Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the Landscape of Hopewell Big Woods, PA

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A report commissioned by several towns in southeastern Pennsylvania that attempts to make the case against a natural gas pipeline--the Commonwealth Pipeline--from running through the area. Construction of the Commonwealth is suspended indefinitely and a final route was never charted, let alone through the area identified in the report, which is titled, "Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the Landscape." The report is so light on facts that one of the towns that requested it wants to see it expanded, to put "meat on the bones." Lots of pretty pictures though!

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Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the Landscape of Hopewell Big Woods, PA

  1. 1. Important Resources of theHopewellBig Woodsand the Potential Impactsof Pipeline Developmenton the LandscapePrepared for: East Nantmeal Township, North Coventry Township,South Coventry Township, Union Township, Warwick Township, West Vincent TownshipBy: French & Pickering Creeks Conservation Trust, Green Valleys Association, Natural Lands TrustMay 2013
  2. 2. Hopewell Big Woods
  3. 3. At a joint public meeting of the Boards of East Nantmeal, North Coventry, South Coventry, Union,Warwick, and West Vincent Townships on February 20, 2013, the Supervisors requested a reportsummarizing the important natural, cultural, and recreational resources of the Hopewell Big Woods.The report was also to include a discussion of the potential impacts of the proposed CommonwealthPipeline corridor that may pass through the Hopewell Big Woods landscape. We are pleased to presentthat report as an informational resource for the Township governing bodies.As the details contained in the following pages indicate, the Hopewell Big Woods is a globally-significant landscape that provides a wide variety of important ecological, economic, and quality oflife benefits for local communities and beyond. Given the volume of study and planning that has beenconducted in the Hopewell Big Woods, a comprehensive report of what is known would be unwieldy.Therefore, we have chosen to highlight only the most important and pertinent information.As non-profit organizations that have worked in the Hopewell Big Woods landscape for decades andactive participants in the formation of the Hopewell Big Woods partnership in 2001, we are particularlycommitted to protecting the ecological integrity of the area. As always, our interest is in seeking abalanced approach to conservation and economic development that minimizes negative impacts onthe most important resources.Nothing in this report should be interpreted as an official statement of position by our respectiveorganizations regarding the proposed Commonwealth Pipeline or any other energy transmissioncorridor. Nor should it be considered an endorsement of the positions or actions of the Townshipsto which the report is being provided. Rather, it is a summary of our collective knowledge about theHopewell Big Woods and of the potential impacts of natural gas pipeline developments that passthrough it. Molly K. Morrison President, Natural Lands Trust Victoria Laubach Executive Director, Green Valleys Association D. Andrew Pitz Executive Director, French & Pickering Creeks Conservation Trust
  4. 4. Bobcats inhabit the Hopewell Big Woods
  5. 5. Table ofContentsI. About the Hopewell Big Woods ..................................................................1 Important Resources of the Hopewell Big WoodsII. Land .............................................................................................................................3III. Water............................................................................................................................6IV. Wildlife......................................................................................................................8V. Recreation..............................................................................................................11VI. Historic....................................................................................................................14VII. Applicable Federal Regulations, Designations, and Assets.........16VIII. State and Local Investments and Plans................................................19IX. Potential Impacts of Energy Transmission Corridor Development....................................................................................21X. Impacts of the Proposed Commonwealth Pipeline.................................................................................23MapsMap 1: Hopewell Big Woods Location.....................................................................................................................1Map 2: Public and Protected Lands...........................................................................................................................5Map 3: Hydrologic Features.........................................................................................................................................7Map 4: Important Bird and Mammal Areas............................................................................................................9Map 5: Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Inventory Sites...................................................................................10Map 6: Recreation Resources...................................................................................................................................13Map 7: Historic Resources..........................................................................................................................................15Maps 8–12: Maps 2–7 with Proposed Pipeline.........................................................................................24–29AppendicesAppendix A: Bird Species Observed in the Hay Creek/French Creek Important Bird Area............30Appendix B: Bird Species Observed in the Glen Morgan Lake Important Bird Area........................32Appendix C: Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Inventory Sites....................................................................33Appendix D: Sites Listed on the National Register of Historic Places...................................................35Appendix E: Other Historic Districts and Sites...............................................................................................37
  6. 6. The intact forest of the Hopewell Big Woods includes sugar maples
  7. 7. 1Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013IThe largest remaining contiguous forest insoutheastern Pennsylvania, the Hopewell BigWoods has been recognized as one of the mostimportant natural areas in the region. The73,000-acre landscape spans portions ofnorthern Chester and southern Berks Counties.AboutDelawareSusquehannauehanna Rivera476782762959595NJTurnpikeACExpre803804768181848181807683NorristownMediaCoatesvilleDoylestownWilmingtonPHILADELPHIAAllentownReadingPottstownWestChesterQuakertownLansdaleScrantonWilkesBarreHazeltonMilfordPort JervisCarbondaleStroudsburgLehightongYorkLancasterMontroseBloomsburgDEPENNS Y L V A N I AEWYORKN E WJ E R S E YN DHopewellBig Woods The intact forest here provides valuablewildlife habitat for a variety of species, includingFederally-listed endangered species, migratingneotropical songbirds, and native mammalspecies that have largely been pushed out ofthe extended Philadelphia area by suburbandevelopment. The forests also contribute to a
