Population growth and Natural resources


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Population growth and Natural resources

  1. 1. POPULATION AND ENERGY RESOURCES (Module handout) An overview of syllabus with exam questions By Sager Divetiya
  2. 2. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 2 Basics of Environmental Studies POPULATION AND ENERGY RESOURCES (Module handout) 20 to 30 marks in final exam. Major chapters  Human Population  Renewable and Non-Renewable resources  Water resources  Forest Resources  Energy Resources Most Important Questions from previous years exam papers Tips:  Most of the questions are repeated with different way of asking  Just read all the questions once and you will get the idea  Population growth and its impact on environment Not specified 1. Explain how population increase causes pressure on natural resources, urbanization and rapid industrialization. Population growth and theories 2. Define population growth and discuss the factors affecting population growth. 3. Which are the important theories of population growth? Explain any one. Population forecasting/ prediction 4. Enlist the different method of population forecasting. 5. How is population prediction done? Population control 6. How population growth can be controlled.
  3. 3. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 3 7. Describe the different ways to control population growth. 8. Suggest how population can be controlled? Overpopulation and population explosion 9. Describe in detail the reasons and results of overpopulation 10. Define the term population explosion and enumerate the causes of rapid population growth. 11. Write a note on “Population explosion” Population structure 12. Write a short note on - population structures. Demographic Projection 13. Explain demographic transition theory. Food resource 14. Differentiate malnutrition and undernourishment. 15. Discuss factors to improve the food production.  Renewable and Non-Renewable resources (NOTE : If only resources are asked then write from this chapter, and if energy resources are asked then write form 5th chapter. ) 1. Narrate renewable and non-renewable natural resources. 2. What are stresses produced by human-being by overexploitations of them? 3. Write a short note on-destruction versus conservation.  Water resources Sources of water 1. Explain different sources of water. Uses of water resources 2. What are the uses of water? 3. Describe the uses of different water resources. Over exploitation and conservation of water resources 4. Explain any two techniques of water conservation used in India. 5. Discuss problems associated with the over exploitation of water resources.  Forest Resources Types of forests 1. Describe in detail types of forest resources 2. Give the classification of forests. Deforestation 1. What is deforestation?
  4. 4. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 4 Causes of deforestation 2. Write a note on causes of deforestation. 3. What are the major causes of deforestation? Effects of deforestation 4. What are problems created by deforestations in India? 5. Discuss the effects of deforestation on society. Desertification 6. Differentiate between : Deforestation and Desertification 7. Explain desertification highlighting its causes. Afforestation 8. Afforestation is the need of the hour. Justify.  Energy Resources Renewable/Non-conventional and Non-renewable/Conventional energy resources 1. Discuss the conventional and non conventional energy resources with their impact on environment. 2. Differentiate renewable and non renewable energy resources and discuss the effect of overpopulation on energy problems. 3. Differentiate between : Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Source 4. Explain the conventional and non conventional energy resources. 5. Enlist the features of renewable and non renewable sources of energy. Fossil fuels 6. Prepare a list of fossil fuels and explain the environmental impacts of any one. 7. Write a short note on environmental problems associated with coal based thermal power plants. Solar energy 8. Discuss use of solar energy in India 9. Write a note on applications of solar energy explaining its limitations. 10. Write advantages, disadvantages and application of solar energy. Energy conservation 11. What is energy conservation? Why do we need to conserve energy?
  5. 5. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 5 Overview of syllabus Human Population  Development of Habitation patterns and Environmental factors governing human settlement o Habitat = place where a human lives o Humans have tendency to settle in good environment, better facilities and availability of natural resources.  Population & Pollution o Population forecasting/prediction methods 1) Arithmetical increase method 2) Geometrical increase method 3) Incremental increase method 4) Decreased rate of growth method 5) Graphical extension method 6) Graphical comparison method 7) Zoning method or master plan method 8) Ratio and correlation method 9) Growth composition analysis method o Pollution increases with the population  Reasons for overpopulation or population explosion o Overpopulation definition, “Overpopulation is a condition where the number of organisms exceeds the carrying capacity of their habitat. “ o Population explosion definition, “If the population of a species increases suddenly it is called population explosion.” o Reasons / factors affecting population growth  Increased birth rate  Increased longevity (long lives)  Reduced infant mortality (death rate of newly born babies)  Decreased death rate  Lack of education  Cultural influences (blind beliefs)  Immigration/Emigration ( Migration : moving from one place to another)  Population Growth & its Theories o Definition,
  6. 6. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 6  “Population growth is the change in population over time.”  More precisely, “population growth is the change in number of individuals in a population using per unit time for measurement.” o Population growth theories 1) Malthusian Theory 2) Marxian Theory  According to Karl Marx, Population growth is a symptom rather than the cause of poverty, crime, starvation resource depletion and pollution.  Demographic Projections/Transitions o Demography definition,  “The scientific and statistical study of human population is called Demography.” It deals with 1) Changes in population (either growth or decline) 2) Composition of population (age group) 3) Distribution of population (birth, death, migration, aging) o Demography transition  “If birth and death rates were equal, a zero population growth rate would result which is called DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION.” o Four stages of Demographic transition  1st stage: Pre Industrial: high birth rate but fluctuating death rate.  2nd stage: Transitional: Declining death rate and continuing high birth rate.  3rd stage: Industrial: Declining birth and death rate.  4th stage: Post industrial: Low death rate but fluctuating birth rate.
