Evolution lectures1&2 2012 slideshare

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Evolution lectures1&2 2012 slideshare

  1. 1. SBS 110 - Evolution
  2. 2. SBS 110 - Evolution“Nothing in Biology Makes SenseExcept in the Light of Evolution” Theodosius Dobzhansky 1973
  3. 3. Course Outline and Timetable
  4. 4. Recommended Reading
  5. 5. Paperback 352 pages(2010)Publisher: Profile BooksAmazon price: £5.89
  6. 6. Paperback 416 pages(Jan. 1, 2007)Publisher: McGraw-HillEducation (ISE Editions)Amazon Price: £25.73
  7. 7. Paperback 596 pages(11 Aug 2005)Publisher: Oxford University PressAmazon price: £26.99
  8. 8. Lecture 1: Introduction and some historical perspectives 1809—1882
  9. 9. Early ideasFixity of species or change?
  10. 10. Early ideas Fixity of species or change?350 B.C. Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging
  11. 11. Early ideas Fixity of species or change?350 B.C. Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change.
  12. 12. Early ideas Fixity of species or change?350 B.C. Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change.1785 Hutton. Geologist: Uniformitarianism: Changes in nature are gradual.
  13. 13. Early ideas Fixity of species or change?350 B.C. Aristotle: individuals in a “Species” are identical and unchanging1749 Buffon Histoire Naturelle encyclopedia: The earth is very old. Species change.1785 Hutton. Geologist: Uniformitarianism: Changes in nature are gradual.1798 Cuvier: Fossils show extinct species (due to catastrophe). Species don’t change.
  14. 14. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought1. Linnaeus:1700s2. Lamarck: 1744—18293. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  15. 15. Carolus Linnaeus (1707—1778) • Swedish • 180 books classified nature: “revealing the order of life created by God.” • Devised the binomial naming system: Genus species • Thought that species do not change.
  16. 16. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought
  17. 17. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
  18. 18. J-B. de Lamarck (1744—1829)• Worked most of his life at the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris)• He promoted the idea that species change.
  19. 19. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought1. Linnaeus:1700s2. Lamarck: 1744-18293. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  20. 20. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created.
  21. 21. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring.
  22. 22. Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out- compete those with short necks.
  23. 23. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought1. Linnaeus:1700s2. Lamarck: 1744—18293. Darwin & Wallace: 1800s
  24. 24. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Published on Human population growth: Human populations increase faster (geometrically) than food production (increases arithmetically) Ideas strongly influenced Darwin & Wallace
  25. 25. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and Wallace
  26. 26. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas:
  27. 27. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists:
  28. 28. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time
  29. 29. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice.
  30. 30. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable:
  31. 31. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable: 3. Change is slow, steady, and gradual.
  32. 32. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) A geologist and strong proponent of uniformitarianism. Ideas influenced Darwin and WallaceUniformitarianism. 4 ideas: • Accepted by all scientists: 1. Natural laws are constant across space and time 2. Principle of parsimony: try to explain the past by causes now in operation without inventing extra, fancy, or unknown causes, however plausible in logic, if available processes suffice. • Debatable: 3. Change is slow, steady, and gradual. 4. Change is evenly distributed throughout space and time.
  33. 33. Darwin & the Voyage of the Beagle 1831-1836
  34. 34. Galápagos finches• Analysis of these finches led to the hypothesis that they were derived from one ancestral species arriving from the mainland to populate and diversify across the islands (adaptive radiation).
  35. 35. Darwin 1837
  36. 36. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) • Darwin at about 30 years old, and three years back from his voyage aboard HMS Beagle. • The Origin of Species was published several decades later in 1859 (prompted by competition from Alfred Russel Wallace).
  37. 37. Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) • Wallace in his thirties. (National Portrait Gallery, London.) • In 1858 he came up with similar ideas to Darwin about the mechanism of evolutionary change
  38. 38. Read at the Linnean Society
  39. 39. Evolution by natural selection
  40. 40. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.
  41. 41. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed less
  42. 42. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed lessIndividuals within a population differ (natural variation)
  43. 43. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed lessIndividuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction
  44. 44. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed lessIndividuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction Traits are heritable: passed on from parents to offspring
  45. 45. Evolution by natural selectionUnder optimal conditions, populations indefinitely increase in size.Because they do not: * either not all animals reach maturity * and/or some animals breed lessIndividuals within a population differ (natural variation) These differences (traits) may affect survival/reproduction Traits are heritable: passed on from parents to offspringAdvantageous traits lead to increased survival of certain lineages
  46. 46. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring.
  47. 47. 3 Schools of evolutionary thought • Linneaus: each species was separately created. • Lamarck: characteristics acquired by an individual are passed on to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: viewed evolution as descent with modification.
  48. 48. Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out- compete those with short necks.
  49. 49. Giraffe necks • Lamarck: stretching giraffes lengthened their necks to reach tree-top vegetation. This acquired characteristic is passed to offspring. • Darwin & Wallace: giraffes with long necks out- compete those with short necks.
  50. 50. (1859) "The Origin of Species"
  51. 51. Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection theory |ˈTHēərē, ˈTHi(ə)rē| noun ( pl. theories ) A scheme or system of ideas or statements held as an explanation or account of a group of facts or phenomena; a hypothesis that has been confirmed or established by observation and experiment, and is propounded or accepted as accounting for the known facts.(Oxford English Dictionary)