  8. 8. 2Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013significant number of Exceptional Value and HighQuality watersheds.After two national conservation organizationsidentified the Hopewell Big Woods as animportant conservation priority in 2001, a broadpublic-private partnership formed to encourageconservation of additional open space, protecthigh quality waters, encourage compatibleeconomic development, and promote awarenessof the many recreational opportunities in thelandscape. Today, the Hopewell Big Woodspartnership consists of 47 federal, county, stateand local officials, non-profit conservationorganizations, and concerned citizens.More than 24,000 acres of the HopewellBig Woods are set aside as publicly-owned orprivately-preserved open spaces. Nearly half ofthe 28,000 acres of contiguous forest containedwithin the landscape has been preserved to date. Tens-of-millions of dollars in federal, state,county, local, and private investments have beenmade in the preservation of land in the HopewellBig Woods. Millions more have been spent onresponsible natural resource management, parkdevelopment, historic preservation, trail creation,and promotion of the area as a recreation andtourism destination. The area has also been thesubject of considerable study and planning toensure the most efficient and effective use ofconservation, recreation, and restoration funds.Hopewell Big Woods makes substantialeconomic contributions to the region. A 2010study of the economic value of open space inthe Philadelphia region found that the HopewellBig Woods contributes $47 million annually inenvironmental benefits such as clean water,stormwater control, and carbon sequestration.The study also found that homes within aquarter-mile of the Hopewell Big Woods areworth an average of $8,270 more because oftheir proximity to the conservation area.Birdsboro Waters
  9. 9. 3Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013IIImportant Resources ofthe Hopewell Big Woods:LandThe single most distinguishing characteristic ofthe Hopewell Big Woods is its contiguous forest.At approximately 28,000 acres, it is the largestunbroken forest habitat area between New YorkCity and Washington, D.C. The woodland here wasidentified as a globally-significant natural areabased on a study by The Nature Conservancy andWorld Wildlife Fund in 2001.Highlights• The Hopewell Big Woods is part of thefederally-designated Highlands, a 3.5million-acre area of forested mountainsand hills that stretches across Connecticut,New York, New Jersey and southeasternPennsylvania.• There are more than 24,000 acres of publicand protected lands in the HopewellBig Woods. Of those, 12,630 are in thecontiguous forest area.• The Hopewell Big Woods is known to containone globally significant plant species, theBog bluegrass (Poa paludigena), which thePA Natural Heritage program classifies as‘globally rare’(G3).• Field surveys have indicated the presenceof state designated plant species includingnodding trillium (Trillium cernuum), a stateimperiled species.• Hopewell Big Woods is home to PineSwamp, a biologically-rich acidic broadleafswamp that is considered an imperilednatural community with fewer than onehundred such communities remaining inthe world.St. Peter’s Village
  10. 10. 4Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Nodding trillium Pink lady’s slipper orchidpublic and protected lands in the hopewell big woodsproperty size (acres) responsible entityHopewell Furnace National Historic Site 848 National Park ServiceFrench Creek State Park 7730 Commonwealth ofPennsylvania, DCNRPA State Game Lands #43 2000 Commonwealth ofPennsylvania, GameCommissionWarwick County Park 648 County of ChesterBirdsboro Waters 1800 Birdsboro MunicipalAuthorityCoventry Woods 600 North CoventryTownshipWoody’s Woods 200 South CoventryTownshipCrow’s Nest Preserve 612 Natural Lands TrustWelkinweir 197 Green ValleysAssociationOther non-profit protected lands 5820 Berks Conservancy,French & PickeringCreeks ConservationTrust, Hay CreekWatershed Association,Natural Lands Trust
  11. 11. 5Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013BirdsboroWatersFrenchCreekStateParkHopewellFurnaceNHSCrowsNestPreserveCoventryWoodsWoodysWoodsWarwickCountyParkSGL#43SGL#43SGL#43SGL#52PineCreekWelkinweir1761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYCHESTER COUNTYMONTGOMERY COUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYMONTGOMERYCOUNTYPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesMunicipalityBoundariesTownsWaterwaysPublicandProtectedLandsAgEasementConservationEasementConservationFeeSimpleCountyFederalMunicipalStateHOAProtectedOpenSpacePublicandProtectedLands1.2008AerialPhotography,roadways,countyboundariesfromPAMAP,DCNR.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  12. 12. 6Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013The principle watersheds in the Hopewell BigWoods are French Creek, Hay Creek, SixpennyCreek, Angelica Creek, and Pigeon Creek.Highlights• Over 71% of the watersheds in the HopewellBigWoods are designated as either ExceptionalValue (EV)1or High Quality (HQ)2; togetherthey make up an intact region of healthywatersheds that is unique in SoutheasternPA and notable at the state level.• The 81 square miles of EV and HQwatersheds in the Hopewell Big Woods aresubject to federal and state protectionsunder the Clean Water Act of 1972.• The watersheds of the Hopewell Big Woodsare part of the Schuylkill River Watershedwhich provides drinking water to 1.5 millionpeople in eastern Pennsylvania, most of whomlive in the Philadelphia metropolitan area.• These watersheds provide a variety ofecosystem services including“water filtrationand storage, air filtration, carbon storagenutrient cycling, soil formation, recreation,food, and timber.”3A study by the DelawareValley Regional Planning Commission andGreenSpace Alliance valued these servicesat $47 million annually.41HQ is a Pennsylvania term equivalent to the federal designation of “Tier 2”; 2EV is a Pennsylvania term equivalent to the federal des-ignation of “Tier 3”; 3http://www.lcbp.org/PDFs/2012economic_benefits_factsheet2.pdf; 4Return on Environment, Economic Value ofProtected Open Space in Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2011French Creek, Crow’s Nest PreserveIIIImportant Resources ofthe Hopewell Big Woods:Water
  13. 13. 7Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176Miller C reekCHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunSchuylkillRiverPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB03/22/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsWaterways100-yearFloodplainsNationalWetlandInventoryWatershedClassificationsCWF(ColdWaterFisheries)EVEV/CWFEV/HQHQHQ/CWFHydrologicFeatures1.Floodplains(100-year)fromFEMA.2.WetlandsfromtheNationalWetlandInventory.3.RoadwaysandwaterwaysfromPAMAP,DCNR.4.WatershedsclassifiedbasedonChapter93DesignatedStreams.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  14. 14. 8Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013The large blocks of interior forest in the HopewellBig Woods provide essential and increasingly rarehabitat for a variety of wildlife species, includingtwo Federally-listed endangered species,migrating neotropical songbirds, and a wealthof native mammals.Highlights• The Hopewell Big Woods supports twospecies protected by the EndangeredSpecies Act (ESA): Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)which is listed as Endangered, and the BogTurtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) which is listedas Threatened.1The Hopewell Big Woodssupports the most significant populations ofBog Turtles in southeastern Pennsylvania.• The Commonwealth of Pennsylvaniarecognizes Jefferson salamander (Ambystomajeffersonianum), and spadefoot toad(Scaphiopus holbrookii) as rare species. Bothare found in Hopewell Big Woods.• Portions of the Hopewell Big Woods havebeen designated as the Hay Creek/FrenchCreek and Glen Morgan Lake ImportantBird Areas (IBAs) by Audubon due to theirexceptional diversity of birdlife and thepresence of many species that are regionallyrare. At least 170 species have been recordedhere, including large numbers of forestinterior bird species and some in steepdecline, such as the Cerulean Warbler andthe Kentucky Warbler. (For a complete listof bird species spotted in the IBAs, seethe Appendix.)• The Pennsylvania Important MammalsAreas Project has designated the HopewellBig Woods Important Mammal Area inrecognition of its status as the largestnetwork of remaining forest habitat formammals in the Piedmont region ofsoutheastern Pennsylvania. At least 45 of the62 native mammal species in Pennsylvaniainhabit the landscape, including Americanmink, river otter, bobcat and gray fox.2• The Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Inventorylists 28 sites of importance in the landscape(for a full list, see Appendix).1U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Information Planning and Conservation System; 2http://www.landincommon.org/files/Layout_3_1_.pdfThreatened bog turtleIVImportant Resources ofthe Hopewell Big Woods:Wildlife
