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  • 1. Arabic Tutor Volume 4 A Translation of popularly known as
  • 2. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Copyright © 2007 Madrasah In’āmiyyahAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or byany means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise,without the prior permission of Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except inthe case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles andreviews.Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academyfor Islamic Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown,KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Page 2
  • 3. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( ).Arabic is more meritorious than other languages.It is the language of the people of Jannah.Whoever learns it or teaches it to others will berewarded. It is mentioned in a hadīth that youshould love the Arabs for three reasons, namely: • because Nabī was an Arab, • the Qur’ān is in Arabic and • the language of the people of Jannah in Jannah is Arabic. (Ad-Durrul Mukhtār) Page 3
  • 4. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTitle Arabic Tutor - Volume FourAuthor Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān ( )Translated Moulānā Ebrāhīm MuhammadbyFirst Edition Dhul Qa’dah 1428 A.H. Nov 2007Published Madrasah In’āmiyyahby P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South AfricaTel +27 031 785 1519Fax +27 031 785 1091email alinaam@alinaam.org Page 4
  • 5. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ContentsThe first forty three lessons were completed inVolumes One, Two and Three. Volume Fourbegins with Lesson 44.Transliteration ......................................................... 15Preface ...................................................................... 18Indications ............................................................... 25Introduction............................................................. 27Lesson 44 .................................................................. 28 The Numerals ...................................................... 28 Exercise No. 64 ................................................ 38 Exercise No. 65 ................................................ 39 Exercise No. 66 ................................................ 39Lesson 45 .................................................................. 40 Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals..... 40 Vocabulary List No. 42................................... 49 Exercise No. 67 ................................................ 50 Exercise No. 68 ................................................ 53 Exercise No. 69 ................................................ 54 Exercise No. 70 ................................................ 55Lesson 46 .................................................................. 57 The Ordinal Numbers ........................................ 57 Vocabulary List No. 43................................... 67 Exercise No. 71 ................................................ 68 Exercise No. 72 ................................................ 70 Page 5
  • 6. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 73 ................................................ 72Lesson 47 .................................................................. 74 The Date ............................................................... 74 Vocabulary List No. 44................................... 82 Exercise No. 74 ................................................ 85 Exercise No. 75 ................................................ 90Lesson 48 .................................................................. 94 Telling the Time .................................................. 94 The Times of the Day and Night ...................... 96 Expressing Age ................................................... 98 Vocabulary List No. 45................................... 98 Exercise No. 76 .............................................. 101 Exercise No. 77 .............................................. 103 Exercise No. 78 .............................................. 105Lesson 49 ................................................................ 109 The Particles....................................................... 109Lesson 50 ................................................................ 131 The Non–Causative Particles .......................... 131Lesson 51 ................................................................ 150 Continuation of Lesson 50............................... 150Lesson 52 ................................................................ 161 The Remaining Particles .................................. 161 The Definte Article ....................................... 161 .................................. 164 ..................................... 166 Exercise No. 79 .............................................. 168 Page 6
  • 7. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Test No. 18 ..................................................... 171Lesson 53 ................................................................ 173 Sentences ............................................................ 173 The Definitions of ( ), ( ) and ( ) ......................................................................... 173 The Types of Sentences ................................ 175 Exercise No. 80 .............................................. 178 Exercise No. 81 .............................................. 181Lesson 54 ................................................................ 183 Declension.......................................................... 183 ( ) ........................ 189 Test No. 18 B.................................................. 191Lesson 55 ................................................................ 193 The Declension of a Verb................................. 193 The Occasions of ( ) of a Verb .............. 194 Vocabulary List No. 46................................. 199 Exercise No. 82 .............................................. 200 Exercise No. 83 .............................................. 202Lesson 56 ................................................................ 204 The Jussive Case................................................ 204 Exercise No. 84 .............................................. 211 Vocabulary List No. 47................................. 214 Exercise No. 85 .............................................. 215 Exercise No. 86 .............................................. 217Lesson 57 ................................................................ 218 The Declension of a Noun ............................... 218 Page 7
  • 8. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )..................................... 221 The Old Method of Explaining ( ) ......................................................................... 228 Vocabulary List No. 48................................. 233 Exercise No. 87 .............................................. 235Lesson 58 ................................................................ 239 The Cases of the Noun ..................................... 239 The Nominative Case....................................... 240 The ( ) and ( ) ........................... 240 Vocabulary List No. 49................................. 249 Exercise No. 88 .............................................. 251 Exercise No. 89 .............................................. 253 Exercise No. 90 .............................................. 254 Test No. 19 ..................................................... 255Lesson 59 ................................................................ 257 The Subject and Predicate................................ 257 The Occasions Where the Predicate has to Precede the Subject ....................................... 261 Exercise No. 91 .............................................. 264 Vocabulary List No. 50................................. 265 Exercise No. 92 .............................................. 267 Test No. 20 ..................................................... 270Lesson 60 ................................................................ 272 The Accusative Case......................................... 272 The Object ...................................................... 272 Page 8
  • 9. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) .................................................... 278 Exercise 93...................................................... 281 Vocabulary List No. 51................................. 283 Exercise No. 94 .............................................. 284 Exercise No. 95 .............................................. 286 Exercise No. 96 .............................................. 287 Exercise No. 97 .............................................. 288Lesson 61 ................................................................ 290 ( ).................................................... 290 The Object of Cause.......................................... 295 Vocabulary List No. 52................................. 297 Exercise No. 98 .............................................. 300 Exercise No. 99 .............................................. 301 Test No. 21 ..................................................... 304Lesson 62 ................................................................ 306 The Adverb ........................................................ 306 The ( ) ................................................... 323 Vocabulary List No. 53................................. 326 Exercise No. 100 ............................................ 328 Exercise No. 101 ............................................ 330 Exercise No. 102 ............................................ 331 Test No. 22 ..................................................... 334Lesson 63 ................................................................ 336 The Condition.................................................... 336 Exercise No. 103 ............................................ 341 Vocabulary List 54 ........................................ 342 Page 9
  • 10. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 104 ............................................ 343 Exercise No. 105 ............................................ 344 Exercise No. 106 ............................................ 346Lesson 64 ................................................................ 347 Specification....................................................... 347 Allusion to Numbers........................................ 352 Exercise No. 107 ............................................ 355 Exercise No. 108 ............................................ 356 Exercise No. 109 ............................................ 357 Exercise No. 110 ............................................ 358 Exercise No. 111 ............................................ 360 Exercise No. 112 ............................................ 361 Exercise No. 113 ............................................ 361 Exercise No. 114 ............................................ 362 Exercise No. 115 ............................................ 363Lesson 65 ................................................................ 364 The Exception .................................................... 364 Vocabulary List No. 55................................. 369 Exercise No. 116 ............................................ 370 Exercise No. 117 ............................................ 372 Exercise No. 118 ............................................ 372 Exercise No. 119 ............................................ 373 Exercise No. 120 ............................................ 375 Exercise No. 121 ............................................ 376Lesson 66 ................................................................ 377 The Vocative ...................................................... 377 Abbreviated Vocative................................... 381 Page 10
