of the structure. These frequent cycles result in thermal stresses and movement in the concrete structure that can also result in cracks. Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide (CO ² ) reacts with the Calcium Hydrox- ide (Ca(OH) ² ) in the pore liquid of the cement matrix of concrete structures and deposits as calcium car- bonate (CaCO ³ ). This process known as carbonation reduces the protection of embedded steel reinforce- ment, when the process reaches the reinforcement bars. Chlorides Ingress Chlorides come from de-icing salts used in winter, or from salt water in marine environments. They can penetrate the concrete structure and once they reach the reinforcement bars, they can locally destroy the passivation film causing fast pitting corrosion. Freeze / Thaw Action The freeze thaw process creates stresses in the concrete matrix due to the expansion of free water in the capillary pores during freezing conditions; this can result in scaling of the surface of poor quality concrete. This action is also greatly accelerated by the presence of chlorides in the water. Chemical Some structures such chemical plants or sewer sys- tem or waste water treatment plants are subjected to different level of chemical attacks. Some special coatings may be required – refer to the relevant Sika brochure. Fire Reinforced concrete may be damaged from fire ex- posure. Special intumescent coatings may be used to protect against the structures against the effect of fire. What is expected from normal coating is they should not bring food to the fire in order not to in- crease its intensity. Some structures like tunnel have special consideration with this particular risk.
  • 12. KEYSTAGESINTHECONCRETE REFURBISHMENTPROCESS THE SUCCESSFUL REPAIR, PROTECTION AND CORROSION MANAGEMENT of concrete structures always requires an initial professional assessment and an appropriate detailed condition survey. 1. ASSESSMENT OF THE STRUCTURE A condition survey by qualified and experienced people to in- clude the condition of the structure and its surfaces, including visible, non-visible and potential defects. 2. IDENTIFICATION AND DEGREE OF THE CAUSE(S) OF DAMAGE A review of the original construction details and any previous refurbishment works, plus analysis and diagnosis from the condition survey to identify: ́́ Damage due to concrete defects or attack (mechanical, chemical or physical types) ́́ Damage due to reinforcement corrosion (carbonation or chloride attack) 3. DETERMINATION OF REPAIR AND PROTECTION OBJECTIVES AND OPTIONS Owners and engineers always have a number of options for deciding the appropriate refurbishment strategy to meet the future requirements of the structure. KEY STAGES IN THE CORRECT REPAIR AND REFURBISHMENT PROCESS: 4. SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE REPAIR PRINCIPLES AND METHODS In accordance with EN 1504-9 the appropriate “repair prin- ciples” should be selected and then the best “method” of achieving each principle can be defined. Following this selection, the performance requirements of suitable products are defined, using European Standards EN 1504 Parts 2 to 7 in conjunction with Part 10, which also pro- vides guidelines for the work preparation and site application including quality control. On these substantial structures with their very specific exposure and damage potential, the mate- rials selected must also be tested and proven in these very specific conditions. 5. FUTURE MAINTENANCE As with all refurbishment projects, the need and likely time schedule for future inspection and maintenance should be defined. Complete and fully detailed records of the works un- dertaken must always be maintained.
  • 13. SIKAPRINCIPLESINACCORDANCEWITH EUROPEANSTANDARDEN1504 SIKA IS THE GLOBAL MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY LEADER in research, development and production of concrete repair systems for all types of buildings and civil engineering structures. For every owner or consultant, their own project, building or structure is always the most important. Sika is the ideal part- ner for owners and their architects, engineers, contractors and access equipment suppliers focused on these works, whatever the type, sizes and age of the structure. All of the products and systems required for the successful repair and protectionof the concrete structure, including all of the exposed surfaces are produced by Sika and fully in accor- dance with European Standards EN 1504. This includes grades of the materials developed for application in all of the different exposure and climatic conditions that can be encountered all over the world. Sika also provides a complete package of documentation to as- sist all of our partners with the selection of the most appropri- ate concrete repair and protection principles and methods, the necessary detailed specifications and tender documents, plus complete integrated Method Statements for the correct use of all of the products and systems. Then Sika’s Technical Services Department will train your engineers and contractors in the Quality Controlled use and application of the products both off and on site. Extensive independent testing with all relevant approvals and certificates, supported by an equally extensive portfolio of successfully completed case studies and reference projects around the world, provides maximum confidence and security for everyone involved in the project. Whatever damage has occurred, whatever the future expo- sure requirements are, and wherever the location – Sika is the ideal partner for your project.