  15. 15. 9Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176GlenMorganLakeIBAHopewellBigWoodsIMAandHayCreek/FrenchCreekForestBlockIBAGreatMarshIBACHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsWaterwaysImportantBirdAreasImportantBird&MammalAreasImportantBirdandMammalAreas1.ImportantBirdAreasfromPAAudubonSociety.2.ImportantMammalAreasfromEnvironmentalResourcesResearchInstituteofPennsylvaniaStateUniversity.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  16. 16. 10Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB03/22/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsWaterwaysNHICoreHabitatNHISupportingLandscapePANaturalHeritageInventory1.NHICoreandSupportingdatafromPANaturalHeritageProgram.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  17. 17. 11Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013The vast natural resources of the HopewellBig Woods offer a host of outdoor recreationopportunities. The parks, preserves, trails,and waters are popular for hiking, cycling,fishing, hunting, camping, rock climbing,horseback riding, birding, and more. Thelandscape’s proximity to the Philadelphiametropolitan area makes it a particularlyvaluable recreational resource for theregion’s more than six million residents.Highlights• French Creek State Park is both thecenterpiece of the contiguous foresthere and the most popular recreationaldestination. The two lakes, 35 miles of trails,and more than 200 camping sites attract anaverage of 850,000 visitors each year.• More than 116 miles of trails traverse thelandscape. The Schuylkill River, Horse-Shoe,French Creek, and still-developing BoarsBack Trails not only provide hikingopportunities within the Hopewell BigWoods, they are part of a regional trailnetwork that extends to Center CityPhiladelphia and beyond.• Public open spaces such as CoventryWoods, Warwick County Park, BirdsboroWaters, and Crow’s Nest Preserve offerextensive trail networks.VImportant Resources ofthe Hopewell Big Woods:Recreation• The Schuylkill River Water Trail­—whichstretches from Pottsville to Philadelphia—passes along the northern edge of theHopewell Big Woods and providesseveral public access points for kayakand canoe enthusiasts.
  18. 18. 12Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013• Bicycling is a very popular activity in thelandscape—from road biking on the area’sscenic roads, to mountain biking in FrenchCreek State Park and Birdsboro Waters. Thearea hosts tour events such as the FrenchCreek Iron Tour. Bike Pottstown provides freebike rentals for use on the Schuylkill RiverTrail and in surrounding areas.• More than 8,000 acres of public land in thearea are open to hunting.• The lakes and pristine streams of theHopewell Big Woods provide excellentfishing opportunities. For example,French Creek is one of the most populardestinations in southeastern Pennsylvaniafor trout fishing, and is stocked each yearwith rainbow and brown trout.• Birdsboro Waters contains a popularcollection of sport climbing routes. These100+ routes vary in level and difficulty forbeginner and advanced climbers.• Recreational activity in the Hopewell BigWoods has spurred the creation and growthof local businesses. St. Peter’s Village,listed on the National Register of HistoricResources, is a late-nineteenth centurymining town that has been redevelopedand is now home to an inn, restaurant,café, and other amenities that attractrecreationalists and tourists.
  19. 19. 13Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013BirdsboroWatersFrenchCreekStateParkHopewellFurnaceNHSCrowsNestPreserveCoventryWoodsWoodysWoodsWarwickCountyParkSGL#43SGL#43SGL#43SGL#52PineCreekWelkinweir1761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYCHESTER COUNTYMONTGOMERY COUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYMONTGOMERYCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunAlleghenyCreekScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekBlackHorseCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelica CreekIndianCornCreekSanatogaCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunSchuylkillRiverPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsOpenTrailProposedTrailSchuylkillRiverWaterTrailWaterwaysPublicOpenSpaceConservationFeeSimpleCountyFederalMunicipalStateRecreationResources1.TrailsfromDCNRandNaturalLandsTrust.2.PublicopenspacefromDCNR,ChesterCounty,andBerksCounty.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  20. 20. 14Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Hopewell Big Woods has a rich history, linked inlarge part to the presence of an iron industry thatplayed an important role in the Revolutionary Warand the early industrialization of the Philadelphiaarea. The expansive forest was an essentialrenewable resource needed to help makecharcoal to fuel the furnaces where ironwas made.Highlights• The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Siteis located near the center of the HopewellBig Woods. It offers interpretation andeducational programs about the early ironproduction at the site. Approximately 70,000residents and tourists visit Hopewell Furnaceeach year and visitorship increased 19%in 2012.• The Schuylkill River National and StateHeritage Area was designated by Congressin 2000 to celebrate its“unique contributionto the cultural, political, and industrialdevelopment of the United States.”1Asignificant portion of the Heritage Area islocated within the HopewellBig Woods.• There are at least 35 sites in the HopewellBig Woods that are listed on the NationalRegister of Historical Places.2These includeVIImportant Resources ofthe Hopewell Big Woods:Historicdiverse sites such as the St. Peter’s HistoricDistrict (the largest and most completeVictorian village on the Register), the JohnKnauer House and Mill, the Welkinweirestate, and the Joanna and Warwick Furnaces.• An additional 138 historic sites and localhistoric districts are contained within theHopewell Big Woods. (See the appendix fora detailed list of relevant historic resources.)• A series of Iron and Steel Heritage Tourshave been developed by the National ParkService and local non-profit partners to buildtourism and highlight the vital role thatthese industries played in the developmentof the United States. The“Forging Freedom”tour centers on the furnaces and relatedhistoric sites within the Hopewell Big Woods.1Schuylkill River Valley National Heritage Area Act, 2000; 2National Park Service data, http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/Download.htmlHopewell Village
  21. 21. 15Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYCHESTER COUNTYMONTGOMERY COUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYMONTGOMERYCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekIndianCornCreekSanatogaCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)BerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HistoricResources1.HistoricalresourcesfromBerksCounty,ChesterCounty,andtheNationalRegisterofHistoricPlaces.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.HopewellBigWoodsTownsCountyBoundariesWaterwaysNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesHistoricSitesHistoricDistrictsHopewellFurnaceNationalHistoricSiteSchuylkillRiverValleyNationalHeritageArea