  • 11. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lamenting ...................................................... 382 The Appositive of the Vocative .................. 382 Vocabulary List No. 56................................. 384 Exercise No. 122 ............................................ 386 Exercise No. 123 ............................................ 388 Exercise No. 124 ............................................ 389Lesson 67 ................................................................ 391 The Genetive...................................................... 391 The Types of ( )....................................... 391 Vocabulary List No. 57................................. 396 Exercise No. 125 ............................................ 399 Exercise No. 126 ............................................ 401 Exercise No. 127 ............................................ 402 Exercise No. 128 ............................................ 403 Exercise No. 129 ............................................ 404Lesson 68 ................................................................ 405 Apposition ......................................................... 405 The Adjective................................................. 406 Vocabulary List No. 58................................. 414 Exercise No. 130 ............................................ 417 Exercise No. 131 ............................................ 418 Exercise No. 132 ............................................ 418 Exercise No. 133 ............................................ 419 Exercise No. 134 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 135 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 136 ............................................ 420 Exercise No. 137 ............................................ 422 Page 11
  • 12. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 138 ............................................ 423Lesson 69 ................................................................ 425 Emphasis ............................................................ 425 Exercise No. 139 ............................................ 431 Exercise No. 140 ............................................ 433 Exercise No. 141 ............................................ 434 Exercise No. 142 ............................................ 435 Exercise No. 143 ............................................ 436 Exercise No. 144 ............................................ 436Lesson 70 ................................................................ 439 ( ) ................................................................... 439 Exercise No. 145 ............................................ 444 Exercise No. 146 ............................................ 446 Exercise No. 147 ............................................ 446 Exercise No. 148 ............................................ 447 Exercise No. 149 ............................................ 448Lesson 71 ................................................................ 449 ( ) .............................................................. 449 Exercise No. 150 ............................................ 454 Exercise No. 151 ............................................ 454 Exercise No. 152 ............................................ 455 Exercise No. 153 ............................................ 456 Exercise No. 154 ............................................ 456Lesson 72 ................................................................ 457 The Verbal Noun .............................................. 457 ( ).................................................... 462 Page 12
  • 13. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) ................................ 464 ( )................................... 465 The Effect of the ( )................................ 466 Vocabulary List No. 59................................. 467 Exercise No. 155 ............................................ 469 Exercise No. 156 ............................................ 470Lesson 73 ................................................................ 472 ( )........................................................... 472 ( )...................................................... 475 ( ) ................................................... 476 ( ).................................................... 479 ( ).................................................... 482 ( ) ............................ 483 Vocabulary List No. 60................................. 486 Exercise No. 157 ............................................ 489 Exercise No. 158 ............................................ 490Lesson 74 ................................................................ 492 The Dual, Plural and Diminutive ................... 492 The Dual............................................................. 492 The Plural........................................................... 493 The Sound Masculine Plural ....................... 494 The Sound Feminine Plural......................... 494 Page 13
  • 14. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Broken Plural ......................................... 496 The Diminutive ............................................. 500 Vocabulary List No. 61................................. 502 Exercise No. 159 ............................................ 504 Exercise No. 160 ............................................ 506Lesson 75 ................................................................ 509 The ( ) ................................................. 509 The Specialities of Some Verbs ....................... 514 Vocabulary List No. 62................................. 516 Exercise No. 161 ............................................ 519Some Specialities of Poetry…………………. 521 Page 14
  • 15. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four TransliterationThe following method of transliteration of theArabic letters has been used in this book: ā b t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s Page 15
  • 16. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four d t z à, í, ú gh f q k l m n ū h ī, y Page 16
  • 17. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourSome Arabic phrases used in the book are asfollows: (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon him - used for Nabî (Àlaihis salām) Salutations upon him – used for all prophets (Radiallāhu ‘anhu) May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the Sahâbah (Jalla Jalāluhū) The Sublime – used for Allâh (Àzza wa jall) Allāh is full of glory and sublimity( ) (Rahimahullāh) May Allâh have mercy on him – used for deceased saints and scholars Page 17
  • 18. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . PrefaceHow can I be grateful and why should I not begrateful to Allāh who granted me the ability tocompile four volumes of this book. He decreedthat it be so and it has occurred, otherwise I wasnot in a position to write such a book by means ofwhich the Qur’ān could be reached, and thedifficult rules of Arabic could be made brief andsimplified, in such a manner that has pleasantlyastounded students and teachers. It has made theboring subject of Grammar and Morphology intoan interesting and conclusive one.This book has removed the fear andapprehension from the hearts of the students of Page 18
  • 19. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourArabic, which was caused by the prevailingbooks and methods of instruction. It has handedover the key of the garden of Arabic literature tothe students of the language. In fact, it has evenopened the door for them and told them to enterthis pleasant garden, where they could enjoy theflowers and fruits.In short, it has presented the verse of the Qur’ān,“We have made the Qur’ān easy forremembrance. Is there anyone who will heed?”This has been merely due to His grace andbounty. “It is the grace of Allāh and He grants itto whoever He wants. Allāh is the One of greatbounty.”“This is the interpretation of the dream I sawbefore this. My Lord has made it come true.” Allpraises are due to Him.The reason why this book has become sobeneficial and interesting is that it does not onlycontain boring rules of Grammar andMorphology. It is a treasure-house of thousandsof Arabic words, general examples, Qur’ānicverses, poetry, dialogues, letters and exercises oftranslating into Arabic. This has made the book Page 19
  • 20. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourbecome an extremely interesting collection ofArabic literature. This aspect is not found in anyother book. This is the reason why a person doesnot become tired by studying this book as hewould by merely memorizing paradigms andlearning Grammar rules. One learns the rules aswell as the language simultaneously, that is, theeffort is minimal and the benefit is enormous.I apologize to all the students and seekers ofArabic who were distressed in waiting for thefourth volume for such a long period. I supplicateto Allāh to grant them an excellentcompensation for this agony.The first reason for the delay was my old-age andlengthy illness. The second major reason was myextreme desire to make the subject as simple andbeneficial as possible. Due to this enthusiasm, Iwould make a plan one day and change it thenext, in order to make an improvement. I did notcare about my personal loss in this engrossment.If I had any concern for my personal self, I wouldhave merely divided the first two volumes whichwere well accepted and very beneficial, into fourparts and published them in four volumes withina span of three months. These would have been Page 20
  • 21. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourprinted in the thousands and this would havebeen probably the better route to take.However, since more effective plans wereswimming around in my mind, I made a firmresolution that no matter how much delay there isand how much harm is caused, the work must bedone in the best possible manner. I cannot decidewhether this attitude of mine was correct or notbut I was compelled to act according to myresolve. Till now, my heart’s desire has not beenfulfilled but under these unsuitable conditions,my mind has become exhausted to work anymore. Consequently, the effects of exhaustion arevisible in the latter few lessons. Furthermore,there were many other pressing needs. The size ofthe book had also increased and become bulky. Itherefore felt it appropriate to publish whateverwork had been accomplished. I even postponedmy plan of writing a brief resume on the subjectsof rhyme and eloquence at the end of the fourthvolume. If Allāh grants me the ability, I willobtain the good fortune of publishing theremaining subjects in a fifth volume. He is theonly one that grants the ability and assistance.Nevertheless, I am grateful to Allāh that now this Page 21
  • 22. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourbook, in four volumes, is worthy of being used inhigh schools from class four till matric. Theteachers can practically learn Arabic. I have firmconviction that by the time the students reachmatric, they would be able to understand theQur’ān, the Ahādīth and the easy books ofArabic. They will also have the ability totranslate, to converse and write simple letters.This is such a precious treasure, that no matterhow much one appreciates it, the appreciationwould not be sufficient.Furthermore, the experienced teachers realizethat when the students understand ArabicGrammar, it creates a special strength in theirEnglish. By understanding the Qur’ān, theirmental faculties are vastly broadened. Suchstudents are the ones who can serve the nationcorrectly. The nation is in dire need of suchstudents.The spirit of reformation can also be infused inour Arabic seminaries (madāris). Education canbe made easy, interesting and effective. It is agreat boon that those responsible for the madārisare also beginning to perceive this need. It willnot be surprising if they find the ruby they are Page 22
  • 23. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foursearching for in this book.By means of this book, the desire to understandthe Qur’ān and learn Arabic can also be created ingirls. The previous edition of this book has beentaught for many years in the famous MadrasatulBanāt of Jālandhar and which has now relocatedto Lahore. The new edition has been made part ofthe syllabus.This book can aid tremendously in thepropagation of Arabic in India and Pakistan1, oncondition the principals of the madāris, themembers of the text book committees, thedepartment of education and the ministry ofeducation fulfil their obligation and make thisbook reach the hand of every student.All praises are due to Allāh that the departmentof Education of Sindh has included this book intheir syllabus, thereby proving their recognitionof knowledge. In the famous Dārul Úlūm of Indiain Dhabel, due to the recommendation of1 The author has mentioned these two countries because theoriginal book was written in Urdu. As for the Englishtranslation, it can be used world-wide without any limitation toany particular country ( ). (Translator) Page 23
