POPULATION AND ENERGY RESOURCES
An overview of syllabus with exam questions
By Sager Divetiya
Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 2
Basics of Environmental Studies
POPULATION AND ENERGY RESOURCES
20 to 30 marks in final exam.
Renewable and Non-Renewable resources
Most Important Questions from previous years
Most of the questions are repeated with different way of asking
Just read all the questions once and you will get the idea
Population growth and its impact on environment
1. Explain how population increase causes pressure on natural resources, urbanization
and rapid industrialization.
Population growth and theories
2. Define population growth and discuss the factors affecting population growth.
3. Which are the important theories of population growth? Explain any one.
Population forecasting/ prediction
4. Enlist the different method of population forecasting.
5. How is population prediction done?
6. How population growth can be controlled.
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7. Describe the different ways to control population growth.
8. Suggest how population can be controlled?
Overpopulation and population explosion
9. Describe in detail the reasons and results of overpopulation
10. Define the term population explosion and enumerate the causes of rapid population
11. Write a note on “Population explosion”
12. Write a short note on - population structures.
13. Explain demographic transition theory.
14. Differentiate malnutrition and undernourishment.
15. Discuss factors to improve the food production.
Renewable and Non-Renewable resources
(NOTE : If only resources are asked then write from this chapter, and if energy resources are
asked then write form 5th
1. Narrate renewable and non-renewable natural resources.
2. What are stresses produced by human-being by overexploitations of them?
3. Write a short note on-destruction versus conservation.
Sources of water
1. Explain different sources of water.
Uses of water resources
2. What are the uses of water?
3. Describe the uses of different water resources.
Over exploitation and conservation of water resources
4. Explain any two techniques of water conservation used in India.
5. Discuss problems associated with the over exploitation of water resources.
Types of forests
1. Describe in detail types of forest resources
2. Give the classification of forests.
1. What is deforestation?
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Causes of deforestation
2. Write a note on causes of deforestation.
3. What are the major causes of deforestation?
Effects of deforestation
4. What are problems created by deforestations in India?
5. Discuss the effects of deforestation on society.
6. Differentiate between : Deforestation and Desertification
7. Explain desertification highlighting its causes.
8. Afforestation is the need of the hour. Justify.
Renewable/Non-conventional and Non-renewable/Conventional energy resources
1. Discuss the conventional and non conventional energy resources with their impact
2. Differentiate renewable and non renewable energy resources and discuss the effect
of overpopulation on energy problems.
3. Differentiate between : Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Source
4. Explain the conventional and non conventional energy resources.
5. Enlist the features of renewable and non renewable sources of energy.
6. Prepare a list of fossil fuels and explain the environmental impacts of any one.
7. Write a short note on environmental problems associated with coal based thermal
8. Discuss use of solar energy in India
9. Write a note on applications of solar energy explaining its limitations.
10. Write advantages, disadvantages and application of solar energy.
11. What is energy conservation? Why do we need to conserve energy?
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Overview of syllabus
Development of Habitation patterns and Environmental factors governing human
o Habitat = place where a human lives
o Humans have tendency to settle in good environment, better facilities and
availability of natural resources.
Population & Pollution
o Population forecasting/prediction methods
1) Arithmetical increase method
2) Geometrical increase method
3) Incremental increase method
4) Decreased rate of growth method
5) Graphical extension method
6) Graphical comparison method
7) Zoning method or master plan method
8) Ratio and correlation method
9) Growth composition analysis method
o Pollution increases with the population
Reasons for overpopulation or population explosion
o Overpopulation definition,
“Overpopulation is a condition where the number of organisms exceeds the
carrying capacity of their habitat. “
o Population explosion definition,
“If the population of a species increases suddenly it is called population explosion.”
o Reasons / factors affecting population growth
Increased birth rate
Increased longevity (long lives)
Reduced infant mortality (death rate of newly born babies)
Decreased death rate
Lack of education
Cultural influences (blind beliefs)
Immigration/Emigration ( Migration : moving from one place to another)
Population Growth & its Theories
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“Population growth is the change in population over time.”
More precisely, “population growth is the change in number of individuals in
a population using per unit time for measurement.”
o Population growth theories
1) Malthusian Theory
2) Marxian Theory
According to Karl Marx, Population growth is a symptom rather than
the cause of poverty, crime, starvation resource depletion and
o Demography definition,
“The scientific and statistical study of human population is called
Demography.” It deals with
1) Changes in population (either growth or decline)
2) Composition of population (age group)
3) Distribution of population (birth, death, migration, aging)
o Demography transition
“If birth and death rates were equal, a zero population growth rate would
result which is called DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION.”
o Four stages of Demographic transition
stage: Pre Industrial: high birth rate but fluctuating death rate.
stage: Transitional: Declining death rate and continuing high birth rate.
stage: Industrial: Declining birth and death rate.
stage: Post industrial: Low death rate but fluctuating birth rate.
