Enterprise Architecture as a Mission Enabler             2011 NASA PM Challenge                 Long Beach, California    ...
Contents What is Enterprise Architecture Why do Enterprise Architecture Is Enterprise Architecture Right for you? Gett...
What is Enterprise Architecture? According to Websters Dictionary:   • Architecture: the art or science of building   • E...
Why do Enterprise Architecture? COMPLEXITY  • If you cant describe it, you cant create it (whatever "it" is) CHANGE  • I...
Managing Complexity and Change in NASA        Programs Just how complex are NASA programs?  – That depends on the program...
NASA Programs at a Glance                                                                           Programs              ...
The Program Structure: i.e. The Enterprise!                                                   Without                     ...
Building the Enterprise Enterprise architecture and the principles behind enterprise architecture can complement  traditi...
What is contained in the Enterprise Architecture                                        • Business Processes and activitie...
Is Enterprise Architecture Right for You? If we arrange our Enterprise  (Program/Project) into  different drivers and lev...
How much Enterprise Architecture do you Need?         Short Answer Short answer: As much or as little as is needed to def...
How much Enterprise Architecture do you Need?          Longer Answer People: Who makes up the program/project (internal a...
How is the Enterprise Architecture Managed:             Frameworks The framework provides  guidance on what artifacts  ar...
13                                                                                                                        ...
Getting Started: What do you want to know? If you know the right questions to ask, you can model your enterprise effectiv...
How to get Started: Example Question: Are my business processes being executed effectively without overlap?  – Ineffectiv...
An Enterprise Architecture will not provide you         benefit unless It addresses real business problems and identified...
Program/Project Management Process Overview:NPR 7120.5D                                               17
Systems Engineering Process:NPR 7123.1A                                 NO comparable                               Proces...
The Program/Project Lifecycle: Where it all comestogether                                                    19
How the Models Work together         Organization Model                                      Integrated Activity Model    ...
Answering the Question: Are my business          processes being executed effectively without          overlap? Your mode...
Case Study: Systems Engineering Processes on            the Constellation Program Task  – Perform cost benefit analyses a...
AS-is and Desired To-Be States     Operational Rules Model                                                                ...
Benefits and Cost of Process Standardization Assuming good governance of the standards, the cost of developing standardiz...
Summary Defining and managing your enterprise can provide significant benefit to your ability to deliver  – Reduced cost ...
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  1. 1. Enterprise Architecture as a Mission Enabler 2011 NASA PM Challenge Long Beach, California Josh Arceneaux Booz Allen Hamilton 0
  2. 2. Contents What is Enterprise Architecture Why do Enterprise Architecture Is Enterprise Architecture Right for you? Getting Started in Enterprise Architecture Case Study: NASA Constellation Program Summary 1
  3. 3. What is Enterprise Architecture? According to Websters Dictionary: • Architecture: the art or science of building • Enterprise: a unit of economic organization or activity Joining these two definitions we can surmise that Enterprise Architecture, at it’s most basic definition, is: The art or science of building a unit of economic organization or activity For purpose of this presentation, the “unit of economic organization or activity” is generically any NASA program or Project 2
  4. 4. Why do Enterprise Architecture? COMPLEXITY • If you cant describe it, you cant create it (whatever "it" is) CHANGE • If you dont retain the descriptive representations after you create them (or if you never created them in the first place) and you need to change the resultant implementation, you have only three options: – Change the instance and see what happens (High risk!) – Recreate ("reverse engineer") the architectural representations from the existing (“As- is") implementation. (Takes time and costs money!) – Scrap the whole thing and start over again *© 2007 John A. Zachman, Zachman International 3