  • 24. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourÀllāmah Shabbīr Ahmad Úthmānī ( ), thisbook has been included in the syllabus. It hasbeen widely accepted in Bihar, Punjab, U.P.,Delhi etc. All praises are due to Allāh.My beloved students should not look at the sizeof this volume and become perturbed. On thecontrary, it contains the same rules which youhave already understood. However, specialemphasis has been placed on having a commandof the language, which is your actual andpleasing aim.The method of explanation in this volume hasbeen simplified to such an extent that those issueswhich seem unsolveable in other books, seemvery ordinary and every seeker of Arabic, whohas a little understanding, can understand themwithout the aid of a teacher. The key to the fourvolumes has been prepared for those wanting tolearn Arabic by themselves.We advise the students of colleges and highschools to study this book during their vacations.It will not be surprising if you grasp the ability tounderstand the Qur’ān within a year. This willadd a precious literary gem to your mental Page 24
  • 25. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourfaculties.I am indebted to the Úlamā, reviewers and thelovers of the best language, through whoseunseen and sincere efforts, this book has reachedthe corners of India and Pakistan without anyadvertising. May Allāh reward them inabundance. I have hope that the saints will grantme counsel and inform me of my errors so thatthese may be corrected in future.The servant of the best language(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān ( )15 Sha’bān 1367 A.H. Indications1) The inverted comma ( ) is used to indicate theplural of a noun.2) The alphabets ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( )indicate the category ( ) of the triliteral verbs( ). The categories of the verbs of ( ) areindicated by numbers. The numbers are Page 25
  • 26. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourmentioned in Lesson 25. A verb that is ( )is indicated by a ( ) and a verb that is ( ) isindicated by a ( ).3) When any particle ( ) is mentionedafter a verb, it refers to the meaning of the verbwhen used with that particular particle.Guidelines were provided in Volumes One andThree. Read these once more. No guidelines havebeen mentioned in Volume Four. However, the“Indications” have been repeated. Page 26
  • 27. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four IntroductionYou have learnt most of the essential rules ofGrammar and Morphology in the previous threevolumes. A few new rules as well as anexplanation of previously-mentioned rules will bedone in this volume.The beginning lessons of this volume explain theconcept of numbers in great detail, because thereis a great need for them in usage and all theprevailing text books do not contain these details.Firstly, remember that the existing forms of theArabic numbers are called ( ). They arewritten as follows: 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1You will be surprised to note that the originalforms of the Arabic numbers were the same as theEnglish numbers, viz. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0.The Europeans obtained these forms from theMuslims of Spain. They called them Arabicnumerals ( ). The Arabs of the West stillmaintain these forms. Page 27
  • 28. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 44 The Numerals ( )1. The numerals are as follows:(a) from one (1) to ten (10)First learn the numbers only, then the examples.Note 1: When speaking, pause ( ) at the end ofsingular words, e.g. pronounce ( ) as ( ). Incompounds, pause at the last word, e.g. ( ).See Lesson 1, Note 5 in Volume 1. Page 28
  • 29. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Feminine Feminine Masculine Masculine Examples Numerals Examples Numerals .1 2 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 3 .8 .9 .1023 Page 29
  • 30. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 2: The alif of ( ) and ( ) is hamzatulwasl. See Terminology in Volume One.Note 3: From the numbers ( ) till ( ), thefeminine is used for the masculine number andvice versa. In the examples, the numeral( ) is read like a ( ) without ( )while the ( – object being counted) is pluraland ( ).(b) from 11 (11) till 19 (19)Note 4: In a compound numeral, ( ) is used inplace of ( ) and ( ) in place of ( ). Alsoremember that the ( ) from 11 till 19 issingular and ( ). Page 30
  • 31. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExamples: Feminine Masculine 11 4 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19Note 5: The above-mentioned numerals are called( ). All the remaining numerals aredeclinable ( ). Only the ( ) areindeclinable ( ). A fathah is read on both the4 Page 31
  • 32. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourwords constituting the compound. However, thewords ( ) and ( ) are ( ). In ( ), theyare read as ( ) and ( ) while in( ), they are read as ( ) and( ), e.g.( ),( ),( ).Only the first part is ( ) in these examples.The second part remains indeclinable ( ).(c) from 20 (20) to 99 (99)Note 6: The tens from ( ) till ( ) arecalled ( ). They are used for both genders.Their ( ) is similar to that of ( ),that is, in ( ), they are read as ( )while in ( ), they are read as ( )and ( ) etc. See Lesson 10 in Volume One. The Page 32
  • 33. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) is singular and ( ).Examples: Feminine Masculine Page 33
  • 34. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(d) from 100 (100) to ten million (10000000)Note 7: The ( ) of ( - 100) and ( - 1000)and of their dual and plural forms is singular and( ). No change occurs in them due tomasculine or feminine words. Both these wordsare used like the ( ) without ( ). The ( ) isdeleted from the dual ( ).Examples: Page 34
  • 35. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourFeminine Masculine Number ( ) 100 200 ( ) 300 400 500 800 (900) 1000 ( ) 2000 3000 ( ) 4000 Page 35
  • 36. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (10000) 11000 12000 13000(99000) 100000 1000000 ( ) 1000000 0 Page 36
  • 37. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 8: Nowadays, the word ( ) is also used forten million, e.g. ( ).Note 8: The words ( ), ( ) and ( ) are usedlike a ( ) together with the ( ).Consequently, the ( ) has been elided from thesingular form as is the ( ) from the dualform. See Lessons 7 and 11.Note 10: The ( ) of a numeral is also referredto as the ( ) or ( ). By examining all theexamples of the numerals, you will notice that the( ) is always indefinite ( ). However, thedefinite article ( ) is attached to the ( ) when itis a plural ( ) or a collective noun ( ). Theparticle ( ) has to be used in this case, e.g.instead of saying ( ), you can say( ). Similarly, one can say,( - twenty one women) and Page 37
  • 38. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( - a hundred camels and athousand sheep).Exercise No. 64Fill in a suitable ( ) next to the followingnumbers. ( 2) ( 1) ( 4) ( 2) ( 6) ( 5) ( 8) ( 7) (10) ( 9) (12) (11) (14) (13) (16) (15) (18) (17) (20) (19) (22) (21) Page 38
  • 39. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (24) (23) (25)Exercise No. 65Translate the following phrases into Arabic.(1) one boy (2) two boys (3) two girls(4) three boys (5) four girls (6) five bulls(7) nine cows (8) ten women (9) ten men(10) twenty rupees (11) twenty five guineas(12) forty five books (13) fifty hens(14) seventy two roosters (15) one hundred dogs(16) two hundred horses(17) three hundred she camels(18) five hundred male camels(19) one thousand aeroplanes(20) one hundred thousand soldiersExercise No. 66(A) Write the following numbers in Arabic.7, 15, 18, 29, 75, 62, 43, 88, 100, 300, 800, 2 000, 200,100 000, 1 000, 1 200, 1 000 000. Page 39
  • 40. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(B) Assume the ( ) is masculine and thenwrite the above-mentioned numbers in Arabic. Page 40
  • 41. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 45Miscellaneous Rules Regarding Numerals1. We hope you have understood the followingrules after studying all the numbers, examplesand notes of the previous lesson.(a) The numerals have four groups: 1. ( ) – singular words. These are from one to ten and the words ( ) and ( ) are also part of this group. In this way, twelve words constitute this category. 2. ( ) – compounds. These are from 11 to 19. 3. ( ) – the tens. These are the tens from 20 to 90. 4. ( ) – those having the conjunction ( ) between them. These are from 21 to 99.(b) the gender of the numerals: 1. The numbers ( ) and ( ) always conform in gender to the ( ), whether Page 41
  • 42. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four they are singular words, compounds or used with a conjunction. The examples were mentioned in the previous lesson. 2. From 3 to 9, the numerals will always differ in gender from the ( ), whether they are singular words, compounds or used with a conjunction. Observe the previous examples carefully. 3. When the word ( ) is singular, it will have the opposite gender to the ( ), otherwise it will correspond to it, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ). 4. There is no differentiation in gender in the tens ( ). The same applies to ( ) and ( ). See the examples in the previous lesson and notes 6 and 7.(c) The declinable ( ) and indeclinable ( )numerals5Besides the compound numerals ( ), all5 See Lesson 10.10 and Lesson 57. Page 42
  • 43. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe other numerals are ( ). Their ends willchange according to the case. Only the numbersfrom ( ) till ( ) are ( ). A fathahwill be read on both parts of the compound. Fromthese numbers (11-19), ( ) and ( ) are ( ).See Lesson 44 note 5.(d) The ( ) of the ( ) and its number: 1. When a noun is ( ), it indicates one and when it is ( ), it indicates two, e.g. ( ) – one man, ( ) – two men. Therefore there is no need to add any number to these words. However, sometimes ( ) and ( ) are used like adjectives, e.g. ( ) – one man, ( ) – two men, ( ) – one girl, ( ) – two girls. The ( ) and ( ) correspond in ( ) and gender. 2. The ( ) of the numbers ( ) till ( ) Page 43
  • 44. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four is ( ) and plural. See the examples and note 3. If the word ( ) is used in place of the ( ), it will remain singular, e.g. ( ), ( ). See the examples of the previous lesson and note 7.Note 1: The sound masculine plural( - See lesson 5.3.) is not normallyused in place of the ( ). For example, youcannot say ( ). On such an occasion, thedefinite article will be prefixed to the plural andused with ( ), e.g. ( ) 3. The ( ) of the numbers ( ) till ( ) will be singular and ( ). The tens also are included in this rule. See the examples and notes 4 and 6. 4. The ( ) of ( ) and ( ) and their dual and plural forms will be singular and ( ). See the examples and note 7. Page 44
  • 45. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe sound feminine plural of ( ) is most oftenused, namely ( ). Sometimes the soundmasculine plural is used, that is, ( ) or ( ).The plural of ( ) is ( ) as already mentioned.It has another plural ( ) which means“thousands”. This does not refer to any particularnumber, e.g. ( ) – I havethousands of books.Note 2: Learn the following table to remember the( ) of numerals: 3 - 10 11 - 19 20-99 100, 1000Note 3: Sometimes the numerals and their ( )are used contrary to the rule, e.g. Page 45
  • 46. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )“They remained in their cave for 300 years and 9more, i.e. for 309 years.”The word ( ) has not been used as a ( ) inthis sentence. Its ( ), instead of being singular,has been used in the plural form. The ( ) of( ) has not been mentioned. The originalsentence was ( ). Regard thisexample as an exception to the rule.Note 4: The definite article ( ) can be prefixed toa numeral in order to make it specific or definite,e.g. ( ) – The thirty menfor whom we were waiting, came.If the numeral is a singular ( ), the ( )should be prefixed to the ( ), e.g.( ) – Give me the five books.( ) – I saw the six thousandsoldiers. Page 46
  • 47. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIf the numeral is not ( ), the ( ) should beprefixed to the numeral itself, e.g.( ) – The five Muslims came.If the numeral is a compound ( ), the ( )should be prefixed to the first part of thecompound and if it is ( ), then to both parts,e.g. ( )–Isold the fifteen books and the forty four sheep.2. If the ( ) occurs after several numerals, itwill take the effect of the last number, e.g.( ) – one thousand threehundred and sixty four years.The word ( ) was affected by the final number( ). Accordingly it is ( ).In this example, first the larger number ismentioned followed by the smaller ones in stages.You can also say it vice versa, e.g.( ) Page 47
  • 48. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe word ( ) in this example is ( ) due tothe word ( ).Note 5: If the context permits, it is permissible toomit the ( ) and mention the number only,e.g. ( ) – I bought thehorse for a hundred, that is, a hundred rupees.3. The use of the words ( ), ( ) and ( ) 1. The word ( ) denotes an unspecified number from 3 till 9, e.g. ( ) – a few women and a few men, that is, between 3 and 10. The word ( ) or ( ) denotes any number between two tens, e.g. ( ) – I have twenty and some silver coins, that is, less than 30. Similarly, ( ) – twenty and some guineas. 2. There is no masculine and feminine form of Page 48