  22. 22. 16Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Federal Laws Applicable tothe LandscapeEndangered Species ActAs noted previously, the Hopewell Big Woodscontains two species covered by the EndangeredSpecies Act (ESA): Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)which is listed as Endangered, and the BogTurtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) which is listed asThreatened.1The purpose of the ESA is to protect andrecover imperiled species and the ecosystemsupon which they depend. Under the ESA, speciesmay be listed as either endangered or threatened.“Endangered”means a species is in danger ofextinction throughout all or a significant portionof its range.“Threatened”means a species islikely to become endangered within theforeseeable future.2The ESA makes it unlawful for a person to takea listed animal without a permit. Take is defined as“to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill,trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage inany such conduct.”“Harm”may include significanthabitat modification or degradation where itactually kills or injures wildlife by significantlyimpairing essential behavioral patterns, includingbreeding, feeding, or sheltering.”3Clean Water ActSeventy-one percent of the watersheds in theHopewell Big Woods are protected by provisionsof the Clean Water Act. The watersheds aredesignated as:Exceptional Value (Tier 3) WatershedsFederal policy provides that EV (Tier 3)designation maintains and protects waterquality in Outstanding National Resource Waters(ONRWs). Pennsylvania regulations add severaladditional pathways under which a surfacewater may be designated EV. Except for certaintemporary changes, water quality cannot belowered in EV waters.High Quality (Tier 2) WatershedsFederal HQ (Tier 2) designation maintains andprotects“high quality”waters—water bodieswhere existing conditions are better thannecessary to support CWA § 101(a)(2)“fishable/swimmable”uses. Water quality can be loweredin such waters. However, State programs identifyprocedures that must be followed and questionsthat must be answered before a reduction inwater quality can be allowed. In no case maywater quality be lowered to a level which wouldinterfere with existing or designated uses.VIIApplicable FederalLaws, Designations,and Assets
  23. 23. 17Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013National HistoricPreservation ActThere are a minimum of 38 sites within theHopewell Big Woods that are listed on theNational Register of Historic Places. WhenCongress passed the National HistoricPreservation Act, it established the NationalRegister of Historic Places to document andprotect districts, sites, buildings, structures, andobjects significant in American history. Section106 of the NHPA requires all Federal agencies,including the Federal Energy RegulatoryCommission, to take into account, prior toauthorizing an undertaking, the effect of theundertaking on cultural resources listed oreligible for the National Register. The agencymust also afford the Advisory Council onHistoric Preservation an opportunity tocomment on the undertaking.4Highlands Conservation ActThe Highlands Conservation Act was established“to recognize the importance of the water, forest,agricultural, wildlife, recreational, and culturalresources of the Highlands region, and thenational significance of the Highlands regionto the United States.”Schuylkill River Valley NationalHeritage Area ActThe Act established the Schuylkill RiverNational and State Heritage Area in 2000.“The purposes of this Act are (1) to foster aclose working relationship with all levels ofgovernment, the private sector, and the localcommunities in the Schuylkill River Valley ofsoutheastern Pennsylvania and enable thecommunities to conserve their heritage whilecontinuing to pursue economic opportunities;and, (2) to conserve, interpret, and develop thehistorical, cultural, natural, and recreationalresources related to the industrial and culturalheritage of the Schuylkill River Valley ofsoutheastern Pennsylvania.”51U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Information Planning and Conservation System; 2U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, http://www.fws.gov/endangered/laws-policies/index.html; 3Ibid; 4Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, “Guidelines for Reporting on Cultural ResourcesInvestigations for Pipeline Projects,” December 2002; 5Schuylkill River Valley National Heritage Area Act, 2000Hopewell Big Woods is a critical element of the Pennsylvaniaportion of the 3.2 million-acre Highlands region.
  24. 24. 18Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Federal Assets, DesignatedAreas, and InvestmentsHopewell Furnace NationalHistoric SiteA federally-owned, 848-acre historic sitededicated to preserving and interpreting aRevolution-era iron furnace.Schuylkill River National & StateHeritage AreaA National Heritage Area is a place designatedby the United States Congress where natural,cultural, historic and recreational resourcescombine to form a cohesive, nationally distinctivelandscape. The Schuylkill River received thisdesignation from Congress in 2000.Forest Legacy Grants, USDAA $300,000 Forest Legacy program grant helpedto preserve the Birdsboro Waters property.Highlands ConservationAct grantsIn 2010, $646,666 in Highlands Conservation Actfunding was allocated to land preservation in theHopewell Big Woods.Land and Water ConservationFund Grants$3,187,810 in grants from the Land andWater Conservation Fund have been used topreserve land and water resources and enhancerecreational assets in the landscape.The above listing is intended to provide a representation of the scope of federal issues related to the Hopewell Big Woods. Therefore,it includes some laws and designations that may have no direct bearing on federal permitting of natural gas pipelines or other formof energy transmission corridor. There may be additional federal regulations that are applicable to transmission corridor siting.Municipalities and landowners are encouraged to seek qualified legal counsel before pursuing appeals or legal action in relation toland and water conservationfund grantsproject grantamountDaniel Boone Homestead 233,611French Creek State Park 1,997,340South Birdsboro Park 15,664French Creek, West VincentTownship272,155Coventry Woods addition 59,040Warwick Township LandAcquisition610,000TOTAL 3,187,810
  25. 25. 19Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013State, County, and LocalInvestmentsThe Hopewell Big Woods has been the focusof more than $63 million in state, county, andlocal investments in open space conservation,agricultural preservation, and park and trailimprovements. Typically, these public grantsleverage substantial private donations fromlandowners as well as individual andinstitutional donors.Highlights• The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania hasprovided grants in excess of $8 million topreserve more than 3,200 acres of naturalareas and parklands.1• From 2004 to 2011, Chester County granted$6.2 million to land trusts and municipalgovernments to preserve open space anddevelop parks and trails.2• During the same time period, ChesterCounty invested $4.8 million in farmlandpreservation in the landscape.3• Five municipalities located in the HopewellBig Woods have established voter-approvedopen space funding programs worth a totalof $44 million. On average, the associatedballot measures passed by a 2 to 1 margin.4Relevant PlansOver the past decade, the Hopewell Big Woodshas been the subject of extensive study andplanning by public agencies and non-profitorganizations. Federal, state, county and localstudies have identified dozens of high priorityland and water resources in the landscape. Morethan a dozen plans have been developed to setpriorities for land conservation, natural resourcemanagement and restoration, recreationalasset improvement, and compatible economicdevelopment. The Hopewell Big Woods andareas within are highlighted as priorities inseveral plans.VIIIState and LocalInvestments and Plans
  26. 26. 20Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Highlights• Schuylkill Highlands Greenway Plan (2012)• Schuylkill Highlands Compatible Economic Development Plan (2012)• Hopewell Big Woods Monitoring, Evaluation, and Adaptive Management Plan (2011)• Hopewell Big Woods Trails and Recreation Concept Plan (2009)• Natural Resource Inventory andManagement Recommendations forFrench Creek State Park (2008)• Hopewell Big Woods Landscape Stewardship Plan (2006)• Hopewell Big Woods LandscapeProtection Plan (2006)• Coventry Woods Conservation and Stewardship Plan (2004)• Hopewell Big Woods Landscape Conservation Plan (2003)• Pennsylvania Outdoor Recreation Plan, 2009–2013• Chester County Landscapes 2• Chester County Watersheds Plan• Berks County Greenway Plan• Parks, Recreation, and Open Space Plan 2012, The Federation of Northern Chester County Communities1Interactive grants map, PA Dept. of Conservation and Natural Resources (http://www.gis.dcnr.state.pa.us/brc/grantprojectsmap.html); 2County of Chester Open Space Program; 3Ibid; 4landvote.orgCrow’s Nest PreserveTrails andRecreationConcept PlanOctober 2009HopewellBig WoodsMonitoring, Evaluation, andAdaptive Management PlanDecember 2011