  5. 5. Managing Complexity and Change in NASA Programs Just how complex are NASA programs? – That depends on the program, but generally they are just as, if not more complex than the majority of commercial industry programs and projects – Add to that the risks imposed by the environments that NASA missions operate in and one could make the case that NASA programs and projects have ZERO room for error How often do NASA programs change? – Daily, there is a reason the engineering, operations, and change control boards at NASA are busy – If you look at the engineering and operations level you could say that change occurs constantly throughout the day • After all isn’t that what smart folks do, create, invent, innovate, and drive change on a constant basis 4
  6. 6. NASA Programs at a Glance Programs NPR’s Program Produce Guide Manager Project SE SW Controls Manager Manager What is missing NPR 7123.1 NPR 7120.5D Program ManagementSystems Engineering NPR 7150.2A Software Engineering ? 5
  7. 7. The Program Structure: i.e. The Enterprise! Without Enterprise Architecture With Enterprise ArchitectureWhere do you want to drive? 6
  8. 8. Building the Enterprise Enterprise architecture and the principles behind enterprise architecture can complement traditional program management, systems engineering, and software engineering practices to enable a program to perform at closer to optimal efficiency. A key enterprise architecture principle involves taking a holistic approach to defining and managing the program or project that allows the program participants and stakeholders to attain and maintain situational awareness for both tactical decision making and strategic planning – You know what you have today, – You know what you can expect to have tomorrow – Therefore you can make well informed decisions that optimize todays needs and enable you to meet tomorrow’s demands 7
  9. 9. What is contained in the Enterprise Architecture • Business Processes and activities USE Business • Data that must be collected, organized, safeguarded, Data USING and distributed • Application such as custom or off- the-shelf Application RUN ON • Technology such as computer systems, networks, data centers Technology 8
  10. 10. Is Enterprise Architecture Right for You? If we arrange our Enterprise (Program/Project) into different drivers and levels, several “families” of questions that may provide valuable insight into your program or project are then answerable through exercising an Enterprise Architecture approach If as a program/project manager these things are important to you then, YES, Enterprise Architecture is right for you. 9
  11. 11. How much Enterprise Architecture do you Need? Short Answer Short answer: As much or as little as is needed to define and effectively manage the program or project – Typically the larger the program/project and the more participants, more enterprise architecture information is needed – Additionally, the more detail and precision you require, the more enterprise architecture is needed …. do not use this! When this is all you need…. 10
  12. 12. How much Enterprise Architecture do you Need? Longer Answer People: Who makes up the program/project (internal and external), how are they organized, what are their roles and responsibilities, and how to the relate to one another – An organization chart and accompanying RACI (or similar concept) can provide a wealth of knowledge Processes: What are the business processes and information that the program executers to produce their products – NPR 7123.a is the highest level business process for Systems Engineering within NASA Technology: What systems, applications, information, IT infrastructure does the enterprise utilize to facilitate execution of the business processes – Programs utilize program unique technology, center provided technology ,and agency provided technology; What is the best usage of this technology? Controls: What is the governance model and how is it used to manage the enterprise – What decisions are made by whom, under what circumstances, and by what mechanisms; Typically NASA Boards and Panels Strategy: How is the enterprise going to evolve to meet the needs of tomorrow – NASA development programs have defined lifecycles that determine the evolutionary path of the vehicles, no such mechanism provides this for how the program/project will evolve as the economic, political and technological environment changes. 11
  13. 13. How is the Enterprise Architecture Managed: Frameworks The framework provides guidance on what artifacts are necessary to capture information about the enterprise and provides a mechanism to identify and visualize the relationships between the enterprise information There are many frameworks, the majority of which are some derivation of the Zachman framework 12