  • 49. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). However, the word ( ) has a gender. For the masculine form, ( ) is used while ( ) is used for the feminine form. See the above examples.3. The word ( ) is only used after a ten, hundred or a thousand. However, the word ( ) can be used alone as well, e.g. ( ) – I have seventy and some silver coins, or I have some silver coins.4. The word ( ) is used after a numeral while ( ) is used before a number. However, if its ( ) is separate, it can succeed the numeral as well, e.g. ( ) - We have fifty and some silver coins and a few pounds.5. The word ( ) has not been used in the Qur’ān. Page 49
  • 50. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 42 Word Meaning to burst, for a spring to burst forth ( ) to lash to equate ( )( ) to be rare ( ) to come, to be imported anna (Indian currency) gathering to participate, to subscribe notice, advert para (coin) cow garden, orchard lash guinea, pound price Page 50
  • 51. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Turkish cap, fez number, amount money subscription fee piaster livestock, cattle magazine, journal area, surface extentExercise No. 67Translate the following sentences into English. ( 1) . ( 2) . " " ( 3) Page 51
  • 52. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . ( 4) " " . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . 6 . ( 9) .6 See Note 3, Lesson 34 in Volume 3. Page 52
  • 53. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (10) . (11) " " . (12) . (13) . (5495) (14) . (15) . Page 53
  • 54. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (16) .Exercise No. 68Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . (1) . (2) . (3) . (4) . (5) . (6) . (7) . (8) (9) . . (10) Page 54
  • 55. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (11) .Exercise No. 69Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) How many cattle do you have?We have 200 cows, fifty plus camels and 25 goats.(2) Sir, for how much are you selling this book?Its price is ten rupees.(3) It is not cheap but is expensive. I will only givenine rupees, not more.Brother, it is not expensive. Okay, take it andhand over the money. May you be blessed.(4) For how much did you buy this book?I bought it for twelve rupees and eight annas.(5) What is the subscription for the magazine,“Al-Furqān”?I think its subscription is nine rupees annually,not more.(6) How much is that house being sold for?It will be sold for 15 450 rupees.(7) What is the area of this house? Page 55
  • 56. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIts area is approximately 500 square ( ) cubits.(8) Do you know the number of Muslims in theworld?The number of Muslims is approximately 700million.7 From them, 100 million are in India.(9) How many boys are there in your madrasah?There are more than 400 students in ourmadrasah.Exercise No. 70Observe the analysis of the following sentence.7 This was probably the Muslim population at the time whenthis book was written, viz. around 1327 A.H. Page 56
  • 57. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = Page 57
  • 58. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 46 The Ordinal Numbers ( )1. In the previous lesson you have learnt thenumerals. Now study the ordinals carefully.(a) from 1 to 10Examples: (the first lesson) – .1 (the second lesson) .2 (the third lesson) .3 (the fourth lesson) .4 (the fifth lesson) .5 (the sixth lesson) .6 (the seventh lesson) .7 (the eighth lesson) .8 (the ninth lesson) .9 (the tenth lesson) .10 Page 58
  • 59. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (the first story) .1 (the second story) .2 (the third story) .3 (the fourth story) .4 (the fifth story) .5 (the sixth story) .6 (the seventh story) .7 (the eighth story) .8 (the ninth story) .9 (the tenth story) .10Note 1: All these words are ( ). However the( ) cannot appear on the word ( ) becauseit is ( ). See Lesson 10.8.Note 2: The plurals of the ordinal numbers are( ) – sound. ... Page 59
  • 60. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 3: The word ( ) or ( ) is also used inopposition to ( ), e.g. ( ).Note 4: Sometimes the word ( ) refers to thebeginning of something. Then its plural will be( ). Similarly, the plural of ( ) is ( ) andthe plural of ( ) is ( ), e.g.( ) – the initial days of Ramadān.The plural of ( ) is ( ) and ( ).(b) from 11 to 19 (the eleventh lesson) – .11 (the twelfth lesson) .12 (the eleventh story) .11 (the twelfth story) .12Similarly till ( ) and ( ). Page 60
  • 61. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 5: In the above-mentioned examples, boththe numbers are indeclinable on a fathah ( ) like ( ). However, some philologersare of the view that the first part is ( ) andthis is the general practice nowadays.Accordingly, the ( ) of the ( ) will beapplied to it, e.g.( ), ( ),( ).(c) All the tens from ( ) till ( ) and ( )and ( ) are used in their normal forms for theordinal numbers. However, the definite article isgenerally prefixed to them, e.g.( ) – the twentieth, ( ) – thetwenty first, ( ) – the thirty first,( ) – the hundredth.2. The ordinal numbers generally occur asadjectives in a sentence and are used with a( ), e.g. Page 61
  • 62. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – the first book,( ) – the twenty first lesson.Sometimes they are ( ), e.g.( ) – the fourth among them, ( )–the fifth girl.3. In ordinal numbers, when the ( ) – singularnumbers and the ( ) – tens are used with ( )and ( ), the word ( ) is prefixed before the lastnumber, e.g.( ) – the onethousand three hundred and forty second year.Instead of ( ), one can also say ( ).Note 6: The smallest number was mentioned firstin this example followed by the larger numbers instages. This order cannot be changed.4. For the fractions ( ), the word ( ) isused for half while the scales of ( ) or ( ) are Page 62
  • 63. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourused for the remainder, e.g. ⅓ - ( ) or ( ). Theplural is ( ).¼-( ) or ( ). The plural is ( ).⅕-( ) or ( ). The plural is ( ).⅙-( ) or ( ). The plural is ( ).This continues till ( ) or ( ), plural ( ).⅔( ), ¾ ( ), ⅝ ( ).Note 7: If you want to form a fraction above( ), construct it from the original number thus:four elevenths ( ),eleven twentieths ( ).The particle ( ) can be used in place of ( ), e.g.( ) - eleven twentieths.When whole numbers and fractions arementioned together, they will be separated by a( ), e.g. four and three fifths ( ),five and fifteen over forty( ). Page 63
  • 64. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 8: Sometimes a quarter is written as ( ),half is written as (<) and three quarter is writtenas (≤), e.g.2¼ is written as (2 ),2½ is written as (2<),2¾ is written as (2≤).These signs are written slightly thinner than thenumbers and are separated from them.5. The distributive adjectives, 2 by 2, 3 by 3, etc.are expressed by the forms ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) – The riders camein twos, threes and fours. These words occur asthe ( ) in a sentence and are therefore ( ).See 10.2.This can also be expressed by repeating thenumber in the accusative case ( ), e.g.( )Note 8. The phrase ( ) and ( ) is seldomused for 1 by 1. Instead the words ( ), ( ) or( ) are most often used, e.g. Page 64
  • 65. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – They came one byone.6. The numerical adjectives expressing thecomposition of anything are used on the scale of( ), e.g. Meaning Feminine Masculine twofold, biliteral threefold, triliteral fourfold, quadriliteral fivefold sixfold sevenfold eightfold ninefold tenfoldThis scale cannot be used for compound numbersor one with conjunctions ( ). To express Page 65
  • 66. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foursomething made of eleven parts, one will say( ) for the masculine and( ) for the feminine. In this way,you can use any other number.7. The numerical adverbs “the first time”, “thesecond time”, etc. may be expressed by the use ofthe noun ( ) as the ( ) and the ordinalnumber as an adjective ( ).Examples: ( ) – the first time,( ) – I recited the Qur’ān thefirst time.( ) – I visited you a second time.Similarly, ( ) – the tenth time,( ) – the eleventh time, ( )–the hundredth time.The numerical adverbs may also be expressed bysaying ( ) – firstly, ( ) – secondly etc.However, after ( ), the above-mentionedmethod has to be used. Page 66
  • 67. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 9: The phrase ( ) can also be expressedthus: ( ) while ( ) can be expressed as( ) or ( ).8. The numerical adverbs, “once”, “twice”, maybe expressed by using the noun ( ) in( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ) – once, ( )–twice. For more times, the cardinal number isused with the noun ( ) as in ( ) – threetimes, ( ) eleven times, etc.9. The plural of ( ) which is ( ) is used in( ) to express the phrase, “several times”or “many times”, e.g.( ) – I saw him many times. For thismeaning, ( ) can also be used. See 13.7.Example: ( ) – Howmany times I saw him.10. To express the phrase, “several” or “many”, Page 67
  • 68. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) is used, e.g.( ) – Several boys areplaying in the garden.Vocabulary List No. 43 Word Meaning ) middle ( Cape Colony large group of people to climb a wall wall part pair, spouse railway line ( ) to travel capital train, caravan of camels Page 68
  • 69. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four continent castle, fort table to pass to ennoble to be honoured ( ) to like, to be good to strengthen, to reinforce ( ) to marry caveExercise No. 71Translate the following sentences into English. (1) . (2) . Page 69
  • 70. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3). (4) (5) . (Puna) (6) . . (7) (8) . . (9) (10) Page 70
  • 71. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (11) . . (12) (13) . (14) . (15) . (16) .Exercise No. 72Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. (1) . Page 71
  • 72. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2) . (3) (4) . . (5) . (6) (7) .. (8) . (9) (10) . (11) . Page 72
  • 73. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 73Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) The explanation of the ( ) was written in the forty second lesson of this book.(2) The second sūrah of the Qur’ān is Sūrah Al- Baqarah.(3) I will go to the madrasah after the fourth hour.(4) Yesterday I read the first, second and third stories of the book, “A Thousand and One Nights” and tomorrow I will read the fifth and sixth stories.(5) You take three quarters from this cloth and I will take one quarter.(6) The wealth which my father left has been distributed. My mother received one eighth while I received seven eighths.(7) The soldiers climbed the wall of the fort one by one.(8) We entered the madrasah in fours and fives and left in twos and threes.(9) I embarked on the train at Bombay in the first hour and I reached Nasik in the fourth hour.(10) There is a distance of approximately four hours between Bombay and Nasik. Page 73
  • 74. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(11) This is the first time I saw this city.(12) I read this book several times and found it to be very beneficial.(13) Today we came to Bombay for business the tenth time and every time we stayed for a year and a few months.(14) My paternal grandfather performed hajj five times and he passed away the sixth time in Makkah. May Allāh forgive him.(15) We toured many cities but have not seen a city like Bombay. Page 74
  • 75. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 47 The Date1. In order to show the date, one needs to knowthe names of the days and the months. a) The days of the week ( ):Friday – ( )Saturday – ( )Sunday – ( )Monday – ( )Tuesday – ( )Wednesday – ( )Thursday – ( )Note 1: The word ( ) is used most often while( ) is seldom used. Sometimes both thesewords are elided, e.g. ( ), etc. b) The Islamic months or lunar months Page 75
  • 76. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 (9 (10 (11 (12Note 2: The months having the definite article ( )are triptotes ( ). The remainder of themonths are diptotes ( ). See 10.7. Page 76
  • 77. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourSome of the months are described by specificadjectives, e.g. (the sacred Muharram) – (Safar, the month of goodness) – (the unique Rajab) – (the the honoured Rajab)) – (the sacred Rajab) – (the venerated Sha’bān) – (the revered Ramadān) – (the sacred Dhul Qa’dah) – (the sacred Dhul Hijjah) –Note 3: The four months: Muharram, Rajab, DhulQa’dah and Dhul Hijjah are the sacred months ofreverence, peace and safety.The Islamic year is called ( ) – the yearof emigration or ( ) – the lunar year. Thealphabet ( ) is used to denote this. Page 77