  27. 27. 21Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Transmission corridor development can posesignificant threats to the health and integrity ofnatural areas­—particularly forests. According tothe“Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment”conducted by The Nature Conservancy in 2012,“pipeline rights-of-way often create a significantand permanent fragmenting feature throughnatural habitats.”The primary negative impacts of pipelineconstruction and rights-of-way include:Disturbance of Habitat forEndangered SpeciesConstruction and permanent rights-of-waycan disturb breeding and feeding habitat forendangered species and create unsafe conditionsalong travel corridors. Underground pipelines canimpact groundwater flow and thus negativelyaffect species that depend upon springs and highwater tables for habitat.Forest fragmentationEach mile of a 100-foot right-of-way directlydisturbs 528,000 square feet or approximately12 acres and creates an additional 72 acres ofnew forest edge. New forest edge deprivesinterior forest species, such as black-throatedblue warblers, salamanders, and many woodlandflowers, of the habitat conditions that only deepforest environments can provide.1Core forestEdge forest300New right-of-wayCore forestEdge forestRights-of-way in contiguousforests reduce core forest habitatand create new edge habitat.IXPotential Impacts ofEnergy TransmissionCorridor Development
  28. 28. 22Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Erosion and SedimentationExtensive soil disturbance during constructioncan increase the risk of erosion and sedimentationif controls are not carefully designed andimplemented. Risks are particularly high on steepslopes, near water bodies, and during heavyrains. Stream and wetland crossings can causeerosion and sedimentation that degrades waterquality downstream.“Open cut”crossings – inwhich a trench is dug across the stream – pose aparticular risk of significant erosion and increasedsedimentation.”2Invasive Species DispersionInvasive plant species can out-compete nativeplant species leading to loss of critical breedingand feeding resources for wildlife. Pipelineconstruction activities can spread invasiveplant seeds from one site to another wherethe plant had not been introduced previously.The forest openings created by permanentrights-of-way create ideal conditions for thespread of invasive plants.Unauthorized ATV ActivityNatural gas pipeline corridors have proven to beattractive to ATV riders and unauthorized use isa common challenge. Noise from ATVs has thepotential to cause wildlife to avoid the area. Inaddition, ATVs can spread invasive plant species.New edge areas created by rights-of-way provide ideal conditions for the spread of invasive plants.1Natural Gas Pipelines, Excerpt from Report 2 of the Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment, 2011; 2Ibid
  29. 29. 23Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Based on the available maps of the proposedCommonwealth Pipeline, the new right-of-wayhas the potential to negatively impact theHopewell Big Woods. Potential impacts include:Disturbance of Habitat for theThreatened Bog TurtleThe Hopewell Big Woods supports the mostsignificant populations of the federally listed BogTurtle in southeastern Pennsylvania. Constructionand maintenance of permanent rights-of-wayin the landscape has the potential to seriouslydegrade essential breeding habitat and travelcorridors for the species.Fragmentation of theUnbroken ForestThe unfragmented forests are the most importantnatural resource feature of the Hopewell BigWoods. The Hopewell Big Woods LandscapeConservation Plan (2003) notes,“Because internalroads, other rights-of-way and included openareas have the potential of increasing the amountof transition or‘edge’habitat, internal roads,fragmenting roads, utility rights-of-way andopen area need to be minimized to maximizeforest health.Erosion and Sedimentation in HQand EV WatershedsThe pipeline as proposed would make 18 crossingsof HQ and EV streams creating the potential fordegradation of water quality through increasederosion and sedimentation.Invasive Plant DispersionInvasive species are one of the most serious threatsto natural habitats in southeastern Pennsylvania.Land managers spend a great deal of their timeworking to limit the introduction of invasive speciesinto areas where they were not previously present.As noted above, however, both the pipelineconstruction process and the permanent right-of-waypresent opportunities for the spread of invasivespecies into new areas of the Hopewell Big Woods.Disturbance to Protected LandsThe proposed path for the Commonwealth Pipeline,as currently known, would bisect protected landsincluding Coventry Woods, Woody’s Woods, WarwickCounty Park, and private lands protected byconservation easements. The impact on naturalresources present on these properties will varydepending on the land cover and water resourcespresent. Coventry Woods, Woody’s Woods, WarwickCounty Park, and other wooded properties wouldsuffer the fragmentation effects noted above.Wetlandsand other water resources—protection of which isan important purpose of conservation activity—may be degraded by erosion and sedimentation.XImpacts ofthe ProposedCommonwealth Pipeline
  30. 30. 24Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013BirdsboroWatersFrenchCreekStateParkHopewellFurnaceNHSCrowsNestPreserveCoventryWoodsWoodysWoodsWarwickCountyParkSGL#43SGL#43SGL#43SGL#52PineCreekWelkinweir1761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYCHESTER COUNTYMONTGOMERY COUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYMONTGOMERYCOUNTYPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesMunicipalityBoundariesTownsProposedPipelineWaterwaysPublicandProtectedLandsAgEasementConservationEasementConservationFeeSimpleCountyFederalMunicipalStateHOAProtectedOpenSpacePublicandProtectedLands1.2008AerialPhotography,roadways,countyboundariesfromPAMAP,DCNR.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.HOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENT
  31. 31. 25Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176Miller C reekCHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunSchuylkillRiverPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENTBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB03/21/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsProposedPipelineWaterways100-yearFloodplainsNationalWetlandInventoryWatershedClassificationsCWF(ColdWaterFisheries)EVEV/CWFEV/HQHQHQ/CWFHydrologicFeatures1.Floodplains(100-year)fromFEMA.2.WetlandsfromtheNationalWetlandInventory.3.RoadwaysandwaterwaysfromPAMAP,DCNR.4.WatershedsclassifiedbasedonChapter93DesignatedStreams.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  32. 32. 26Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176GlenMorganLakeIBAHopewellBigWoodsIMAandHayCreek/FrenchCreekForestBlockIBAGreatMarshIBACHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsWaterwaysProposedPipelineImportantBirdAreasImportantBird&MammalAreasImportantBirdandMammalAreas1.ImportantBirdAreasfromPAAudubonSociety.2.ImportantMammalAreasfromEnvironmentalResourcesResearchInstituteofPennsylvaniaStateUniversity.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.HOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENT
  33. 33. 27Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENTBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB03/22/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesTownsWaterwaysProposedPipelineNHICoreHabitatNHISupportingLandscapePANaturalHeritageInventory1.NHICoreandSupportingdatafromPANaturalHeritageProgram.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.