  7. 7. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 7  Population Structures 1) Birth rate - Number of child birth per 100 people per year. 2) Mortality - Mortality is the death rate per 1000 people per given time 3) Infant mortality (death) rate - Deaths of infants per 1000 births, in a given year. 4) Sex ratio - No. of females per 1000 males. 5) Total Fertility Rate (TFR) - “Total fertility rate is the average number of children that would during her life time.” 6) Age structure (Population pyramid) - “ Number of people or their percentage in each age group.”  Food Resource o Production of food  Sources of food  World food problems  Types of agricultural systems for food production o Malnutrition or Malnourishment  “Malnourishment is the lack of specific components of food such as proteins, vitamins or essential chemical elements.” o Undernourishment  “It is the lack of sufficient calories in available food, so that one has little or no ability to move or work.” Renewable & Non-renewable Resources – Natural Resources  Renewable Resources (Non Exhaustible Resources)
  8. 8. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 8 o Biotic (living resource) : Forest, Agriculture, Fish and wildlife o Abiotic ( non living resource) : Land, water, minerals  Non-renewable Resources (Exhaustible Resources) o Coal, petroleum, minerals, fossil fuels  Destruction versus Conservation o Destruction  Ground water overuse  Forest destruction (deforestation)  Fertile land destruction  Surface water destruction  Coal, oil and minerals destruction o Conservation  Thus conservation of natural resources may help to reduce the destruction of natural resources. Water Resources (BEST REFERENCE: Basics of Environmental studies; B.R. Shah, Snehal Popli; Mahajan Publishing House)  Water Resources-Indian Scenario  Water Sources- Surface & Ground Water Sources  Uses & overuses of water resources  problems due to Overexploitation of Water Resources Forest Resources  Forest Resources - Indian Scenario  Importance of forests- Ecologically & Economically o Ecological importance  Regulation of global climate and temperature  Reduction of Global Warming  Production of Oxygen  Conservation of Soil  Improvement in fertility of soil  Control of water flow  Habitat to wildlife  Absorption of Noise  Absorption of air pollution o Economical importance / Uses of forest products  Timber  Fuel food  Raw material for wood based industries  Bamboo  Food
  9. 9. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 9  Miscellaneous products  Forest Types o Tropical Rain forest – (rain whole year) [Tropical = Near Equator] o Tropical Deciduous forest – (rain only in monsoon) o Tropical Shrub Forest – (longer dry season less rain) o Temperate Deciduous forest – (Moderate temperature & rainfall throughout the year) o Evergreen Coniferous forest (Boreal forests)  Deforestations-Causes and effects o Deforestation  “The permanent destruction of forests and woodlands is termed as deforestation.” o Desertification  “Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.”  It is caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change, deforestation and other human activities.  Desertification is a significant global ecological and environmental problem. o Afforestation  “Planting and maintaining trees on areas that were not covered with forest.” o Causes of Deforestation  Population Explosion  Shifting Cultivation – (using forest land for agricultural purpose)  Growing food demand  Fire wood  Raw material for wood based industry  Infrastructure Development  Forest fires o Effects of Deforestation/Problems created by deforestation
  10. 10. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 10  Soil Erosion  Expansion of Deserts  Decrease in rainfall  Loss of Fertile land  Effect on climate  Lowering of water table  Economic losses  Losses of flora and fauna  Losses of Bio-diversity  Loss of medicinal plants  Environmental Changes  Change in living habits  Forest Degradation in India – As mention in Deforestation Energy Resources  Energy Resources - Indian Scenario  Difference between Non-conventional/Renewable and Conventional/Non-Renewable Energy Resources/sources Non-Conventional Conventional Newly established Used from long time ago Renewable Non-Renewable Non-exhaustible Exhaustible Advantages  Wide availability  Decentralized power production  Available for the foreseeable future  Lower running cost  Low pollution  Available in highly concentrated form  Easy to store  Reliable supply  Lower initial cost Disadvantages/Limitations  Unreliable supply  Very difficult to store  Usually produce in small quantities  High initial cost  Limited supply  Highly polluting  Available only in few places  High running cost Environmental impact  Less pollution  Ecologically safe for extent  High pollution  Global warming  Ecological problems  Non-Conventional/Renewable Energy Sources o Solar Energy  “Energy coming from sun in the form of heat radiation”
  11. 11. Prepared by : Sagar Divetiya (Environment Science & Technology) 11  Application  Solar water heating  Solar Drying of agricultural and animal products  Solar Distillation  Solar cookers  Solar Engines for water pumping  Solar furnaces  Solar photovoltaic cells  Solar heating of buildings  Solar green houses  Advantages  Ease installation and maintenance  No noise, No pollution  Disadvantages/Limitations  Uncertainty of availability  Large space required  Depends on amount of sunlight according to region  Higher initial cost o Wind Energy – (wind mills) o Tidal Energy  Use of potential difference between high tide and low tide o Hydro Energy - (generally in dams)  Conventional/Non-Renewable energy sources o Coal, Fossil Fuels – Petroleum  Problems due to overexploitation/overuse of Energy Resources o Extinction of resources o Excessive mining and associated problems o Pollution o Economical Effect