  • 78. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 4: There are other words also which areused for the word, “year”: ( ),( ) and ( ).The Hijrah calendar began from 16 July 621 C.E.This is the date on which Rasūlullāh emigratedfrom Makkah to Madīnah. c) The months of the Gregorian or Solar Calendar Egyptian Syrian Page 78
  • 79. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 5: All the English names are diptotes( ). The Syrian names that are singlewords are sometimes used as ( ) andsometimes as ( ). The compound namesare ( ).The Christian year is referred to as ( )–the solar year or ( ) – the year of theChristian era, that is, the year of the birth of Ísā .The alphabets ( ) are used to indicate B.C.( - before the advent of Ísā ) while( ) or only ( ) is used to indicate A.D.( - the era after Ísā ). The alphabet ( )is used in India to indicate the Christian calendar. Page 79
  • 80. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four2. Use the ordinal number in the followingmanner to indicate the date: • make it ( ) to the word ( ) or to the name of the month, e.g. ( )– the eighth of Ramadān or ( ), • prefix the definite article to it and make it the adjective of the word ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ).For the year, write the number with the word( ) or without it, e.g.( 1944 )–1 January 1944.When you want to say, “on a certain date”, prefixthe particle ( ) or read the ordinal number in( ), e.g. ( 19141939 ) – The First World War Page 80
  • 81. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourbegan on 4 August 1914 C.E. and the SecondWorld War began at the end of September 1939C.E.Together with the date, the day and the time canbe also mentioned, e.g.(1916 ) – Rashīd was bornafter Àsr just before Maghrib on Friday 15January 1916 C.E.(1925 )–Sa’īd passed away on the morning of the 20March 1925.Note 6: The deceased is referred to as ( ). Tosay ( ) is incorrect.The predecessors had a different style of writingthe date, e.g. no.1( ) which literally means, “Husain IbnÀlī was born when five nights had passed inthe month of Sha’bān in the year 4 A.H. Thismeans he was born on the fifth. Page 81
  • 82. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourHere the word ( ) refers to ( ) – fivenights. It is for this reason that it is used in thefeminine form. The verb ( ) is a perfect tenseverb of ( ). Sometimes the singular feminineform, ( ), is used because ( ) is the plural ofan unintelligent being.e.g. no.2.( ) – Úthmān was martyred onFriday 18 Dhul Hijjah 35 A.H.e.g. no.3.( ) – Abū Bakrpassed away on Tuesday when 8 nights remainedof Jumādal Uhkrā 13 A.H., that is, on the 21st or22nd.In this example, the date has been specified withthe amount of nights remaining. Page 82
  • 83. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 44 Word Meaning (7) to trust (2) to discharge (6) to finish (6) to collapse ( ) to insert, to follow a school of thought ( ) to stab ( ) to appear, to overpower ( ) to make a firm resolve (3) to emigrate spring young lady, miss (6) relaxation, joy preparation splendour to make noble Page 83
  • 84. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four small garden gathering sir, Mr. advanced wedding, marriage politics the last day of the month peel, skin The Year of the Elephant- the year when Abraha attacked the Ka’bah inhabited knot, nikāh( ) highest the first day of the month white forelock of a horse, the first part of anything one who strictly differentiates between right and wrong delighted, gratified Page 84
  • 85. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four prized, daughter Russia Belgium France Italy Poland Greece Germany Hungary fire-worshipper combatant, fighter dated mark behaviour report from clear Page 85
  • 86. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four impossible, preposterous compared to lengthy attached discipline not to speak of, let alone regretful, unfortunately to be silent about therefore repute, fame concern, interest to be importantExercise No. 74Observe carefully how the dates have beenwritten in the following sentences and translatethem into English. Page 86
  • 87. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (1) ( ) 570 ( ) 621( ) 11. Page 87
  • 88. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) ) 1361 ( ( ) ) 1362 .( (3)10 1363 1944 . 1362 ) 43 (4) (. Page 88
  • 89. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (5) . (6) 24 . (7)( ) 1308 Page 89
  • 90. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8) . 1913( ) (9) ( ) 21 ( ) 21 .( ) (10) 1944 1939 (4000000) . Page 90
  • 91. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(11) Translate the following wedding invitation. " " 1363Exercise No. 75(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic. (1) I wrote a letter to you dated the 20th Muharram Al-Harām 1363 A.H. I hope you have received it. (2) We received your letter dated Sunday 3 Safar Al-Muzaffar 1363 A.H., corresponding to the 30th January 1944. (3) The author of Tafsīr Tabsīrur-Rahmān is Page 91
  • 92. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Hadrat Makhdūm Àlī Faqīh Mahāimī who passed away on 8 Jumādal Ukhrā 835 A.H. (4) My elder brother entered the Indian army on 10 January 1940 C.E. and he was despatched to the war in Africa. Then when the English conquered Africa, he returned safely on 15 June 1943 C.E. All thanks to Allāh. (5) If Allāh wills, I will come to you on the first.(6) Translate the following invitation to awedding. Wedding InvitationWith the grace of Allāh, we convey the gladtidings to you that our younger brother, Jalīl, hasbeen engaged to marry Miss Zahrā, the daughterof Sayyid Badrān Al-Madanī. The nikāh will takeplace on 21 Sha’bān Al-Mu’azzam 1365 A.H. atBeg Muhammad Garden, situated onMuhammad Àlī Road.We hope that you will attend and complete ourjoy.SalāmsYours sincerely Page 92
  • 93. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourKhalīl(B) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4). ( 5) ( 6) ( 7)(C) Translate the following letter into English. Page 93
  • 94. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 94
  • 95. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 48 Telling the Time1. To express the statement, “What is the time”,one should say, ( ) or ( ). In thereply, the word ( ) is the ( ) while thenumber will form the ( ), as mentioned below.( ) – Please tell mewhat is the time now?( ) – It is precisely one o’clock.( ) – It is a quarter past one.( ) – It isone forty five or quarter to two.( ) – It is ten past one.( ) – It is half past one.( ) – Itis twenty past one.Note 1: the word ( ) means “watch”, “one Page 95
  • 96. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourhour” and “a moment”, e.g. ( ) – Wait fora little while. This word has been used forQiyāmah as well in the Qur’ān, e.g. ( )– Qiyāmah has approached.The word ( - plural ) is used for “minute”while the word ( - plural or ) is usedfor “second”.The hand of the watch is called ( ) or( ).2. There are different ways of saying, “What timedid you go to the madrasah or any other place, orwhat time are you going or will go”? Forexample, if it is said,( ) or ( ), theresponse will be( ) or( ) or ( )–I went, am going or will go to the madrasah athalf past ten. Page 96
  • 97. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Times of the Day and Night3. When indicating the time of the day, night orother times, the words will be read with a ( ),e.g. ( ) – I fasted during the day.( ) – I broke my fast at night.Similarly, one may say,( ), etc.The particle ( ) can be prefixed to these wordsas: ( ).The words ( ) or ( ) are most often prefixedto the words ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) – Your brother came to meat the time of Zuhr.For the word “yesterday”, ( ) or ( ) isused, while ( ) or ( ) is the daybefore yesterday. “Tomorrow” is ( ) and the Page 97
  • 98. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four“day after tomorrow” is ( ), e.g.( ) – I came to you yesterday and the day beforeyesterday and if Allāh wills, I will come to youtomorrow and the day after tomorrow.Note 2: The word ( ) is ( ) –indeclinable on a kasrah. It is always read withone kasrah.4. Sometimes the word ( ) is prefixed to thewords ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) – One dayor one night I met your father in the musjid.The phrases ( ) and ( ) are alsoused.Note 3: The words used to express time are called( ). When they are read ( ) in asentence, they are referred to as ( ). Thiswas discussed in Lesson 43. The details willfollow in Lesson 62. Page 98
  • 99. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Expressing Age5. 5. To say, “What is your age?”, say,( ) or ( ). The responseshould be,( ) or ( )-Iam fifteen years old. Sometimes the word ( ) iselided, e.g.( ) – He is 20 years old;( ) – She is fifty years old.Vocabulary List No. 45 Word Meaning (1) to act well strength, maturity, that is between 18 to 30 years ( ) (1) to make flow, to continue ( ) (4) to have supper, dinner Page 99
  • 100. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four () (4) to have breakfast or lunch( ) (4) to be long, to lie down ( ) (4) to walk together (2) to establish, to prove protection coming and going (in everything) ( ) (2) to make equal, proper, to make, to do childhood ( ) to live morning never, beware (2) to create, to make airport to apologise humility Page 100
  • 101. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) to submit, to propose as soon as ( ) to pry open to smell fold, depth reproach sparkle, twinkle within text( ) to frighten, to startle terror, fright place, situation dreadful, awful lachrymal canal (source of tears) to anger, to exasperate affectionate, loving( ) to blame, to censure Page 101
  • 102. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to clothe, to dress, to drape robe, cloak disgrace, shame slip, lapse here I amExercise No. 76Translate the following sentences into English. ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . Page 102
  • 103. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ! ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) ! . ! (10) . ! (11). (12) . Page 103
  • 104. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (13) . (14) . . ! (15) . ! (16) . . !Exercise No. 77Translate the following sentences into English. (1) Page 104
  • 105. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2) ) 50 5. 56 6 ( (3) . (4) . (5) . Page 105
  • 106. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (6) . (7) . (8). (9) . (10) .Exercise No. 78(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) Come Hamīd, where are you going?I am going to the madrasah.(2) Do you have a watch?Yes, I have a watch. Page 106
  • 107. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(3) What is the time now?According to my watch, it is quarter past ten.(4) What time does the madrasah open? ( - isopened)Brother, the madrasah opens at half past ten.(5) What time does it close? ( - is closed)The madrasah closes at 12.40.(6) What time did you come out of the house?I came out at 9.45.(7) Do you know how many minutes there are inone hour?Yes, one hour has sixty minutes.(8) How do you recognize the hour and minutesin a watch?I understand the minutes from the large handand the hour from the small hand.(9) When do you have supper?We have supper after Maghrib at eight o’clock.(10) When do you sleep?I sleep after Íshā at nine o’clock.(11) Where did your father go the day beforeyesterday and when will he return?He went to Hyderabad and will return tomorrowor the day after tomorrow, if Allāh wills.(12) Do you know what is your age?Yes, I know my age is ten years and three months. Page 107
  • 108. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(13) How old is your small brother?He is presently eight years and six months old.(14) Congratulations! You seem to be a veryclever boy.May Allāh make it so. Now I seek yourpermission.(15) Good, in the protection of Allāh.May you also be in His protection.(B) Translate the following letter into English. 1364 Page 108
  • 109. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . Page 109