  34. 34. 28Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013BirdsboroWatersFrenchCreekStateParkHopewellFurnaceNHSCrowsNestPreserveCoventryWoodsWoodysWoodsWarwickCountyParkSGL#43SGL#43SGL#43SGL#52PineCreekWelkinweir1761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYCHESTER COUNTYMONTGOMERY COUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYMONTGOMERYCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunAlleghenyCreekScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekBlackHorseCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelica CreekIndianCornCreekSanatogaCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunSchuylkillRiverPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HopewellBigWoodsCountyBoundariesProposedPipelineTownsOpenTrailProposedTrailSchuylkillRiverWaterTrailWaterwaysPublicOpenSpaceConservationFeeSimpleCountyFederalMunicipalStateRecreationResources1.TrailsfromDCNRandNaturalLandsTrust.2.PublicopenspacefromDCNR,ChesterCounty,andBerksCounty.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.HOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENT
  35. 35. 29Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 20131761056866210072442223RidgeRoad401ConestogaRoad345176CHESTERCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYCHESTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYLANCASTERCOUNTYBERKSCOUNTYAlleghenyCreekMonocacy CreekFrenchCreekMarsh CreekSleepyHollowRunScottsRunRockRunConestogaRiverEastBranchConestogaRiverPineCreekEastBranchBrandywineCreekSixpennyCreekWestBranchConestogaRiverSeidelCreekManatawnyCreekSprogels RunHayCreekPickeringCreekPigeonCreekAngelicaCreekSanatogaCreekIndianCornCreekBrookeEvansCreekLyonsRunPossumHollowRunLittleConestogaSouthBranchFrenchCreekBeaverRunBeaverRunStonyRunBirchRunPottstownBirdsboroMorgantown021MilesBerksandChesterCounties,PennsylvaniaCompiledBy:MEB04/17/13HistoricalResources1.HistoricalresourcesfromBerksCounty,ChesterCounty,andtheNationalRegisterofHistoricPlaces.Disclaimer:Thismapisnotasurvey.TheinformationimpartedwiththismapismeanttoassistNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,describetheplacementofcertainretained,reserved,orexcludedrightsandtocalculateacreagefigures.Propertyboundaries,whileapproximate,wereestablishedusingthebestavailableinformation,whichmayhaveincluded:surveys,taxmaps,fieldmappingusingG.P.S.,and/ororthophotos.NaturalLandsTrust,Inc.,makesnorepresentationastotheaccuracyofsaidpropertylines(oranyotherlines),andnoliabilityisassumedbyreasonofreliancethereon.UseofthismapforotherthanitsintendedpurposerequiresthewrittenconsentofNaturalLandsTrust,Inc.HopewellBigWoodsTownsCountyBoundariesProposedPipelineWaterwaysNationalRegisterofHistoricPlacesHistoricSitesHistoricDistrictsHopewellFurnaceNationalHistoricSiteSchuylkillRiverValleyNationalHeritageAreaHOPEWELLBIGWOODS(+/-73,200acres)POTENTIALCOMMONWEALTHPIPELINEALIGNMENT
  36. 36. 30Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Bird species observed in the Hay Creek/French CreekImportant Bird AreaSource: eBird, April 10, 2013Acadian FlycatcherAmerican Black DuckAmerican CootAmerican CrowAmerican GoldfinchAmerican KestrelAmerican RedstartAmerican RobinAmerican Tree SparrowAmerican WigeonAmerican WoodcockBald EagleBaltimore OrioleBank SwallowBarn SwallowBarred OwlBelted KingfisherBlack VultureBlack-and-white WarblerBlack-billed CuckooBlackburnian WarblerBlack-capped ChickadeeBlackpoll WarblerBlack-throated Blue WarblerBlack-throated Green WarblerBlue JayBlue-gray GnatcatcherAAppendix ABlue-headed VireoBlue-winged WarblerBroad-winged HawkBrown CreeperBrown ThrasherBrown-headed CowbirdBuffleheadCanada GooseCanada WarblerCanvasbackCape May WarblerCarolina ChickadeeCarolina WrenCarolina/Black-capped ChickadeeCedar WaxwingCerulean WarblerChestnut-sided WarblerChimney SwiftChipping SparrowCliff SwallowCommon GoldeneyeCommon GrackleCommon LoonCommon MerganserCommon RavenCommon YellowthroatCooper’s HawkDark-eyed JuncoDouble-crested CormorantDowny WoodpeckerEastern BluebirdEastern KingbirdEastern MeadowlarkEastern PhoebeEastern Screech-OwlEastern TowheeEastern Wood-PeweeEuropean StarlingField SparrowFish CrowFox SparrowGadwallGolden-crowned KingletGrasshopper SparrowGray CatbirdGray-cheeked ThrushGreat Blue HeronGreat Crested FlycatcherGreat EgretGreat Horned OwlGreater ScaupGreater/Lesser ScaupGreen HeronGreen-winged Teal
  37. 37. 31Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Hairy WoodpeckerHermit ThrushHerring GullHooded MerganserHooded WarblerHorned GrebeHouse FinchHouse SparrowHouse WrenIndigo BuntingKentucky WarblerKilldeerLeast FlycatcherLesser ScaupLouisiana WaterthrushMagnolia WarblerMallardMerlinMourning DoveMute SwanNashville WarblerNorthern BobwhiteNorthern CardinalNorthern FlickerNorthern HarrierNorthern MockingbirdNorthern ParulaNorthern PintailNorthern Rough-winged SwallowNorthern ShovelerNorthern WaterthrushOrchard OrioleOspreyOvenbirdPalm WarblerPied-billed GrebePileated WoodpeckerPine SiskinPine WarblerPrairie WarblerPurple FinchPurple MartinRed-bellied WoodpeckerRed-breasted NuthatchRed-eyed VireoRed-headed WoodpeckerRed-shouldered HawkRed-tailed HawkRed-winged BlackbirdRing-billed GullRing-necked DuckRing-necked PheasantRock PigeonRose-breasted GrosbeakRuby-crowned KingletRuby-throated HummingbirdRuddy DuckRuffed GrouseRufous HummingbirdRusty BlackbirdSavannah SparrowScarlet TanagerSharp-shinned HawkShort-eared OwlSnow GooseSolitary SandpiperSong SparrowSpotted SandpiperSwainson’s ThrushSwamp SparrowTennessee WarblerTree SwallowTufted TitmouseTundra SwanTurkey VultureVeeryWarbling VireoWhite-breasted NuthatchWhite-crowned SparrowWhite-eyed VireoWhite-throated SparrowWild TurkeyWillow FlycatcherWilson’s SnipeWinter WrenWood DuckWood ThrushWorm-eating WarblerYellow WarblerYellow-bellied SapsuckerYellow-billed CuckooYellow-breasted ChatYellow-rumped WarblerYellow-throated VireoYellow-throated Warbler
