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  • 1. Theory of Evolution
  • 2. Things change leaves change color in fall mountains erode individuals in a family show some of the same traits insects, not related show some of the same traits
  • 3. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 4. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 5. CHARLES DARWIN – 1809-1882
    • ENGLISH
    • TRAVELED AROUND THE WORLD ON THE BEAGLE – FAMOUS IN THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS
    • OBSERVED MANY SPECIES AND FOSSILS
    • WHY DID SOME SPECIES SURVIVE WHILE OTHERS BECAME EXTINCT?
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College .
  • 6. I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.   — Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species" Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php www.darwinday.org/englishL/life/beagle.ht Used by permission of Darwin Day Celebration (at DarwinDay.org), 2006 www.darwinday.org/englishL/life/beagle.html http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 7. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 8. EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS
      • MIMICRY – the insect looks like the leaf
      • CAMOUFLAGE – the chameleon can change color to match its surroundings
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php http://science.howstuffworks.com/animal-camouflage2.htm
  • 9. EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS
      • MIMICRY
      • CAMOUFLAGE
      • MILLIONS OF YEARS
    • PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS
      • CHANGE IN A METABOLIC PROCESS
      • WHAT DO YOU HEAR ABOUT IN THE NEWS ABOUT SOME BACTERIA?
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College .
  • 10. WHAT OTHER INDUSTRIES WOULD BE WORRIED ABOUT RESISTANCE? Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php Some bacteria have become resistant to typically used antibiotics.
  • 11. OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • FOSSILS
    • ANATOMY
      • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES – structures that are similar because they are inherited from a common ancestor
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 12. OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • FOSSILS
    • ANATOMY
      • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES – structures that are similar because they serve the same function but do not have a common ancestor.
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 13. OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • FOSSILS
    • ANATOMY
      • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE – a feature inherited from an ancestor that is now less elaborate and functional, usually formed when a population experiences a different environment
    WHAT IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES? Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php These fish live in the dark and therefore do not need functional eyes.
  • 14. OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • FOSSILS
    • ANATOMY
      • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE
      • EMBRYOS
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 15. OTHER EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
    • FOSSILS
    • ANATOMY
      • HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
      • VESTIGIAL STRUCTURE
      • EMBRYOS
    • BIOCHEMISTRY
      • WHAT 2 THINGS?
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php DNA and RNA
  • 16. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 17. MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • DO POPULATIONS OR INDIVIDUALS EVOLVE?
    • WHAT IS A GENE POOL?
    • HOW CAN THE GENE POOL CHANGE?
      • MUTATION
      • GENETIC DRIFT
      • GENE FLOW
    • WOULD THESE THINGS EFFECT A LARGE POPULATION OR A SMALL POPULATION MORE?
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College .
  • 18. MUTATION GENETIC DRIFT GENE FLOW - MIGRATION Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . ALL IMAGES: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php Any change in an organism’s DNA When some organisms RANDOMLY survive longer than others and pass on their genes. The movement of genes from one population to another through migration of individuals.
  • 19. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 20. WHAT IS NATURAL SELECTION? Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php Variation in some traits (color of beetles) Green beetles tend to get eaten and do not survive long enough to reproduce The surviving brown beetles have brown offspring. Eventually all the green beetles get eaten, leaving only brown beetles.
  • 21. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION
    • CHARLES DARWIN
    • EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION
    • MECHANISMS FOR EVOLUTION
    • NATURAL SELECTION
    • SPECIATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 22. WHAT IS SPECIATION?
    • GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php A barrier, either physical, like a river changing course, or nonphysical, causes the population to become separated.
  • 23. WHAT IS SPECIATION?
    • GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
    • REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
      • for example, what might occur between fruit flies raised on different types of food?
      • when allowed to interact, some would only mate with the same food preference as itself
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 24. WHAT IS SPECIATION?
    • GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
    • REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
    • PACE OF EVOLUTION:
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . Gradualism – slow steady change over a long time Punctuated equilibrium – a large amount of change in a short time due to a specific event.
  • 25. WHAT IS SPECIATION?
    • GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION
    • REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION
    • GRADUALISM
    • PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM
    • DIVERGENT EVOLUTION – two species that are now dissimilar but can be traced back to the same ancestor
      • ADAPTIVE RADIATION – adaptations to survive in new environmental conditions
    • CONVERGENT EVOLUTION – species having similar features in spite of not having the same ancestor
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College .
  • 26. ADAPTIVE RADIATION – AN EXAMPLE OF DIVERGENT EVOLUTION Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/english/Clayton/Galapago_finches.gif
  • 27. CONVERGENT EVOLUTION –EXAMPLE Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College . http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
  • 28. REFERENCES
    • Biology: The Dynamics of Life; Glencoe 2004
    • http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/home.php
    • http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/evolution/index.html
    • http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/WWC/1995/
    • http://www.darwinday.org/englishL/life/beagle.html
    • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/index.html
    • DR. LUE, LIFE SCIENCE-HHMI OUTREACH PPT.
    Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College .