  14. 14. 13 Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEA) Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Project Viewpoint Project Viewpoint Describes the relationships between operational and capability requirements and the various projects being implemented; Details dependencies between capability management and the Details dependencies between capability management and theAdditional Frameworks Defense Acquisition System process. Defense Acquisition System process. systems, their composition, interconnectivity, and context providing for, or supporting, DoD Articulate the legacy systems or independent Articulate the performers, activities, services, Articulate the capability requirement, delivery Articulate operational scenarios, processes, and their exchanges providing for, or timing, and deployed capability Operational Viewpoint Capability Viewpoint supporting, DoD functions Systems Viewpoint Services Viewpoint activities & requirements functions Standards Viewpoint Standards Viewpoint Articulate applicable Operational, Business, Technical, and Industry policy, standards, guidance, constraints, and Industry policy, standards, guidance, constraints, and forecasts Data and Information Viewpoint Articulate the data relationships and alignment structures in Articulate the data relationships and alignment structures in the architecture content All Viewpoint Overarching aspects of architecture context that relate to all Overarching aspects of architecture context that relate to all models
  15. 15. Getting Started: What do you want to know? If you know the right questions to ask, you can model your enterprise effectively Step 1 Determine the Intended Use of the Architecture Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6Determine Scope of Determine Data Collect, Organize, C Conduct Analyses in Present Results IAW Architecture Required to Support orrelate, and Store Support of Decision Maker Architecture Architecture Data Architecture Needs Development Objectives 14
  16. 16. How to get Started: Example Question: Are my business processes being executed effectively without overlap? – Ineffective execution can cause, among others, schedule delays, excessive rework, lost or missing information, unclear line of communication and authority – Overlap can cause, among others, lack of authoritative data leading to ill or uninformed decision, excessive cost, sub-optimal resource allocation. Assumption: We are looking at the top level business process, as defined in the NPR’s, however this approach may be used to any level of detail Remember: Finishing Hammer or Powered Jack hammer? For this exercise we will use the DoDAF 2.0 framework. – Primary Models : Activity Model, Operational Rules Model, Event Trace Model – Supporting Models: Conceptual Data Model, System Model, Organizational Model – Will also need to define performance metrics 15
  17. 17. An Enterprise Architecture will not provide you benefit unless It addresses real business problems and identified plausible solutions It provides key insight in an easily understandable fashion to a decision-maker It captures how the enterprise worked or didn’t and how it could be improved It illustrates how a change fit an enterprise and how it enabled improvement It was links with all other decision analysis processes including economic analysis It provides a clear order for change that was actionable and measurable It was develops in a rapid manner with input from key business or operations owners 16
  18. 18. Program/Project Management Process Overview:NPR 7120.5D 17
  19. 19. Systems Engineering Process:NPR 7123.1A NO comparable Process Diagram for NPR 7150.2A 18
  20. 20. The Program/Project Lifecycle: Where it all comestogether 19
  21. 21. How the Models Work together Organization Model Integrated Activity Model Operational Rules Model Program PM Program / Manager Model Project CCB Executes Governed By SECB SWCBProject SE SW SWControls Manager Manager SE Model Model Complies Event Trace Model Creates Informs Informs Uses Lifecycle Metrics Reports Model Integrated Conceptual Data Model Creates Creates • Cost • Schedule • Risk • People IT System Model • Etc. PM System Manages • Requirements • Requirements • Analysis • Analysis • Verification • Verification • Flight • Flight Systems Software SE SW Architecture Architecture System System • Etc. • Etc. 20
  22. 22. Answering the Question: Are my business processes being executed effectively without overlap? Your models and metrics can identify many attributes of your enterprise that could be operating better Ineffective Execution Overlap  Longer than necessary schedules  Unclear lines of communication and authority – Identification of unnecessary activities within the – More than one org is accountable for an activity process – System facilitating the processes activities are  Excessive cost insufficient – Multiple organizations performing common functions with common data  Excessive rework – Multiple systems performing common functions – A common data model is not being followed on common data – Reporting is adhoc and not repeatable i.e. You generate a custom report each time  Sub-optimal resource allocation – Processes are not defined – Organizations, activities, data, and systems do not clearly align with each other  Lost or missing information  Lack of authoritative data leading to ill or – Data model is incomplete uninformed decision – Activities and their data is not found in a system – Data resides in more than one system – Data propagated into metrics and reports for decision making from more than one system without proper controls 21