  38. 38. 32Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Bird species observed in the Glen Morgan LakeImportant Bird AreaSource: eBird, April 10, 2013American CrowAmerican GoldfinchAmerican RedstartAmerican RobinBald EagleBarn SwallowBlack-and-white WarblerBlue-gray GnatcatcherBrown-headed CowbirdCanada GooseCanvasbackChimney SwiftChipping SparrowCommon GrackleCooper’s HawkDouble-crested CormorantEastern KingbirdEuropean StarlingGray CatbirdBAppendix BGreat Blue HeronMallardMourning DoveNorthern CardinalNorthern FlickerNorthern MockingbirdOspreyPied-billed GrebePileated WoodpeckerRed-eyed VireoRedheadRed-winged BlackbirdRuddy DuckSong SparrowTree SwallowWood DuckYellow WarblerYellow-rumped Warbler
  39. 39. 33Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013CAppendix cPNHI Rank Site Name Listed Resources1 Warwick County Park Seeps Supports populations of one plant species of concernSupports one animal species of concern2 Pine Swamp Red maple-black ash palustrine forestAcidic broadleaf swamp natural communitiesSupports 11 plant species of concernSupports two animal species of concern3 Conestoga River Watershed An animal species of concern found in 2000Plant species of concern occurs in SGL 52Beaver Run/Hay CreekWatershedSupports several plant species of concernSupports several animal species of concern4 Hay Creek Plant species of concernHigh-quality Coldwater FisheryBirdsboro Seeps Fair-quality population of a plant species of concernWarwick Seeps Fair to good quality Circumneutral Seepage Swampcommunity5 Trythall Road Wetlands A plant species of concernTrythall Woods Circumneutral Seeps natural communitySportsman Club Small populations of two plant species of concernCONTINUEDPennsylvania Natural Heritage Inventory SitesSource: The Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program Inventories, 1991, 1994, 2000, 2003, 2008
  40. 40. 34Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013PNHI Rank Site Name Listed Resources5 Dorrance Estate Small populations of two plant species of concernRock Run Thicket Small population of a tree species of concernHopewell Lake Swale Small population of a plant species of concernSixpenny Creek Plant species of concernHigh-quality Coldwater FisheryFrench Creek A good population of an aquatic plant speciesof concernPA Scenic RiverHigh LocalSignificanceConestoga River Headwaters A diversity of habitatsHabitat for a species of concernFrench Creek High-quality Coldwater FisheryWarwick County ParkFloodplain Forest and SeepsMature trees, seepage wetlandsSt. Peters Woods Talus slope woodland communityFrench Creek FallsPotential for rare speciesLow LocalSignificanceCold Run Seeps Fairly mature woodlandOpen space for wildlifeWater source for Cold RunSeries of small springs emanating from a NWfacing slopeUnknown Nantmeal Powerline The site is listed but contains no further informationSouth Branch French Creek The site is listed but contains no further informationUnionville Creek Large forested tract adjacent to French Creek State ParkRock Church Swamp Large wetland of local significanceWaterfowl and amphibian breeding habitatSixpenny Lake High-quality Coldwater FisheryPlant species of concernFrench Creek/Pine Swamp Does not contain information as to why it is listedSouth Branch French Creek Does not contain information as to why it is listed
  41. 41. 35Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013DAppendix DSites Listed on the National Register of Historic PlacesSource: National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, April 2013Site Municipality CountyBirchrunville General Store Birchrunville ChesterBirchrunville Historic District Birchrunville ChesterSt. Michael’s Protestant Episcopal Church,Parish House and RectoryBirdsboro BerksNathan Michener House Bucktown ChesterStephen Meredith House Bucktown ChesterHall’s Bridge Chester Springs ChesterCoventryville Coventry Hall ChesterRobert Rookey House Downingtown ChesterWelkinweir East Nantmeal ChesterHopewell Furnace National Historic Site Elverson BerksLahr Farm Elverson ChesterSt. Mary’s Episcopal Church Elverson ChesterThomas Bull House Elverson ChesterCONTINUED
  42. 42. 36Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Site Municipality CountyWarwick Mills Elverson ChesterGeiger Mill Geigertown BerksThompson Mill Gibraltar BerksHockley Mill Farm Glen Moore ChesterJohn Knauer House and Mill Knauertown ChesterWarrenpoint Knauertown ChesterWarwick Furnace/Farms Knauertown ChesterFrench Creek State Park: Six Penny Day Use District Morgantown BerksJoanna Furnace Complex Morgantown BerksPottstown Landing Historic District North Coventry ChesterJacob Winings House and Clover Mill Phoenixville ChesterCoventryville Historic District Pottstown ChesterSimon Meredith House Pughtown ChesterTownsend House Pughtown ChesterFrench Creek State Park: Organized Group Camp 4 District Reading BerksVincent Forge Mansion Spring City ChesterSt. Peter’s Village Historic District St. Peters ChesterNicholas East House Valley Forge ChesterBrower’s Bridge Warwick ChesterReading Furnace Historic District Warwick ChesterPhilip Rogers House Warwick Township ChesterWest Vincent Highlands Historic District West Vincent Township Chester
  43. 43. 37Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Other Historic Districts and SitesSource: Berks County, Chester CountySite Municipality CountyAlice Focht United Methodist Church Birdsboro BerksBirdsboro Iron Industry Birdsboro BerksBrooklyn Birdsboro BerksCharles & Margaret Layland Prope Birdsboro BerksChel Donia Weiler Property Birdsboro BerksCora Handwork Property Birdsboro BerksEdward Brooke II Mansion Birdsboro BerksE.G. Brooke Iron Co. Birdsboro BerksF. M. Brown Mill Birdsboro BerksFriendship Fire Co. Birdsboro BerksGristmill Birdsboro BerksHay Creek Aquaduct Birdsboro BerksIOOF Lodge Hall Birdsboro BerksJohn Hook House Birdsboro BerksLevi Focht House Birdsboro BerksEAppendix ECONTINUED
