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  • There are many products that fit several levels. Hotels, for instance, will satisfy basic physiological needs, but the best room at the Ritz Carlton may meet many higher levels.
  • Did students include Internet ads, logos on clothing, ads in the subway, billboards, logos on drinks, in the classroom, TV or radio ads? This should prompt discussion of selective attention, distortion and retention. Was it that they are loyal to these brands? Did they break through the clutter? Were they bombarded by a particular brand message?
  • Go to the site and ask students which type of decision this is best for. They should agree that the site is helpful for highly involved products. It is used in the information search to determine what attributes are important. It then helps them evaluate the alternatives as they can see how the brands compare.
  • Computers are doing more for us at home. We already have TiVo-type products which scan databases and decide what to record. Other products include the Roomba and other home vacuum systems. New robots can conduct an orchestra (Sony) and assist the blind.

Kotler05 media Kotler05 media Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products
  • Case Study Harley Davidson
    • Building Success
    • Understanding the customers’ emotions and motivation
    • Determining the factors of loyalty
    • Translating this information to effective advertising
    • Measuring Success
    • Currently 22% of all U.S. bike sales
    • Demand above supply
    • Sales doubled in the past 5 years with earnings tripled
    5 -
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products
  • Definitions
    • Consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers – individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption
    • All of these final consumers combine to make up the consumer market
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products
  • Model of Buyer Behavior Figure 5.1 5 -
  • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      • Culture
        • Forms a person’s wants and behavior
      • Subculture
        • Groups with shared value systems
      • Social Class
        • Society’s divisions who share values, interests and behaviors
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Personal
    • Psychological
    Key Factors
  • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      • Groups
        • Membership
        • Reference
          • Aspirational
        • Opinion leaders
          • Buzz marketing
      • Family
        • Many influencers
      • Roles and status
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Personal
    • Psychological
    Key Factors
  • This advertiser knows teens are strongly influenced by groups when purchasing fashion items Marketing in Action 5 -
  • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      • Age and life cycle
      • Occupation
      • Economic situation
      • Lifestyle
        • Activities, interests and opinions
        • Lifestyle segmentation
      • Personality and self-concept
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Personal
    • Psychological
    Key Factors
  • VALS Figure 5.4 5 -
  • Brand Personality Dimensions
    • Sincerity
    • Ruggedness
    • Excitement
    • Competence
    • Sophistication
  • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior
      • Motivation
      • Perception
      • Learning
      • Beliefs and attitudes
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Personal
    • Psychological
    Key Factors
  • Psychological Factors Motivation
    • A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction
    • Motivation research is based on Freud. Looks for hidden and subconscious motivation
    • Maslow ordered needs based on how pressing they are to the consumer
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 5.5 5 -
  • This ad demonstrates a product meeting physiological and social needs Marketing in Action 5 -
  • Discussion
    • What consumer products might fulfill multiple levels of the Hierarchy of Needs?
    5 -
  • Psychological Factors Perception
    • Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information.
    • Perception Includes:
      • Selective attention
        • Consumers screen out information
      • Selective distortion
        • People interpret to support beliefs
      • Selective retention
        • People retain points to support attitudes
  • Discussion Question Perception
    • How many ads were you exposed to today?
    • Which ones do you remember? Why?
    5 -
  • Psychological Factors Learning
    • Learning describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience
    • Learning occurs through
      • Drives
        • Internal stimulus that calls for action
      • Stimuli
        • Objects that move drive to motive
      • Cues
        • Minor stimuli that affect response
      • Reinforcement
        • Feedback on action
  • Psychological Factors Beliefs and Attitudes
    • Belief
      • a descriptive thought about a brand or service
      • may be based on real knowledge, opinion, or faith
    • Attitude
      • describes a person’s evaluations, feelings and tendencies toward an object or idea
      • They are difficult to change
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products
  • Types of Buying Decision Behavior Figure 5.6 5 -
  • The Buyer Decision Process Figure 5.7 5 -
  • The Buyer Decision Process
    • Need recognition
    • Information search
    • Evaluation of alternatives
    • Purchase decision
    • Postpurchase behavior
    • Needs can be triggered by:
      • Internal stimuli
        • Normal needs become strong enough to drive behavior
      • External stimuli
        • Advertisements
        • Friends of friends
    Process Stages
  • The Buyer Decision Process
    • Need recognition
    • Information search
    • Evaluation of alternatives
    • Purchase decision
    • Postpurchase behavior
    • Consumers exhibit heightened attention or actively search for information
    • Sources of information:
      • Personal
      • Commercial
      • Public
      • Experiential
      • Word-of-mouth
    Process Stages
  • The Buyer Decision Process
    • Need recognition
    • Information search
    • Evaluation of alternatives
    • Purchase decision
    • Postpurchase behavior
    • Evaluation procedure depends on the consumer and the buying situation.
    • Most buyers evaluate multiple attributes, each of which is weighted differently.
    • At the end of the evaluation stage, purchase intentions are formed.
    Process Stages
  • The Buyer Decision Process
    • Need recognition
    • Information search
    • Evaluation of alternatives
    • Purchase decision
    • Postpurchase behavior
    • Two factors intercede between purchase intentions and the actual decision:
      • Attitudes of others
      • Unexpected situational factors
    Process Stages Video Snippet Wild Planet realizes that kids and parents make the decision for toys
  • The Buyer Decision Process
    • Need recognition
    • Information search
    • Evaluation of alternatives
    • Purchase decision
    • Postpurchase behavior
    • Satisfaction is important:
      • Delighted consumers engage in positive word-of-mouth.
      • Unhappy customers tell on average 11 other people.
    • Cognitive dissonance is common
    Process Stages
  • Discussion Question
    • How is a site like Consumer Reports used in the decision- making process?
    5 - Marketing in Action Click on screenshot for website
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products
  • Buyer Decision Process for New Products
    • New Products
      • Good, service or idea that is perceived by customers as new.
    • Stages in the Adoption Process
      • Marketers should help consumers move through these stages.
  • Stages in the Adoption Process
    • Awareness
    • Evaluation
    • Interest
    • Trial
    • Adoption
  • Buyer Decision Process for New Products
    • Individual Differences in Innovativeness
      • Consumers can be classified into five adopter categories, each of which behaves differently toward new products.
    • Product Characteristics and Adoption
      • Five product characteristics influence the adoption rate.
  • Adoption Process Figure 5.8 5 -
  • Product Characteristics
    • Relative Advantage
    • Compatibility
    • Complexity
    • Divisibility
    • Communicability
    • Why might the adoption process be slow for a home robot?
    Discussion Question Source: Business Week Marketing in Action Source: Business Week 5 -
  • Buyer Decision Process for New Products
    • International Consumer Behavior
      • Values, attitudes and behaviors differ greatly in other countries.
      • Physical differences exist which require changes in the marketing mix.
      • Customs vary from country to country.
      • Marketers must decide the degree to which they will adapt their marketing efforts.
  • Learning Goals
    • Define the consumer market and construct a model of consumer buyer behavior
    • Name the four factors that influence buyer behavior
    • List and understand the types of buying decision behavior and stages in the process
    • Describe the adoption and diffusion process for new products