  • 14. 14 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE ASSESSMENTOFTYPICALCAUSES ANDEFFECTSOFDAMAGE CHEMICAL ́́ Aggressive exhaust gases ́́ Condensation leaching ́́ Waste water ́́ Chemical spillage PHYSICAL ́́ Thermal movement cracking ́́ Adverse thermal gradient cracking ́́ Freeze/thaw action ́́ Shrinkage (from hydration) ́́ Erosion DAMAGE DUE TO CONCRETE DEFECTS OR ATTACK Severe detoriation of concrete and corrosion of reinforcing steel despite a previously applied unadequate coating in the internal face of a cooling tower. Chimneys in direct sunlight indicating variations in thermal exposure which are further exacerbated by the effects of the downward flow of hot exhaust gases during periods of temperature inversions.
  • 15. 15 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CARBONATION Atmospheric carbon dioxide ingress (loss of alkaline pro- tection). Ca(OH) ² + CO ² • CaCO ³ + H ² O Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere penetrates pro- gressively into the concrete and reacts with the calcium hydroxide in the pore liquid. This eventually reduces the protective alkalinity around the steel, allowing corrosion to start in presence of water. This phenomenon is often associates with low concrete cover. CHLORIDES Dependent on their location and use (e.g. bridges or build- ings and structures near the sea), corrosion of the rein- forcement can also occur due to attack from chlorides in marine atmospheres or from de-icing salts (e.g. bridge piers on roads in northern Europe). DAMAGE DUE TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT CORROSION General corrosion induced by carbonation aggravated with low concrete cover issue. Reinforcing steel corrosion in a pier.
  • 16. 16 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT STRATEGY The faster carbon dioxide or chlorides penetrate the concrete, the sooner the passive layer around the reinforcement bars is destroyed and the corrosion process initiated. To ensure long lasting durability, an appropriate maintenance strategy should also be followed by the owners and their con- struction management. Protective coatings can be an impor- tant part of this strategy, to ensure a long service-life for new structures and also to increase the durability of existing ones. IN THE 21ST CENTURY, REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES ARE BUILT TO LAST (e.g. most bridges are now designed to last more than 100 – 150 years). The two most universal causes of reinforcement corrosion and concrete damage are carbonation and chloride attack.
  • 17. 17 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE GENERAL CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT PROCEDURES Types of Damage/ Defects (Examples) Possible Principles/Methods EN 1504-9 For the Repair For the Protection Concrete spalling/ scaling of concrete surface Principle 3: Concrete restoration (Method 3.1/3.2/3.3) Principle 1: Protection against ingress (Methods 1.1/1.2/1.3) Principle 5: Physical resistance (Method 5.1/5.2/5.3) Steel reinforcement corrosion Principle 7: Restoring passivity (Method 7.1/7.2) Principle 8: Increasing resistivity (Method 8.1/8.2/8.3) Principle 9: Cathodic control (Method 9.1) Principle 10: Cathodic protection (Method 10.1) Control of anodic areas (Methods 11.1/11.2/11.3) Structural cracks Concrete restoration (Methods 3.1/3.3) Crack Injection (Methods 4.5/4.6) Structural strengthening (Methods 4.1/4.3/4.4/4.7) Not applicable Non-structural cracks Principle 1: Filling of cracks (Method 1.5) Principle 1: Protection against ingress (Method 1.1/1.2/1.3) Principle 2: Moisture control (Method 2.1/2.2/2.3) Principle 5: Physical resistance (Methods 5.1/5.2/5.3) Chemical attacks Principle 6: Adding mortar or concrete (Method 6.3) Principle 6: Resistance to chemicals with coating (Method 6.1) Not treated in this document – refer to Sika Waste Water Treatment Plant brochure After a detailed condition survey and root cause analysis, the right procedures for successful refurbishment can be defined. Standards (such as European Standard EN 1504-9) define principles and methods to refurbish damaged concrete. Please refer to our Brochure “The Repair and Protection of Reinforced Concrete with Sika” for more information relating to repair and protection according to EN 1504. THE REPAIR AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES must always be executed according to all relevant local Standards and Regulations.