  • 110. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 49 The Particles ( )1. The particle is such a weak word that it cannotconvey its own meaning without the assistance ofa noun or verb. However, after the support of anoun or verb, it becomes so strong that it causeschanges in the meanings of many verbs. It is alsoso essential that without it, the noun and the verbremain scattered around. Hence there is a direneed to focus special attention to it.2. The particles which have a meaning arereferred to as ( ) while the alphabetslike ( ), etc. are referred to as( - the foundational particles). Onlythe former will be discussed in this lesson.3. All the ( ) are indeclinable ( ).They are not more than 80 in number.4. Some of the ( ) cause a change in the Page 110
  • 111. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) of nouns and verbs. They are called the( ). Those ( ) that do not cause anychange are called ( ).5. The ( ) comprise the followingcategories: (a) ( ) or ( ) These are 17 particles that render ( ) to a noun. They are as follows: [1] ( ) – in, at, because, with, oath etc. It is used for several meanings, e.g. ( ) – We wrote with the pen. ( ) – The book was printed in Egypt. ( ) – I believed in Allāh. ( ) – Allāh caught them because Page 111
  • 112. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourof their oppression.( ) – By Allāh (oath).It can also be extra ( ), that is, having noparticular meaning, e.g. ( ) – IsAllāh not sufficient for His slave?It is used to render an intransitive verb transitive,e.g.( ) – Hāmid took my book. Themeaning of ( ) is “he went”. By using theparticle ( ), the meaning of “taking away” iscreated.[2] ( ) – is used for an oath and it is specific with the word “Allāh”, e.g. ( )– By Allāh, Allāh has preferred you over us.[3] ( ) – “like” - is used for a comparison, e.g. ( ) – Knowledge is like light. Page 112
  • 113. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [4] ( ) or ( ) – for, towards, time, to, possession. Examples:( ) – for Allāh.( )I turned my face towards the One who createdthe skies and the earth.( ) – Stand for the teacher when hecomes.( ) – I said to Zaid.( ) - This book belongs to Khālid.The ( ) is ( ) when prefixed to a pronoun( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). [5] ( ) is used for taking an oath, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ). Sometimes the ( ) is used in the meaning of ( ), that is, “many” or “some”. Such a ( ) is called ( ), e.g. ( ) – There Page 113
  • 114. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are many cities where there is no one who can console except for gazelles and breeding camels.Note 1: The particle of conjunction, ( ), meaning“and”, is used very frequently but it is from the( ). [6] ( ) – some, many. It is generally succeeded by a word that is ( ) – an indefinite noun that is described by an adjective, e.g. ( ) – I have met many a noble person. Sometimes the succeeding word is ( ), that is, not having an adjective, e.g. ( ) – Some gestures are more eloquent than written words. [7] & [8] ( ) and ( ) – since. These two words are used to indicate a span of time, e.g. ( ) – I did not see him since Friday. Page 114
  • 115. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four[9] ( ) – from, of, some, among, due to, e.g.( ) – I travelled fromBombay till Calcutta.( ) – Take whatever you wantfrom the box.( ) – Some of you aredisbelievers and some of you are believers.( ) – They were drowned due totheir sins.The particle ( ) is also ( ). It is most often( ) after ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( )–We do not have any intercessor.( ) – Do you have a helper?[10] ( ) – in, regarding, about, due to, e.g.( ) – The book is in the drawer.( ) – Zaid spoke about his brother.( ) – A woman entered thefire due to a cat. Page 115
  • 116. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [11] ( ) – from, on behalf of, e.g. ( ) – I went out of the town. ( ) – I gave him the silver coins on behalf of Zaid. ( ) – The hadīth was narrated from Anas . [12] ( ) – on, in spite of, e.g. ( ) – Sit on the chair.( )–Undoubtedly your Lord forgives the people inspite of their oppression. [13] ( ) – till, towards, e.g. ( ) – I travelled from India to Makkah. ( ) – I turned towards the Ka’bah. [14] ( ) – till, until, even, e.g. ( ) – until the rise of true dawn. Page 116
  • 117. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – The pilgrims came, eventhose who walked.Note 2: The second and third meanings are usedmore often when the particle ( ) is prefixed toa verb. Then it will not be a ( ) but willrender ( ) to ( ), e.g.( ) – Wait here until I performsalāh.[15] [16] & [17] ( ), ( ) and ( ) – All three words mean, “besides” or “except”. They are used for ( ). See 43.8. Examples:( ) – The people came besidesZaid.( ) - The people came except Zaid.( ) - The people came save Zaid.(b) ( ) – The particles whichresemble the verb. They are :( ). Page 117
  • 118. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four These 6 words are also referred to as ( ) – Inna and its sisters. See Lesson 37. They are called ( ) because they resemble the verb in certain aspects. They are triliteral ( ) or quadrilateral ( ) like the verbs. The final letter has a fathah as in the verbs. The words ( ) and ( ) resemble ( ) and ( ) in totality while ( ) resembles ( ).It was mentioned in Lessons 25 and 37 that thesewords appear before a ( ) and render( ) to the ( ). [1] ( ) is always used at the beginning of a statement, e.g. ( ) – Indeed your Lord is most forgiving and most merciful. However, after the verb ( ) or any of its derivatives, it appears in the middle of the statement as well, e.g. ( ) – He (Mūsā ) said, “He (Allāh) says that the cow should be Page 118
  • 119. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four yellow.” It must be remembered that ( ) is never used after ( ). After the words ( ) and ( ), ( ) is generally used but ( ) is used in specific cases, e.g.( )Allāh knows that you, (O Messenger), are Hisprophet and Allāh bears testimony that thehypocrites are liars.Note 3: No change occurs in the meaning of a( ) due to the insertion of ( ). Only someemphasis is created in the sentence. Accordingly,( ) and ( ) mean the samething. [2] The particle ( ) cannot appear at the beginning of a sentence. It only comes in the middle, e.g. ( = ) – I heard that Zaid is brave, that is, I heard of the bravery of Zaid. This shows that ( ) changes a Page 119
  • 120. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) to the meaning of a verbal noun( ). Such a verbal noun is called ( ).In the analysis, this ( ) is the ( ) of theverb ( ). In some sentences, it will be the( ), e.g. ( = ) –Your bravery has pleased me. The word( ) is the ( ) in this sentence.Note 4: Here is an interesting grammaticalriddle for you to solve. The sentence is:You will find several apparent errors in thissentence. Firstly, the sentence begins with ( ).Secondly, the noun after ( ) should have been( ) but here it has ( ). Thirdly, the word( ) has ( ) instead of ( ).SolutionThe particle ( ) here is not a ( ) but a verb Page 120
  • 121. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourlike ( ). Originally it was ( ), meaning togroan. The word ( ) is the ( ). Therefore it is( ). In the word ( ), the ( ) is a ( )while ( - antelope) is ( ). The sentencetherefore means, “Zaid groaned like anantelope.”Sometimes the particles ( ) and ( ) arerendered ( ) and read as ( ) and ( ). Inorder to differentiate this ( ) from ( ) and ( ), a ( ) is prefixed to the ( ).Sometimes the ( ) renders ( ) to the( ) and sometimes it has no effect, e.g.( ) – Indeed Zaid is learned.However, ( ) does not have any effect onthe succeeding word, e.g.( ) – I knew that Zaid waslearned.The particles ( ) and ( ) always appear before Page 121
  • 122. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foura noun. However when they become ( ),they can appear before a verb. The particle ( )most often appears before ( ) and ( ) andtheir derived forms, e.g.( ) – Undoubtedly it was a heavything.( ) – Indeed we regard you asbeing from among the liars.Note that the ( ) has ( ) prefixed to it.After ( ), the particle ( ) or ( ) isprefixed to ( ) and ( ) is prefixed to( ) in order to distinguish it from( ), e.g.( ) – He knew that someof you will be ill.( ) – so that he knowsthat they conveyed the message of their Lord. Page 122
  • 123. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )8 Know for knowledge benefits a person that whatever has been decreed will appear. [3] ( ) – “as if” - is used for a comparison, e.g. ( ) As if this dog is a lion. Note 5: The word ( ) can also be made ( ). It most often appears before a ( ) – a verb made negative by the particle ( ), e.g. ( ) – As if no one saw him. [4] ( ) – “perhaps” - is used for expressing hope ( ), e.g. ( ) – Perhaps or I hope that your son is pious.8 In this verse, the sentence ( ) is a ( ) – aparenthetical clause. The ( ) of ( ) is a pronoun ( ) concealedin it. The sentence ( ) forms the ( ) of ( ). Thealif in ( ) is ( ). This is permitted in poetry. Page 123
  • 124. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four[5] ( ) – “would that, I wish that”. It is used to express a desire or wish, e.g.( )Listen, I wish that youth could return one dayso that I could inform it of what old-age hasdone.[6] ( ) “but” – is used for ( ), that is, to remove the surmise that was created by the first statement in the listener’s mind, e.g.( ) – The pilgrims camebut your father did not come. By saying,( ) - the pilgrims came, the listenersurmised that his father also came. By saying( ) – but…, that conjecture was removed.Note 6: The word ( ) can also be ( ) or( ). Then it can appear before a verb alsoand it becomes ( ), e.g.( ) – Listen,they are the mischief makers but they do noteven perceive it. Page 124
  • 125. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(c) The Particles of Negation ( ), ( ) and ( )The particles ( ) and ( ) sometimes, like ( ),render ( ) to the ( ) and ( ) to the ( ),e.g. ( ) – This is not a human.( ) – There is no man morevirtuous than you.But most often, both these particles are( ).Sometimes a ( ) is suffixed to the particle ( ) tobecome ( ). It has the same function as ( ),e.g. ( ) – This is not the time forescape. The original sentence was( ), where ( ) is the ( )and ( ) the ( ) which is ( ).Note 7: It was mentioned in Lesson 20, Page 125
  • 126. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourparagraphs 3 and 4 that the particles ( ), ( )and ( ) also create the meaning of negation. Butthey are specific with ( ). In the nextlesson you will learn that ( ) is sometimes alsoa particle of negation.Note 8: The particle ( ) always remains one ofnegation. However, the particle ( ) is most oftenregarded as a noun. Then it can fall into severalcategories: 1. ( ) – what thing. See Lesson 13. 2. ( ) – whatever. See Lesson 42. 3. ( ) – as long as. See Lesson 37.There is also a ( ) which is countedamong the ( ). See the next lesson,paragraph 5.(e) ( ) – the particle that negates a whole category or species. It appears before an indefinite noun and renders ( ) to it, Page 126
  • 127. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four e.g. ( ) – There is no man in the house. ( ) There is absolutely no benefit in a miser’s wealth for himself. ( ) – There is no power or might except with Allāh.(e) ( ) – the vocative particles. They are ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). If a noun succeeding these particles is ( ), meaning ( ), a ( ) is read on the final letter, e.g. ( ), ( ). If the succeeding noun is ( ), it will be ( ), e.g. ( ). Sometimes a non-specified person is called out. Then too, the ( – the word referring to the person who is called out) will be ( ), e.g. if a blind man calls out, ( - O man, hold my hand.)The particle ( ) is very commonly used. It can be Page 127
  • 128. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four used for ( ) and ( ), that is, whether the person you are calling out to is near or far. The particles ( ) and ( ) are for ( ) while ( ) and ( ) are for ( ), e.g. O the two mountains of Na’mān, leave the eastern morning breeze for Allāh’s sake so that it can reach me.O our neighbour, we are staying here.Note 9: It would have been appropriate tomention the particles of response after thevocative particles. However, since they fall in thecategory of ( ), they will bementioned in the next lesson under this category. (g) ( ) – the particles which render ( ) to ( ). Page 128
  • 129. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThese are ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). Theseparticles appear before ( ) and render( ) to it, e.g.( ) – I think you willgo to Lahore tomorrow.( ) – We will not be patientwith one (type of) food.( ) – I learnt the Qur’ān inorder to practise on it.( ) – Then, you will be successful.These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20,paragraph 4. More details will follow in thesection of ( ).Note 10: The particle ( ) is called ( )because it changes the ( ) to themeaning of the verbal noun, e.g. ( )means ( ) – I love your reading. Page 129