  44. 44. 38Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Site Municipality CountyLincoln Focht House Birdsboro BerksLockhouse Birdsboro BerksMarian Millard Property Birdsboro BerksMercantile Building Birdsboro BerksMexico Historic District Birdsboro BerksMill Street Workers Houses Birdsboro BerksRailroad Depots Birdsboro BerksSchuylkill Navigation Lock Birdsboro BerksTexas Historic District Birdsboro BerksWilliam Bird Mansion Birdsboro BerksWilliams Farm Birdsboro BerksGraveyard Caernarvon BerksHarmony Church Caernarvon BerksPaul Dovin Property Caernarvon BerksCamp Sankanac East Vincent Township ChesterE.G. Brooke Co. #3 Exeter BerksSeidels Steam Forge Exeter BerksJacob Geiss Farmstead North Coventry Township ChesterShaner’s Bakery North Coventry Township ChesterBethel Evangelical Church Robeson BerksBethlehem Steel Property Robeson BerksBirdsboro Robeson BerksBlanche Steinmetz Property Robeson BerksBrown Slow and Sure Plantation Robeson BerksBuck Hollow Road House Robeson BerksC. Gollub School Robeson BerksC. Hyback Property Robeson BerksCONTINUED
  45. 45. 39Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Site Municipality CountyCanal Hotel Robeson BerksCharles Hamilton Property Robeson BerksColomcille Log House Robeson BerksDaniel Siegfried Gun Factory Robeson BerksDavid Hoffman Property Robeson BerksDo Well Forge #1 Robeson BerksElizabeth Scathard Property Robeson BerksEugene Burkhart Property Robeson BerksF. M. Weaver Foundry Robeson BerksFanny Fry Property Robeson BerksFriends Meeting House Robeson BerksGieger Gristmill Robeson BerksGraveyard Robeson BerksGraveyard Robeson BerksGriffith Tilt Forge Robeson BerksH. Keinard Property Robeson BerksHampton Forge/Hampton Furnace Robeson BerksHarold Kurtz Property Robeson BerksHaycreek Forge Robeson BerksIrvin Kocher Property Robeson BerksJoanna Heights Camp Meeting Robeson BerksJohn Koch Property Robeson BerksLottie Detorre Property Robeson BerksMoore Forge Robeson BerksMurray House Robeson BerksPlow Hotel Robeson BerksPlow School Robeson BerksCONTINUED
  46. 46. 40Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Site Municipality CountyRobert Redzig Property Robeson BerksScarlet’s Forge Robeson BerksScarlet’s Gristmill Robeson BerksSchoolhouse Robeson BerksSchuylkill Canal Aqueduct Robeson BerksSeideltown School Robeson BerksShields Property Robeson BerksSt. John’s United Church of Christ Robeson BerksWhite Bear Tavern Robeson BerksW. R. Updike Property Robeson BerksLeah Young House South Coventry Township ChesterPughtown Village Historic District South Coventry Township ChesterBlack Bear Tavern Union BerksBlack Mats Schoolhouse Union BerksBrower Farm Union BerksBrower Store / Post Office Union BerksBrowerstown Village Union BerksCivil War Era Foundry Union BerksClinton Forge Union BerksFlannery’s Tavern Union BerksGeiger Farm Union BerksGeigers Mill / Geigertown Union BerksGeigertown Hotel Union BerksGraveyard Union BerksGraveyard Union BerksHahn Home Union BerksHotel / Store / Post Office Union BerksCONTINUED
  47. 47. 41Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013CONTINUEDSite Municipality CountyJ. Keslo Farm Union BerksJohn & Dorothy Ratkis Property Union BerksJones Farm Union BerksKerlin Property Union BerksKerst Farm Union BerksMichael Lynch House Union BerksMiller Farm Union BerksMiller House Union BerksMoch Farm Union BerksMonocacy Furnace Union BerksMonocacy Methodist Church Union BerksMt. Airy Schoolhouse Union BerksMt. Airy Village Union BerksMullen Farm Union BerksPort Union Canal Store Union BerksR. Jones Farm Union BerksReifsnyder Home Union BerksRoot Farm Union BerksSchuylkill Canal Warehouse Union BerksSix Penny Bridge Union BerksSixpenny Forge Union BerksSt. Frisby AME Church Union BerksSt. Frisby Graveyard Union BerksSt. James Evanglical Lutheran Church Union BerksSt. Michael’s Cemetary & Church Union BerksSt. Paul’s Methodist Episcopal Church Union BerksSt. Paul’s Mission Roman Catholic Church Union Berks
  48. 48. 42Important Resources of the Hopewell Big Woods and the Potential Impacts of Pipeline Development on the LandscapeMay 2013Site Municipality CountySycamore Farm Union BerksUnionville Aquaduct Union BerksUnionville Hotel Union BerksValentine Boyer Tract Union BerksWamsher Farm Union BerksWarehouse Dock Boat Building Union BerksWenger’s Mill Union BerksWilliam Kerlin’s Gun Barrel Shop Union BerksChristopher Knauer House & Inn Warwick Township ChesterDavis Knauer House (House No. 4) Warwick Township ChesterJohann Christopher Knauer House Warwick Township ChesterNorth Warwick Historic & Archeological District Warwick Township ChesterToll House-Bennett Warwick Township ChesterGeorge & Phoebe Hipple House West Vincent Township ChesterJohn Mackey Residence West Vincent Township Chester
  49. 49. Hopewell Big Woods
  50. 50. PHOTO CREDITSCover: B. Mark SchmerlingPage a1/Inside Front Cover: Jim ThornePage a4: istockphoto.com/John PitcherPage a6: Jim ThornePage 2: Mark BinderPage 3: Tom CarrollPage 4 (left): Denis ManchonPage 4 (right): Dan BarringerPage 6: Bill MosesPage 8: Jim WhitePage 11: Mark BinderPage 12 (left): Pam BrownPage 12 (right): Tom CarrollPage 14: Tom CarrollPage 20: Bill MosesPage 21: David SteckelPage 43: Jim Thorne
  51. 51. Natural Lands TrustHildacy Farm Preserve, 1031 Palmers Mill Road, Media, PA 19063610-353-5640 | www.natlands.orgFrench & Pickering Creeks Conservation Trust511 Kimberton Road, Phoenixville, PA 19460610-933-7577 | www.frenchandpickering.orgGreen Valleys Association1368 Prizer Road, Pottstown, PA 19465610-469-4900 | www.greenvalleys.orgNatural LandsTrustGREEN VALLEYS ASSOCIATION AT WELKINWEIR

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