  • 18. 18 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE REFURBISHMENT PROCESS THE FIRST STAGE OF THE REPAIR WORK ITSELF ON SITE is usually to remove the damaged concrete and then to clean any exposed steel reinforcement. Any exposed steel reinforcement should be cleaned to remove rust and corrosion products. EN 1504 Part 10 recommends the steel be prepared to Sa 2½ (if a barrier coating is to be applied) or to Sa 2 (if an active protective coating is to be applied) ac- cording to the classification in ISO 8501-1. This cleaning and preparatory work should all be carried out in accordance with the site works and application guidelines of EN 1504 Part 10 Section 7. EXPOSED STEEL PROTECTION Sika has several products for this purpose; all using active cor- rosion inhibitors. The selection of the most appropriate prod- uct is dependent on the environmental exposure level: ́́ For normal environments (e.g. typical urban atmosphere): Sika MonoTop®-910 one-component, cement based, active corrosion protection is used,. ́́ For aggressive environments (e.g. marine, chemical, sewage, etc.): SikaTop® Armatec®-110 EpoCem® epoxy modified, ce- ment based, active corrosion protection is used. These products with EN 1504 Part 9 Principle 11 Control of anodic areas: Method 11.1 Painting reinforcement with active coatings also comply with EN1504 Part 7 reinforcement corro- sion protection. EMBEDDED STEEL Additional protection can also be provided to steel that is not actually exposed, but is at risk of corroding, i.e. in carbonated concrete. This is done by the application of Sika® FerroGard® corrosion inhibitors. Sika® FerroGard® corrosion inhibitors are based on amino-alco- hol or nitrite technology. Amino-alcohol materials form a mono-molecular passivating film or barrier layer over the surface of the steel, whilst nitrite based materials help to oxidize the steel and form ferric oxide, which resists chloride attack. These Sika® FerroGard® corro- sion inhibitors can be applied at the surface or mixed within the concrete: ́́ Surface applied inhibitor: Sika® FerroGard®-903 Plus (Amino- alcohol based). ́́ Mixed in the concrete: Sika® FerroGard®-901 S (amino-alcohol based) or Sika® FerroGard-910 CNI (nitrite based). This technique conforms with EN 1504-9 Principle 11 Control of Anodic Areas, Method 11.3 Applying corrosion inhibitors in, or to the concrete, but currently there is no harmonized perfor- mance standard available. The use of deep penetrating hydrophobic impregnations is also a proven and efficient technology to mitigate corrosion in carbonated concrete or in chloride environment. This technique conforms with EN 1504-9 Principle 8 Increasing Resistivity, Method 8.1 hydrophobic impregnation. These products shall comply with highest requirements of EN 1504-2.
  • 19.