  • 130. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (g) ( ) – the particles which render ( ) to ( ). These are ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). These particles appear before ( ) and render ( ) to it, e.g. ( ) – He did not go. ( ) – He did not go as yet. ( ) – He should go. ( ) – You do not go. ( ) – If you go, I will go. These particles were mentioned in Lesson 20. They will be discussed again under ( ).Note 11: The particle ( ) is a ( ) – aparticle of condition. It appears before twosentences where the first one is called the ( )and the second one is called the ( ). If ( ) isprefixed to it, it means, “even though”. In thiscase, there will not be a need for two sentencesafter it. One sentence will precede it, e.g. Page 130
  • 131. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – I will go to themadrasah even though you do not go. For thismeaning, the particle ( ) can also be used, but itis specific for the past tense, e.g.( ) - I will go to themadrasah even though you did not go.Note 12: The above-mentioned seven categoriesare ( ). The ( ) will bementioned in the next lesson. Page 131
  • 132. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 50 The Non–Causative Particles ( )Note 1: Among the ( ), some arecausative ( ) whereby they have an effect inone case while in another case, they are non-causative.1. The ( ) are ten:Note 2: The meaning of ( ) is ‘to incline’.When a ( ) appears between two wordsor sentences, it inclines the succeeding word tothe preceding one. It renders both the words orsentences into the same case ( ). Thepreceding word is called ( ) and thesucceeding word is called ( ). Page 132
  • 133. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four[1] ( ) – “and”. It is used to combine two things under one command, e.g. ( ) – Zaid and Àmr came. This example shows that Zaid and Àmr are both included in the act of coming.[2] ( ) – “then”. It is used for combination and sequence, e.g. ( ) – Hamīd came and Rashīd came with.( ) – “because”. This indicates the cause. Itis called ( ) and it is most often usedwith ( ), e.g.( ) – Read the Qur’ānbecause it will be of benefit to you.[3] ( ) – “then”. It is used for combinationand sequence with a delay, e.g. ( ) – Qāsim went, then Hāshim. Thiswill be said when there is the slightestdelay between the going of Qāsim and Page 133
  • 134. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourHāshim.[4] ( ) – “or”. It is used for showing one oftwo things, e.g. ( ) – Take thisor that.[5] ( ) – “or”. This is similar to ( ) but it isused in a question, e.g. ( ) – Isthis your brother or that? On such anoccasion, ( ) cannot be used.[6] ( ) – “either”. It is also used in themeaning of ( ) but it is always repeatedand it introduces the details that are tofollow, e.g. ( ) – The fruit iseither sweet or bitter.[7] ( ) – “but”. It is used for ( ). SeeLesson 49. Example:( ) – Thestudents attended but Yūsuf did not attend. Page 134
  • 135. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 3: The particle ( ) is ( ) while ( )is ( ). [8] ( ) – “not”, e.g. ( ) – Honour the pious, not the impious. [9] ( ) – “nay, rather”. It is used for ( ), that is, to abandon one statement and focus towards another, e.g. ( ) - Hāmid did not go, rather Khālid went. [10] ( ) – “until, even”. It is used to indicate the end limit, e.g. ( ) – The caravan came, even those who walked.Note 4: The particle ( ) is used in many ways.One is a ( ) and this is the one used mostoften. The second one is ( ) as aconjunction. The third one appears before a Page 135
  • 136. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) and renders ( ) to it. It wasdiscussed in Lesson 20. It will be furtherdiscussed under ( ).2. ( ) – the particles ofinterrogation.They are ( ) and ( ). The particle ( ) is frequentlyused by appearing before nouns, verbs andparticles. The particle ( ) does not appear beforeparticles.Examples: ( ), ( ), ( ) –Did you see Zaid?( ) – Is Zaid present?( ) – Did you see Zaid?3. ( ) – the particles of response.They are eight:(1) ( ) – “yes”. This word is used to indicate an Page 136
  • 137. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four agreement with the statement in the question, whether the statement is positive or negative, e.g. If in response to the question, ( ) – “Did Zaid come to you?”, one replies, ( ), it will mean, “Yes, Zaid came. If the question is, ( ) – “Did Zaid not come to you?” and one replies, ( ), it will mean, “No, Zaid did not come.”(2) ( ) – “yes, why not”. Its function is to change a negative statement to a positive one, e.g. ( ) – Am I not your Lord?” The response to this question is, ( ), “Why not, you are certainly our Lord.”(3) ( ) – “yes”. This word is always used with an oath, e.g. ( ) – “Yes, I take an oath in the name of my Sustainer.” The phrase, ( ) is used very often. In today’s colloquial language, this has been abridged to ( ).(4) [5], [6] & [7] ( ) – All four words have the same meaning as ( ). Page 137
  • 138. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExamples:They say, “Describe this woman because you arewell acquainted with her attributes.” Yes, I amwell aware of her attributes.They said, “You have threaded the gems.” I said,“Yes.”“Are you admitting yourself into the mouth ofdeath?” I replied, “Yes.”They are saying, “Old-age has come over you andyou have become senile. I replied, “Yes.”(5) ( ) – “no”. It is used when you intend to reply in the negative to a question, e.g. If you reply to the question, ( ) – Did Zaid come?, Page 138
  • 139. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four by saying ( ), you are implying that Zaid did not come.4. The Particles of Negation ( )They are ( ), ( ) and ( ), all meaning, “no, not”.The particles ( ) and ( ) can appear before anoun, verb or particle, e.g.( ) – Neither is Zaid standing noris Àmr sitting.( ) – I neither ate nor drank.( ) – There is neither blame onhim nor on you.However, the particle ( ) generally appearsbefore a noun, e.g. ( ) – This isnothing but a noble angel.The particle ( ) appears before the ( ) of( ) which distinguishes it from ( )99 See Lesson 49 (b). Page 139
  • 140. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourand ( )10.Note 5: Sometimes the particles ( ) and ( ) arecausative ( ). See Lesson 49 (c).Note 6: The Arabs most often, in place of ( ),say ( ) which is the abbreviated form of( ). They simply mean “no” by thisstatement, e.g. ( ) – I do not have abook. Similarly, in place of ( ), they say,( ) – There is no problem.5. ( ) – The particles of the verbalnoun. These are ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). The firstthree particles create the meaning of the verbalnoun in a verb while the particle ( ) does so in a( ). In such an instance, the verb or the( ), coupled with these particles, is called a10 See Lesson 20.3. Page 140
  • 141. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – an interpreted verbal noun, and likea singular noun, it forms either the ( ), ( ),( ) or ( ), e.g.( = ) – Yourtruthfulness makes me happy.( = ) – I love yoursuccess.( = ) – I awoke before his coming and I slept afterhis going.( = ) – I received thenews of your success.In the first example, the ( ) is the ( ),in the second, it is the ( ), in the third, it is the( ) and in the fourth, it forms a ( )and becomes the ( ).6. ( ) – the particles forencouragement and spurring on. They are ( ), Page 141
  • 142. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). They all mean, “is (ordoes) not, why not”.All five particles are always used with a verb, e.g.( ) – Are you not teaching?( ) – Are you not teaching?( ) – Are you not teaching your son?( ) – O my Lord,why did You not give me respite for a short whileso that I could give charity?( ) – Why do you not bring theangels to us?Note 7: After the ( ), a sentence ofresponse most often appears. The particle ( )precedes it and the ( ) is pronouncedwith a ( ) as mentioned in the example above,( ). This verb ( ) was originally ( )from the category ( ). The ( ) is assimilatedinto the ( ), that is, ( ) is applied. See Lesson29, Rule 6. Page 142
  • 143. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four7. ( ) – the particles of condition.They are ( - if), ( – had it not been) and ( -had it not been). Two sentences appear after theseparticles. The first one is called ( ) while thesecond one is the ( ). A ( ) is prefixed to the( ), e.g. ( ) – Had youwanted, you could have taken a payment.( ) – HadAllāh not prevented some from others, the worldwould have been corrupted.( )Had it not been for the spying of the tale bearers,I would have had hope in you being pleased afteryour anger.Note 8: If ( ) is prefixed to ( ), its meaningchanges to “although”, e.g.( ) – Seek knowledge even ifit be in China. There is no statement of responseafter ( ), but a sentence precedes it. Page 143
  • 144. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 9: It was mentioned above that ( ) and( ) are also from the ( ). In such acase, no ( ) is prefixed to its response. On thecontrary, a ( ) is prefixed to it. See Note 7.8. ( ) – “never”, “certainly”. This is aparticle of reproach or rejection, e.g.( ) – Never, you will soon come toknow of the reality.Sometimes it has the meaning of ( ) –undoubtedly, e.g. ( ) –Undoubtedly, man is rebellious.9. ( ) – particles of close proximity.These are ( ) and ( ). They change themeaning of ( ) to the near future, e.g. ( )– I will read now.( ) – I will read soon.The particle ( ) is used for a time that is closer. Page 144
  • 145. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four10. ( ) – the particles of emphasis.The ( ) were discussedin lesson 20 (b), e.g. ( ) and ( ) – I willcertainly write.The ( ) is only used with ( ) and( ). However, the ( ) can appear before( ),( ), ( ) and a ( ), e.g.( ) – If he strove, he would havesucceeded.( ) – By Allāh, I will certainlygo to Lahore tomorrow.( ) – Undoubtedly, it (the Qur’ān) is adecisive statement.( ) – A messenger certainly came toyou.11. ( ) – the particles of warning. Theseare ( ) , ( ) and ( ). All three of them mean,“beware, listen, behold”, e.g. Page 145
  • 146. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – Beware, the help of Allāh isnear.( ) – Listen, by Allāh, I will certainlyreproach him.( ) – Behold, your enemy is at thedoor.Note 10: The particle ( ) is also a particle ofencouragement. In such an instance, it is alwaysfollowed by a verb. See paragraph 6 of this lesson.12. ( ) – the two particles ofexplanation. The particles ( ) and ( ) are usedfor explanation and clarification, e.g.( ) – Hasan, that is, your brothercame.( ) – We called him, that is, (Wesaid), “O Ibrāhīm.”13. ( ) – extra letters. Although thefollowing particles have a meaning, sometimesthey are extra, that is, their meanings are not Page 146
  • 147. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourtaken into consideration. They are inserted in thesentence to beautify it. They are the followingparticles:The particle ( ) is extra after ( ), e.g.I did not praise Muhammad with my poetry,but rather I have praised my poetry withMuhammad .The particle ( ) is extra after ( ), e.g.( ) – Then when the giver of gladtidings came.The particle ( ) is extra after ( ), ( ), ( ), ( )and ( ) when the latter four words are used for acondition. It is also extra after some of the Page 147
  • 148. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) like ( ), e.g.( ) – Be patient whenever you areafflicted by any difficulty.( ) – When you travel, I will travel.( ) – Wherever you turn, there isthe Being of Allāh.( ) – Whoever comes to you,honour him.( ) – If guidance comes to youfrom me…( ) – You are gentle to themdue to the mercy of Allāh.( ) –They will regret in a shortwhile.Note 11: The particle ( ) is regarded as extra inthe last seven examples, but if one has to examineit in depth, there is some meaning attached to it ineach example. In some places it creates stress andemphasis in the preceding words and in someplaces it creates an increase, e.g. the word ( ) Page 148
  • 149. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourmeans “when” while ( ) means “whenever”.The word ( ) means “where” while ( ) means“wherever”.The particle ( ) is extra after ( ) andsometimes before ( ), e.g.( ) – O Iblīs, what hasprevented you from prostrating.( ) – I take an oath by this city.Note 12: The meaning of the particle ( ) has notbeen applied in both examples.The particle ( ) is extra after ( ) and ( ),e.g.( ) – There is no villageexcept that a warner has passed in it.( ) – How manya small group has overpowered many (large)groups with the command of Allāh. Page 149