  23. 23. Case Study: Systems Engineering Processes on the Constellation Program Task – Perform cost benefit analyses around aspects of the information systems architecture to determine impacts of an “architected and consolidated” approach to application development and information management Specific Objectives – Process Standardization Assessment: What are the benefits over a ten year window when an organization establishes standardized system usage with common procedures and enforces governance versus implementation of an information system architecture without standardized procedures or governance? Models – Activity model, Data Model, System Model, Organizational Model Metrics – Investment cost (Actuals) – Projected Costs 22
  24. 24. AS-is and Desired To-Be States Operational Rules Model Organization Model Operational /Rules Model Program Operational Rules Model Project CCB Operational /Rules Model Program Operational Rules Model Operational/ Rules Model Program SECB Project CCB Operational /Rules Model Program SWCB Project CCB CxP Project CCB Operational/ Rules Model Program SECB Operational /Rules Model Program SWCB Project CCB Operational/ Rules Model Program SECB Project CCB Operational /Rules Model Program SWCB SECB Project CCB Operational/ Rules Model Program SWCB Project CCB SECB Project CCB Operational/ Rules Model Program SWCB SECB Operational /Rules Model Program SWCB Project CCB Operational/ Rules Model Program Project CCB SECB SWCB Project CCB / Program SECB Operational /Rules Model Program SWCB Surf ace SECB SWCB SECB Project CCB Program / SWCB Project CCB Orion Ares I MOP GOP EVA Ares V Altair Systems SECB SECB Project CCB / Program SWCB Project CCB SWCB SECB SWCB SECB SWCB SECB SWCB SECB SWCB Event Trace Model Event Trace Model NPR 7120 NPR 7120 Activity ModelActivity Model Activity Model Activity Model SEMP and Model Activity SEMP and Model Activity As-Is To-Be Activity SEMP NPR Lower and Model Level Lower and Model Activity Plans SEMP NPR Lower and Model Activity SEMP 7123 Level Lower and Model Activity Plans SEMP PlansActivity Model Lower and SEMP Level Lower and Model Activity Plans SEMP 7123 PlansActivity Model Lower and SEMP SE Level Lower and Model Activity Plans SEMP PlansActivity Model Lower and SEMP Level Lower and Plans SEMP PlansActivity Model Lower and SEMP Processes Level Lower and Plans SEMP Level Lower Plans Plans Lower and SEMP Level Plans Plans Lower and SEMP Plans Lower Plans SE Tools SE Tools Procedures Conceptual Data Conceptual Data Model Conceptual Data Model • Requirements Conceptual Data Model Conceptual Data • Requirements • Analysis Model Conceptual Data Model • Verif•ication Model • Analysis Requirements Conceptual Data • Verif Requirements • Flight •ication Model • Analysis Conceptual Data • Requirements • Verif • Flight Requirements Systems •ication Model • Analysis Reports • Verif • Flight Architecture •ication • Analysis Systems Requirements Reports • Analysis • Verif • Etc. Systems •ication • Flight • Analysis Architecture Requirements Reports • Verif ication Metrics • Verif • Etc. Systems ication • Flight • Analysis Architecture Reports Metrics • Flight • Verif • Etc. Systems ication • Flight Architecture Reports Metrics Reports Systems Reports Metrics • Etc. Systems • Flight Architecture Reports Architecture Metrics • Etc. Systems Architecture Reports • Etc. • Etc. Architecture Metrics Metrics Metrics • Etc. Metrics 23
  25. 25. Benefits and Cost of Process Standardization Assuming good governance of the standards, the cost of developing standardized processes in advance of Cradle implementation return lower costs for rework, training and maintenance of document templates compared to the higher cost for these functions if there are not standardized processes in place – The analysis shows a ROI over the first 4 years of 550% which was achieved by reducing: • rework, • the number of queries generated • amount of training required, • the amount of templates required and the amount of hours required to maintain the templates – Over a period of the next six year an additional ROI of 1,100% was achievable This was for one set of processes using one IT system The Constellation Information Systems Architecture (CISA) constitutes all processes, data, and systems use within CxP (45-systems facilitating essentially all CxP processes) – Our study looked at these processes and systems within the context of the Cradle study and concluded that over a 10-year period a similar order of magnitude in savings was achievable 24
  26. 26. Summary Defining and managing your enterprise can provide significant benefit to your ability to deliver – Reduced cost with better cost estimates – Shortened and more accurate schedules – Greater technical understanding and insight In the end, this leads to better performance and lower risk 25

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