  • 20. 20 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE These include cement-bound, polymer modified, cement- based and epoxy resin based products, for selection according to the specific project application and performance require- ments. All of these repair materials are in accordance with EN 1504-9 Principle 3 (CR) Concrete Restoration and comply with EN 1504-3. The class of mortar to be used is generally deter- mined in relation to the nature and function of the concrete in the structure. Repair materials can be applied using different application techniques. For each different application technique, there are correspondingly different products available. SIKA PRODUCES A COMPLETE RANGE OF REPAIR MORTARS AND MICRO CONCRETES, which are specifically designed for restoring or replacing the original profile and function of the damaged concrete, with grades suitable for all types of structures (buildings, cooling towers, bridges, WWT plants etc.). Sika MonoTop® CONCRETE REPAIR MORTAR SYSTEM Reinforcement Corrosion Protection ́́ To prevent further corrosion of steel reinforcement Bonding Primer ́́ To promote adhesion of the repair mortar on demanding substrates Repair Mortar ́́ To repair concrete defects ́́ To restore structural integrity ́́ To improve durability ́́ To improve appearance ́́ To extend the structure’s design life Pore Sealer / Levelling Mortar ́́ To restore durability ́́ To restore aesthetic appear- ance ́́ To restore geometric appear- ance ́́ To provide a surface for over- coating 1 2 3 4 4 1 2 3 Sika MonoTop® CONCRETE REPAIR MORTAR SYSTEM
  • 21. 21 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE Sika MonoTop® RANGE FOR COST-EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS Requirement Main features Products Multi-functional products Products for normal and demanding applications: • 2 in 1 Bonding Primer Reinforcement Corrosion Protection ́́ Sika MonoTop®-910 N or ́́ SikaTop® Armatec®-110 EpoCem® Durable and long-lasting repair mortars Increased performances above standard requirements: • Successfully tested with 400 freeze and thaw cycles • Increase sulfate resistance • Low chloride diffusion ́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 NFG /-SFG Reduce the number of applica- tion steps 3 in 1 product solution • Improved fresh adhesion – bonding primer not required • Corrosion inhibitor – no reinforcement corrosion protection • Smooth finishing – no levelling mortar necessary ́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 NFG /-SFG or ́́ Sika® MonoTop®-352 NFG / -SFG Minimizing transport disruption and closures A new application system: • Successfully tested under live dynamic loading ́́ Sika MonoTop®-412 N /-S with ́́ SikaTop® Armatec®-110 EpoCem® Value for money A better yield from each bag: • Low density lightweight mortars ́́ Sika MonoTop®-352 NFG /-SFG or ́́ Sika® MonoTop®-352 N /-S Fast over-coating within one day Complete system compatibility: • Proven tested with thin film coatings ́́ Sika MonoTop®-211 RFG /-FG and ́́ Sikagard®-675 W Sika MonoTop®-723 N: resurfacing mortar for hand and spray application.
  • 22. 22 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE KEY PARAMETERS FOR SELECTION OF THE CONCRETE PROTECTION SYSTEM Principles Protection against ingress Moisture control Increasing Physical Resistance Resistance to chemicals Increasing resistivity Test methods Performance Characteristics 1.3 (C) 2.3 (C) 5.1 (C) 6.1 (C) 8.3 (C) EN 12617-1 Linear shrinkage • • • • • EN 12190 Compressive strength • • EN 1770 Coefficient of thermal expansion • • • • • EN ISO 5470-1 Abrasion resistance • EN ISO 2409 Adhesion by cross-cut test • • • • • EN 1062-6 Permeability to CO ² • EN ISO 7783-1 EN ISO 7783-2 Permeability to water vapour • • • EN 1062-3 Capillary absorption and permeability to water • • • • • Adhesion after thermal compatibility EN 13687-1 Freeze-thaw cycling with de-icing salt immersion • • • • • EN 13687-2 Thunder-shower cycling (thermal shock) • • • • • EN 13687-3 Thermal cycling without de-icing salt impact • • • • • EN 1062-11:2002 4.1: Ageing: 7 days at 70 °C • • • • • EN 13687-5 Resistance to thermal shock • • • • EN 1062-11:2002 4.2: Behaviour after artificial weathering • • • • • EN ISO 2812-1 Chemical resistance • • EN 13529 Resistance to severe chemical attack • EN 1062-7 Crack bridging ability • • • • • EN ISO 6272-1 Impact resistance • EN 1542 Adhesion strength by pull-off test • • • • • EN 13501-1 Fire classification of construction prod- ucts and building elements Part 1: Classification using test data from reaction to fire test • • • • • EN 13036-4 Slip/skid resistance • • • • • EN 13578 Adhesion on wet concrete • • • • Key: • Characteristic for all intended uses • Characteristic for certain intended uses within the scope of EN 1504-9:2008 For protective coatings, the only global standard that covers this range of product is the EN 1504-2. An example of the key criteria for the protective coating product/system selection “ACCORDING TO THE EXPOSURE CONDITIONS (e.g. marine or urban environment, resistance to freeze-thaw etc.), and the requirements of the owner in terms of aesthetics and durability etc., the responsible design consultant can determine and specify consider the characteristics of the protec- tive coating system to be used.” and based on this European Standard is given in the table below (as table 1 of EN 1504-2:2004)
  • 23.