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1) Birth rate - Number of child birth per 100 people per year.
2) Mortality - Mortality is the death rate per 1000 people per given time
3) Infant mortality (death) rate - Deaths of infants per 1000 births, in a given year.
4) Sex ratio - No. of females per 1000 males.
5) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - “Total fertility rate is the average number of children that
would during her life time.”
6) Age structure (Population pyramid) - “ Number of people or their percentage in
each age group.”
o Production of food
Sources of food
World food problems
Types of agricultural systems for food production
o Malnutrition or Malnourishment
“Malnourishment is the lack of specific components of food such as proteins,
vitamins or essential chemical elements.”
“It is the lack of sufficient calories in available food, so that one has little or
no ability to move or work.”
Renewable & Non-renewable Resources – Natural Resources
Renewable Resources (Non Exhaustible Resources)
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o Biotic (living resource) : Forest, Agriculture, Fish and wildlife
o Abiotic ( non living resource) : Land, water, minerals
Non-renewable Resources (Exhaustible Resources)
o Coal, petroleum, minerals, fossil fuels
Destruction versus Conservation
Ground water overuse
Forest destruction (deforestation)
Fertile land destruction
Surface water destruction
Coal, oil and minerals destruction
Thus conservation of natural resources may help to reduce the destruction
of natural resources.
(BEST REFERENCE: Basics of Environmental studies; B.R. Shah, Snehal Popli; Mahajan Publishing House)
Water Resources-Indian Scenario
Water Sources- Surface & Ground Water Sources
Uses & overuses of water resources
problems due to Overexploitation of Water Resources
Forest Resources - Indian Scenario
Importance of forests- Ecologically & Economically
o Ecological importance
Regulation of global climate and temperature
Reduction of Global Warming
Production of Oxygen
Conservation of Soil
Improvement in fertility of soil
Control of water flow
Habitat to wildlife
Absorption of Noise
Absorption of air pollution
o Economical importance / Uses of forest products
Raw material for wood based industries
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o Tropical Rain forest – (rain whole year) [Tropical = Near Equator]
o Tropical Deciduous forest – (rain only in monsoon)
o Tropical Shrub Forest – (longer dry season less rain)
o Temperate Deciduous forest – (Moderate temperature & rainfall throughout the
o Evergreen Coniferous forest (Boreal forests)
Deforestations-Causes and effects
“The permanent destruction of forests and woodlands is termed as
“Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land
region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well
as vegetation and wildlife.”
It is caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change, deforestation and
other human activities.
Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem.
“Planting and maintaining trees on areas that were not covered with forest.”
o Causes of Deforestation
Shifting Cultivation – (using forest land for agricultural purpose)
Growing food demand
Raw material for wood based industry
o Effects of Deforestation/Problems created by deforestation
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Expansion of Deserts
Decrease in rainfall
Loss of Fertile land
Effect on climate
Lowering of water table
Losses of flora and fauna
Losses of Bio-diversity
Loss of medicinal plants
Change in living habits
Forest Degradation in India – As mention in Deforestation
Energy Resources - Indian Scenario
Difference between Non-conventional/Renewable and Conventional/Non-Renewable
Newly established Used from long time ago
Available for the foreseeable
Lower running cost
Available in highly concentrated
Easy to store
Lower initial cost
Very difficult to store
Usually produce in small
High initial cost
Available only in few places
High running cost
Ecologically safe for extent
Non-Conventional/Renewable Energy Sources
o Solar Energy
“Energy coming from sun in the form of heat radiation”
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Solar water heating
Solar Drying of agricultural and animal products
Solar Engines for water pumping
Solar photovoltaic cells
Solar heating of buildings
Solar green houses
Ease installation and maintenance
No noise, No pollution
Uncertainty of availability
Large space required
Depends on amount of sunlight according to region
Higher initial cost
o Wind Energy – (wind mills)
o Tidal Energy
Use of potential difference between high tide and low tide
o Hydro Energy - (generally in dams)
Conventional/Non-Renewable energy sources
o Coal, Fossil Fuels – Petroleum
Problems due to overexploitation/overuse of Energy Resources
o Extinction of resources
o Excessive mining and associated problems
o Economical Effect