  52. 52. Darwins Theory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"
  53. 53. Darwins Theory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"• There is inherited variation within species.
  54. 54. Darwins Theory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"• There is inherited variation within species.• There is competition for survival within species.
  55. 55. Darwins Theory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"• There is inherited variation within species.• There is competition for survival within species.• Natural selection is the process whereby genetically inheritedcharacteristics become more or less common in a population as afunction of the differential reproductive success of the bearers of thesecharacteristics.
  56. 56. Darwins Theory of Evolution (1859) "The Origin of Species"• There is inherited variation within species.• There is competition for survival within species.• Natural selection is the process whereby genetically inheritedcharacteristics become more or less common in a population as afunction of the differential reproductive success of the bearers of thesecharacteristics.•This process occuruing independently on two populations of a singlespecies leads to the accumulation of differences between the populations- and ultimately to speciation.
  57. 57. Natural selection leads to adaptive change• But environmental conditions change: What was advantageous yesterday may be a disadvantage today.• And evolution also occurs by: • genetic drift • sexual selection • artifical selection (selective breeding)
  58. 58. Summary of Lecture 1Ideas on how the diversity of life was/is produced date back to the ancient Greeks These ideas developed considerably in the 1800s,culminating in the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  59. 59. Lecture 2 Darwin’s evidence for evolution and“Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis”
  60. 60. Darwin’s evidence for evolution
  61. 61. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record
  62. 62. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy
  63. 63. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology
  64. 64. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures
  65. 65. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  66. 66. 1. The Fossil Record: PaleontologyRandom order Reality: there is sequential order to the fossil recordLecture 5
  67. 67. 1. The Fossil Record: PaleontologyRandom order Reality: there is sequential order to the fossil recordLecture 5
  68. 68. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  69. 69. 2. Comparative anatomy• Correspondence between parts and comparison of forelimbs among four vertebrates.
  70. 70. Diversity of type, unity of pattern • Although these vertebrate species differ, the underlying pattern of the forelimb is fundamentally the same.
  71. 71. Homology and analogy• Homology - vertebrate forearms: the bat wing, mouse forearm, and human arm are homologous structures as all are composed of similar bones inherited from a recent common ancestor.
  72. 72. Homology and analogy• Analogy: The wings of bats, butterflies, and birds evolved independently, not from a recent common ancestor. But they have a similar function, flight, and so are analogous.
  73. 73. Morphological series - evolution of limbs from fins• Note homology of structures
  74. 74. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  75. 75. 3. Comparative Embryology• Embryonic retention of ancestral characteristics in vertebrates (e.g. gills and tails)
  76. 76. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  77. 77. 4. Vestigial features I• Whales: hips and hind limbs are reduced to small bones with no function.• In primitive snakes, the remnants of hind limbs persist (forelimbs are absent).
  78. 78. Vestigial features II • The human appendix is a vestigial structure, reduced from the caecum of primate ancestors.
  79. 79. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  80. 80. 5. Domestication (artificial selection) Von Holdt et al. (2010) Nature 464, 898-903
  81. 81. Darwin’s evidence for evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative Embryology 4. Vestigial Structures 5. Domestication (artificial selection)
  82. 82. Pattern and process in evolution Inference Pattern Inference about about effect on evolutionary taxonomic process pattern Process
  83. 83. Lecture 2 Darwin’s evidence for evolution and“Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis”
  84. 84. “Neo-Darwinism” or“The Modern Synthesis”
  85. 85. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with betterunderstanding of how things work.
  86. 86. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
  87. 87. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)
  88. 88. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )
  89. 89. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )• Population Genetics (1908; see Lectures 7-12)
  90. 90. “Neo-Darwinism” or “The Modern Synthesis” The same thing... but with better understanding of how things work.• Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection• Mendel’s Laws of Heredity (1866, 1900; see SBS 008)• Cytogenetics (1902, 1904 - )• Population Genetics (1908; see Lectures 7-12)• Molecular genetics (1970s- ; see SBS 633/210 and Lecture 6)
  91. 91. Gregor Mendel (1822-1984) Worked out the basic laws of inheritance: Segregation and independent assortment
  92. 92. J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964) With Fisher and Wright, one of the founders of population genetics. “The Causes of Evolution” (1932): first major contributionto what became the “modern evolutionary synthesis".
  93. 93. R.A. Fisher (1890-1962) Invented Analysis of Variance and other stats! Worked on the theory of population genetics
  94. 94. Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975) “Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”. Theodosius Dobzhanskys Genetics and the Origin of Species, published in 1937.
  95. 95. Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
  96. 96. Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
  97. 97. Ernst Mayr (1904-2005) Worked on speciation and the definition of species.
  98. 98. William D. Hamilton (1936 - 2000) Explained weird sex ratios Explained how natural selection acts on social behaviour (“kin selection”) relatedness * benefit > cost
  99. 99. John Maynard-Smith (1920-2004) Most widely known for applying game theory to evolutionary biology
  100. 100. Summary/overview of Lecture 2 EVOLUTION (“descent with modification”) Pattern Process • Fossil record • Mechanisms • Dating methods • Environmental drivers •climate • Molecular evolution •cont. drift • Molecular clocks •extinctions etc The Modern Synthesis
  101. 101. What next?• Epigenetics• Cultural transmission “Extended Evolutionary Synthesis” ?• Niche construction• Comparative genomics “Postmodern Synthesis” ?• Systems Biology
  102. 102. Pastafarianism - Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster

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