  • 24. 24 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE BARRIER TO CARBON DIOXIDE If CO ² penetrates the concrete, it will react with free lime present as calcium hydroxide in the pore liquid, which pro- duces insoluble calcium carbonate and reduces the protec- tive alkalinity (pH level) of the concrete. This natural process is known as carbonation and it progresses inwards from the surface over time. When the carbonation front reaches the level of the reinforce- ment, the steel bars are no longer in a passive environment due to the loss of protective alkalinity, and if oxygen and moisture are present, then the steel bars will start to corrode. Evolution of carbonation depth over time when different coatings are being used: ́́ No protection ́́ A basic decorative paint with no protection performance (SD = 1.2 m) ́́ A protective coating complying with the threshold of EN 1504-2 (SD = 50 m) and ́́ A complete stop of the carbonation progression (equivalent to an SD which has an infinite value). Therefore an effective protective coating for concrete must prevent or very significantly reduce diffusion of CO ² into the concrete. The European Standard EN 1504-2 places a minimum threshold for this as being equivalent to a 50 m barrier of air. One of the founders of this test method, Dr.-Ing. Robert Engelfried, in a paper published in New Orleans in 1996 (ICRI International Concrete Repair Institute Annual Meeting) clear- ly demonstrates that this 50 meter threshold provides a suf- ficiently effective long term barrier protection to be regarded as completely stopping the progression of carbonation. 8 10 12 No protection SD = 1,2 m SD = 50 m SD = ∞ 6 4 2 3 0 1 4 9 16 25 Carbonation depth in mm Square root of time 0 ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF A PROTECTIVE COATING ON CONCRETE structures is its ability to prevent or significantly reduce the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO ² ) into the concrete.
  • 25. 25 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE An even concrete surface with appropriate surface preparation leads to homo- geneous film thickness and a surface free of defects. This will ensure the applied pro- tective coating can perform as expected. An uneven surface or inade- quate surface preparation will lead to defects – entrapped air, variable thickness, etc. – in the coating that will reduce its performance (e.g. lower crack bridging capability, lower protection against CO ² or even direct water ingress). 210 µm 250 µm Air bubbles 210 µm 105 µm
  • 26. 26 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SIKA ORGANIC COATING ́́ Level of water tightness to liquid water – e.g. Is the project near the sea? The ability to reduce or prevent chloride migra- tion ́́ Permeability to water vapor – e.g. Highly breathable or restricting vapor exchange? ́́ Barrier against CO ² diffusion – e.g. At which thickness? ́́ Crack bridging – e.g. Static or dynamic? Which minimum temperature? In the same time, any selected protective coating shall have good resistant to weathering and ageing, shall exhibit good hiding power and low dirt pick up. Sika range of protective coatings cover all the different re- quirements for almost all project types and can performed in completely opposite environmental conditions e.g. from the cold climate of Sweden, to the hot and dry weather of Saudi Arabia and the humid and hot conditions of Colombia. WHEN SELECTING A PROTECTIVE COATING, designers/engineers shall consider the following parameters:
  • 27. 27 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE ELASTIC COATINGS Elastic protective coating shall retain their elastic properties at very low tem- perature (As elastomeric material tends to become more brittle when tempera- ture is decreasing) – this parameter is important for countries with heavy winter: Sikagard®-550 W Elastic ́́ Water dispersed elastomeric coating with low dirt pick up Sikagard®-545 W Elastofill ́́ Intermediate coat for heavy crack bridging behaviour Sikagard®-690 W HD ́́ Water dispersed 1-comp polyurethane ́́ Surface crazing crack bridging (A2 at -10°C) ́́ Extremely low dirt pick up and very long colour retention ́́ Maintain CO ² diffusion resistance overtime PROTECTIVE COATINGS The use of highly elastic coatings may not be desirable in some structures or part of them in order to be able to be in the position to detect potential develop- ment of severe structural cracks. These coatings nevertheless may be able to bridge surface crazing in order to be able to provide the relevant protec- tion. Sikagard®-675 W ElastoColor ́́ Water dispersed protective coating Sikagard®-674 W Lazur ́́ Water dispersed transparent protec- tive coating Sikagard®-680 S BetonColor ́́ Solvent based high performance coating
  • 28. 28 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SIKA CEMENT BASED COATING SOME DESIGNERS WOULD PREFER USING CEMENT BASED PROTECTIVE COATING as they prefer to maintain a “mineral look” at their structure whilst protecting it against aggressive environ- ment. Concrete has been the most common building material of the 20th century and still being largely used nowadays. Many fa- mous internationally known architects such as Auguste Perret or Le Corbusier used concrete as decorative elements. These magnificent structures required sometimes to be protected. However the use of organic coating may denature the original aesthetic of the bare concrete. Therefore some designers will prefer to use cement based protective coatings to protect their structures against aggressive environments. Addition- ally to comply to EN 1504-2, some of these cement based coatings are also used as surface repair materials and as such shall also comply to EN 1504-3.
  • 29. 29 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CEMENT BASED PROTECTIVE COATINGS Sikagard®-720 EpoCem® ́́ Epoxy-cement resurfacing mortar ́́ Surface repair as per EN 1504-3 ́́ Concrete protection as per EN 1504-2 ́́ Temporary moisture barrier SikaTop® Seal 107 ́́ Polymer modified cement based protec- tive coating and waterproofing mortar ́́ Can be tinted with water based pig- ment ́́ Concrete protection EN 1504-2 Sikalastic-152 ́́ Elastic polymer modified cement based protective coating and waterproofing mortar ́́ Crack bridging ́́ Concrete protection as per EN 1504-2
  • 30. 30 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SIKA REACTIVE COATINGS Therefore for particularly aggressive or special exposure situa- tions such as in tunnels, on marine structures or bridges, they can potentially be used for both requirements. However, if epoxy resin based coatings are considered, con- sideration must be given to their relatively poor resistance to UV light exposure - For example an additional top coat of a lightfast UV resistant polyurethane coating may be required in these situations. REACTIVE COATINGS are sometimes used for the protection of concrete against normal aggressive atmospheric influences (preventing CO ² chlorides and water ingress), as well as when additional chemical protection is needed.
  • 31. 31 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE TUNNELS Protective coatings in tunnels need to withstand the harsh environment (deicing salts, SOX and NOX pollution, plus abrasive cleaning procedures, etc.). Additionally they can be used in colours to improve the lighting and visual aspects and to prevent dust pick-up on the walls. ́́ Water borne epoxy Sikagard® WallCoat T or ́́ Water borne polyurethane Sikagard®-260 WPU MARINE STRUCTURES Concrete structures in marine environments are subjected to severe aggression – abrasion from the force of the waves and sand, plus potentially severe corrosion issues due to chloride penetration. The concrete can be protected using a reactive coating such as: ́́ Solvent-free, 100% solids, epoxy based SikaCor® SW-500 BRIDGE STRUCTURES Reactive coatings can be used to protect concrete surfaces on bridge structures for the long-term e.g. using: ́́ 100% solid epoxy Sikagard®-62 Followed by: ́́ A two part, elastic polyurethane top coating
  • 32. 32 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE SIKA PRODUCT SELECTION GUIDE Aesthetic Parameters Performance Parameters Color retention* UV resistance* Dirt pick up resistance Crack bridging Long term performance Sikagard®-550 W Elastic xxx xxx xx xxx xxx Sikagard®-545 W ElastoFill + Sikagard®-550 W Elastic xxx xxx xx xxxx xxx Sikagard®-690 W HD xxxx xxxx xxxx xx xxxx Sikagard®-675 W ElastoColor xxx xxx xxx x xxx Sikagard®-680 S BetonColor xxx xxxx xxx – xxxx Sikagard®-720 EpoCem® – xxx x – xx SikaTop® Seal-107 xx xx x x xx Sikagard® WallCoat T x – xxx – xxx Sikagard®-260 W PU xxx xxxx xxx – xxx Sikagard®-62 + Sikagard®-363 xxx xxxx xxx – xxx SikaCor SW-500 x – xx – xxx Sikalastic®-152 xx xx x xxx xx The table below is intended to provide an overview of the Sika protective concrete coatings range, using key parameters such as the required level of performance, method of application or aesthetics, together with their typical use. Legend: xxxx: Best performance xxx: Very suitable xx: Suitable x: can be considered for short to medium term – : Not suitable Note*: Color retention and UV resistance are dependent on the color, as darker, more intense shades will always have lower UV resistance and color retention.
  • 33. 33 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE Application Parameters Usage Mechanical cleaning resistance VOC Hand application Machine application Civil engineered structures Buildings Tunnels Marine structures – xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxxx – xx – xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxxx – xx x xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx x xxxx x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx x xx x – xxxx xxxx xxxx xx x xx – xxx xxx xxx xxx – xxx xx – xxxx xxx xxx xxx xxx – xx xxxx xx xxxx xxx – – xxxx – xxxx xx xxxx xxx – – xxxx – xx x xxx xxx xxx – – – xxx x xxx xxx – – – xxxx – xxxx xxx xxx xx xxx – xx
  • 34. 34 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE CASE STUDIES PROJECT DESCRIPTION A full refurbishment of the tangential A1 highway North of the City of Berne took place in the early 2010’s including the Felsenau Viaduct (1.1 km long and up to 60 m high). PROJECT REQUIREMENTS Full refurbishment of the concrete structures and protection of the exposed concrete surfaces against carbonation and freeze-thaw attack accelerated by the use of de-icing salts. This work is designed to maintain the serviceability of the structure for the next 30 years. SIKA SOLUTION The horizontal concrete deck refurbishment was done using SikaTop®-122 SP, then Sikadur®-186 was used to waterproof the deck. The reinforced concrete parapet walls and other surfaces were given long term protection with Sikagard®-706 Thixo, Sikagard®-551 S Primer, Sikagard®-545 W Elastic and Sikagard®- 550 W, the crack-bridging protective coating. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Client: Federal Roads Office FEDRO (ASTRA) Consulting Engineers: IUB , Bern; Emch+Berger, Bern Contractor: ARGE Felsenau: Marti AG; Bern; Frutiger AG, Thun; Implenia Bau AG, Bern PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Arenc silos were originally erected in the late 1920’s and they have become a well-known landmark in Marseille. However the grain silos were out of use for many years and concrete was showing severe decays. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS A complete redevelopment of the whole port and docks area was undertaken by the city of Marseille. This concrete silos was planned to be converted into a cultural complex. Thorough survey was carried out by the LERM to set out the project requirements. SIKA SOLUTION Refurbishment of concrete was carried out using repair mortar Sika MonoTop® system, corrosion inhibitor Sika® Fer- roGard®-903, strengthening using carbon fabric SikaWrap® and finally concrete protection using a cement based coating SikaTop®-107 which provided carbonation protection and main- tain the original appearance of the structure. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Client: City of Marseille Project Manager: Éric CASTALDI Architect QA / QC Laboratory: LERM Contractor: MIDI FACADES VIADUCT BRIDGE BERN, SWITZERLAND ARENC SILOS MARSEILLE, FRANCE
  • 35. 35 REFURBISHMENT PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR CONCRETE PROJECT DESCRIPTION Stuttgart’s Heslach Tunnel is the longest urban bi-directional tunnel in Germany. Around 50,000 vehicles use the centrally sited tunnel on a daily basis. The tunnel was built in the 1980’s. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS After full refurbishing of the fire system, the renewal of the tunnel wall coating was carried out. The product had to comply with OS 4 coating system and provide a bright look to improve the safety of users SIKA SOLUTION Wall coating was carried out using Sikagard®-260 WPU, a waterborne 2-component polyurethane coating that complied with the OS4 system and the prescribed fire protection. The product is dirt-repellent, scrub resistant, highly inflam- mable, UV resistant and non yellowing. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Client: Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) Main Contractor: Osmo Anlagenbau GmbH Co. KG Coating Applicator: BIK Uhr GmbH PROJECT DESCRIPTION Refurbishment of a 40-years old industrial jetty in Saldahan, South Africa. The jetty is used by the National Port to receive iron ore ships and by Petro SA for crude oil tankers. Despite remedial works carried out 15 years ago using system comprising of 8 to 9 coats of elastomeric coating, the jetty was already in need of repair. PROJECT REQUIREMENTS The Specifiers requested system offering multi stages of protection and prevention – they did not want to rely only on a single protective system. SIKA SOLUTION After adequate concrete repair using Sika MonoTop® repair material and proper removal of the existing multiple layers of protective coating, Sika offers a multiple level of protection system: ́́ Surface applied corrosion inhibitor Sika® FerroGard®-903 to protect the embedded rebars. ́́ Silane cream Sikagard®-706 Thixo acting as moisture control and primer underneath the final top protective coating. ́́ Concrete protection against ingress with elastomeric Sika- gard®-550 W PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Owners: National Port and Petro SA Contractors: PEAK Projects SA HESLACH TUNNEL, GERMANY SALDAHAN JETTY, SOUTH AFRICA
  • 36. ALSO AVAILABLE FROM SIKA FOR MORE INFORMATION ON SIKA REFURBISHMENT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS: SIKA SERVICES AG Tueffenwies 16 CH-8048 Zurich Switzerland Contact Phone +41 58 436 40 40 Fax +41 58 436 41 50 www.sika.com Our most current General Sales Conditions shall apply. Please consult the most current local Product Data Sheet prior to any use. ©SIKASERVICESAG/WATERPROOFING/CMDL/SIKASOLUTIONSFORBRIDGES/06.2016/ID:64968 REFURBISHMENT SIKA TECHNOLOGIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS REFURBISHMENT CONCRETE REPAIR AND PROTECTION OF CHIMNEYS AND COOLING TOWERS REFURBISHMENT SIKA TECHNOLOGY AND CONCEPTS FOR HYDROPHOBIC IMPREGNATIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH EUROPEAN STANDARDS EN 1504 REFURBISHMENT THE REPAIR AND PROTECTION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH SIKA CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS LONG-LASTING, HIGH-QUALITY HEALTH-CARE FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS SYSTEMS FOR NEW BUILD BRIDGES AND REFURBISHMENT PROJECTS WE ARE SIKA Sika is a specialty chemicals company with a leading position in the development and production of systems and products for bonding, sealing, damping, reinforcing and protecting in the building sector and the motor vehicle industry. Sika's product lines feature concrete admixtures, mortars, sealants and adhesives, structural strengthening systems, flooring as well as roofing and waterproofing systems.