  • 150. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe particle ( ) is extra when attached to the( ) of ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) – Zaid is not a liar.The particle ( ) is extra in the sentence ( )- He came after you. Here there was no need forthe ( ) because ( ) itself is transitive. One cansay, “( )”.Note 13: There are some extra particles among the( ) as well. If they are extra, they stillare causative ( ) and their effect will be visible.Note 14: Some particles will be discussed later inthe appropriate sections. Page 150
  • 151. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 51 Continuation of Lesson 50Some of the particles having different names withdiffering meanings, which have been mentionedin the different lessons, will be discussed in detailnow.1. The particle ( ) is of four types:( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). [1] ( ) means “if’. It is from amongst the causative particles ( ). It renders ( ) to ( ), e.g. ( ) – If you sit, I will sit. See Lesson 20.3. This is the one that is used the most. [2] ( ) means “no”. It is non-causative ( ), e.g. ( ) – I am merely a warner. The particle ( ) normally appears in its ( ) as is apparent from the example. [3] ( ) is originally ( ). A ( ) is Page 151
  • 152. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four normally attached to its ( ). Sometimes it is causative and sometimes not, e.g. ( ) or ( ). See Lesson 49, (b). [4] ( ) does not display any meaning. Sometimes it is extra after ( ), e.g. ( ) – I did not read. See Lesson 50.13. It is seldom used.2. The particle ( ) is also of four types:( ) or ( ), ( ), ( ) and( ). [1] ( ) renders ( ) to ( ) while changing the meaning of the verb to that of the verbal noun, e.g. ( = ) – Your fasting is better for you. See Lessons 20 and 49. [2] ( ) is originally ( ), e.g. ( ) – I knew that you will Page 152
  • 153. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four succeed. See Lesson 49, (b). [3] ( ) means “that is” and it is non- causative ( ), e.g. ( )–I called him, that is, I said, “O Yūsuf”. See Lesson 50.16. [4] ( ) does not display any meaning. It is most often extra after ( ), e.g. ( ) – When your brother came. See Lesson 50.13.3. The particle ( ) is firstly divided into twotypes:1.( ) and 2. ( ).The first one, ( ), is of four types:( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ).The second one, ( ), is of three types:( ), ( ) and ( ). [1] ( ) renders ( ) to the ( ), e.g. ( ) – This is not a human. See Lesson Page 153
  • 154. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 49, (c). [2] ( ) is the one that is used most frequently, e.g. ( ) – Zaid is not standing. See Lesson 50.4 [3] ( ) creates the meaning of the verbal noun in the verb, e.g. ( ) – I perform salāh before sunrise. See Lesson 50.5. [4] ( ) does not display any meaning, e.g. ( ) – We will be successful in a very short while. See Lesson 50.13. [5] ( ), e.g. ( ) – What do you have? [6] ( ), e.g. ( ) – Show me what you have? [7] ( ), e.g. ( ) – I will stand as long as the teacher stands. Here the particle ( ) means “as long as”. It is called ( ) because it denotes time. See 37.6.4. The particle ( ) – “no, not, do not” is always Page 154
  • 155. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourused for negation. There are several types of ( )which you have learnt about in the differentlessons: [1] ( ) is non-causative ( ). This is the one that is commonly used. It can be prefixed to a noun, verb or particle. [2] ( ) is causative ( ). It renders ( ) to ( ), e.g. ( ) – Do not go. See Lesson 20 and 49. [3] ( ) is causative ( ). Like ( ), it renders ( ) to the ( ), e.g. ( ) – There is no man more virtuous than you. See Lesson 49, (c). [4] ( ) is causative ( ). It renders ( ) to the ( ), e.g. ( ) – There is no person from the category of men in the house. See Lesson 49 (d). [5] ( ) is non-causative ( ), e.g. ( ) – I saw Zaid, not Àmr. Here the particle ( ) is a conjunction. Page 155
  • 156. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Accordingly, the succeeding word has the same ( ) as the preceding one. [6] ( – the particle of response) is non-causative ( ). See Lesson 50.3. [7] ( ) does not display any meaning. See Lesson 50.13.5. There are two types of the particle ( ):( ) and ( ). [1] ( ), e.g. ( )– If the people are just, the judge can relax. See Lesson 50.7. [2] ( ), e.g. ( = ) – I desire your success. See Lesson 50.7.Note 1: By prefixing ( ) to the particle ( ), itchanges the meaning to, “although”, e.g.( ) – The generousperson is Allāh’s friend, even though he may be a Page 156
  • 157. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourtransgressor.5. ( ) and ( ) are of two types: ( ) and( ). [1] ( ), e.g. ( ) – Why don’t you walk with us, that is, it will be better if you come with us. See Lesson 50.6. [2] ( ), e.g. ( )– Had it not been for the Qur’ān, the world would have remained in darkness. See Lesson 50.6.6. The particle ( ), either ( ) or ( ) is of fourtypes: ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ).The first three types of ( ) are ( )11 while( ) is ( ). [1] ( ) renders ( ) to a noun. It is very frequently used. See Lesson 49 (a).11 However, if the ( ) is preceded by ( ) or ( ), it becomes( ), e.g. ( ). See Lesson 20 Note 4. Page 157
  • 158. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [2] ( ) renders ( ) to ( ), e.g. ( ) He should read and write. See Lesson 49(g). [3] ( ) means “so that, in order to”. It renders ( ) to ( ), e.g. ( ) I embraced Islam in order to succeed. See Lesson 20.4. [4] ( ) can precede a noun as well as a verb or particle, e.g. ( ) – Indeed Zaid is standing. ( ) – Indeed We have made the Qur’ān easy. ( ) – I will certainly write a letter. See Lesson 50.107. There are six types of ( ): ( ), ( ),( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). [1] ( ) meaning “and” is very frequently used. It is non-causative ( ). Page 158
  • 159. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four[2] ( ) is causative ( ). It renders ( ) to a noun, e.g. ( ) – By the oath of the fig and the olive. See Lesson 49 (a)5.[3] ( ) is causative ( ). It renders ( ) to a noun, e.g. ( ) – I travelled to many cities. See Lesson 49 (a).[4] ( ) is non-causative ( ), e.g. ( ) – Zaid came riding. See Lesson 43.11.[5] ( ) means ( ) – with. It is causative ( ) and it renders ( ) to a noun, e.g. ( ) – I travelled along the new street. See Lesson 43.7.[6] ( ) is used for beginning a new statement, e.g. ( ) – so that We explain to you and We maintain whatever We want in the womb. The ( ) is not ( ) in this example otherwise ( ) would also have been ( ) like ( ). This is now the beginning of a new Page 159
  • 160. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four statement, having nothing to do with the previous sentence. The ( ) is non- causative ( ).8. There are three types of ( ):( ), ( ) and ( ). [1] ( ) means “until”, e.g. ( ) – I ate the fish until its head, that is, I did not eat the head. [2] ( ) means “so that, in order to”, e.g. ( ) – I learnt so that I can understand the Qur’ān. See Lesson 20. [3] ( ) means “till, to the extent” and is non-causative, e.g. ( )– I ate the fish to the extent of the head, that is, I ate the head as well. The particle ( ) is a ( ) in this example. Accordingly, the ( ) preceding it has also been applied Page 160
  • 161. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourto the succeeding word. See Lesson 50.1.Remember the difference between ( )and ( ). Page 161
  • 162. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 52 The Remaining ParticlesThe following particles will be discussed in thislesson:( – ), ( ) and( )The Definte Article1. The definite article ( ) is of three types: (1)( ), (2) ( ) and (3) ( ).2. The ( ) is also called ( ). Itserves the function of changing an indefiniteword into a definite one.3. With regards to the meaning, the ( ) isof four types: [1] ( ) – the word to which the ( ) is prefixed is known to both the speaker Page 162
  • 163. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four and the listener, e.g. ( ) – the leader came. This will be said when the speaker and the listener both know the leader being spoken about. This is normally when the person in question has already been mentioned previously.[2] ( ) – the word to which the ( ) is prefixed is known only to the speaker, e.g. ( ) – the leader came. This will be said only when the speaker knows the leader, not the listener.[3] ( ) – the species of the word to which the ( ) is prefixed is intended, e.g. ( ) – The category of men is better than the category of women. The speaker does not intend any individuals in his statement.[4] ( ) – when the speaker refers to all the individuals encompassed by the word to which the ( ) is prefixed, e.g. ( )– Indeed all of man is at a loss except those Page 163
  • 164. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four who believe and do good actions. This ( ) is normally translated as “all” or “every”.Note 1: The difference between ( ) and( ) is that in the ( ), theindividuals are not taken into consideration, butin ( ), they are considered. Hence it ispermissible to make an exception ( ) of someindividuals.4. The ( ) prefixed to the ( ) and the( ) is generally ( ). See Lesson 42.6.5. The ( ) prefixed to the ( ) is ( )because the proper noun is already definite.However, the ( ) cannot be prefixed to every( ). It only applies where the people of thelanguage (the Arabs) have used it, e.g. one cansay ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and( ) because the Arabs have been heard tosay these words in this manner. One does not say Page 164
  • 165. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) or ( ).The ( ) is prefixed to the names of mostcountries, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ),( ), ( ) and ( ) etc. However, it isseldom prefixed to the names of cities, e.g. ( ),( ), ( ) etc. The name ( ) has ( )prefixed to it because any city can be referred toas ( ). The name ( - Cairo) also has ( )prefixed to it.6. Both these hamzas are extra and they appear atthe beginning of a word. The ( ) is notpronounced when joined to a preceding word.However, it is still written. The ( ) isalways pronounced. Note that an alif that is( ) is also a hamzah. The ( ) appearsin the following instances: Page 165
  • 166. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [1] the hamzah of ( ). [2] in the words ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), etc. [3] in the ( ), ( ) and ( ) of the following seven categories of ( ): See Lesson 35. This hamzah also appears in the two categories of ( ), namely, ( ) and ( ). See Lesson 25.3. [4] in the ( ) of ( ).Besides the above-mentioned places, whereverelse a hamzah appears, it will be a ( ),e.g. the hamzah of the perfect tense ( ) andthe imperative ( ) of ( ), the hamzah ofthe elative ( )12, the hamzah of( )13 and the the hamzah of the12 See Lesson 24.13 See Lesson 23.2. Page 166
  • 167. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) of all verbs.Note 2: Sometimes the learned also err in thepronunciation of ( ). One shouldtherefore practise it thoroughly, that is, whenjoined to the preceding word, the hamzah is notpronounced, e.g. ( ) should be pronounced as( = ) while ( ) should bepronounced as ( = ).7. The ( ) is most often a pronounattached to the end of the ( ) and ( )word-forms of ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ),( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ). However, the( ) of the singular feminine word-form isnot a pronoun but merely a sign that the verb isfeminine. See Lesson 41, Note 4. Page 167
  • 168. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe ( ) is used like a particle to indicatethe feminine gender, e.g. ( - masculine) and( - feminine); ( - masculine) and ( -feminine).Sometimes it is used to differentiate between the( - generic noun) and the singular form,e.g. the word ( ) is ( ) while one tree iscalled ( ). Such a ( ) is called ( ).Sometimes it is used for ( ) - the intensiveform, e.g. ( ) – very learned, ( ) – havingdeep understanding. These words are used forboth the genders. Such a ( ) is called ( ).Sometimes it is attached to a ( )–a final plural after which there is no plural. SeeLesson 57.3.Examples: ( ) - plural of ( );( ) - plural of ( ). Page 168
  • 169. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourSometimes it is suffixed to the plural of a relativeadjective ( ), e.g. ( ) - plural of( ); ( )- plural of ( ).Sometimes it replaces a letter, e.g. ( ) whichwas originally ( ). The ( ) has replaced theelided ( ). Similarly, in ( ), which wasoriginally ( ), the ( ) has replaced the ( ).Note 3: The ( ) and the ( ) becomesimilar in shape in the middle of a word, e.g.( - ),( - ) etc.Exercise No. 79Note 4: Look for the ( ) and the( ) in the following passage andpronounce them correctly. Page 169
  • 170. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 15 14 1619 18 17 22 21 20 : 24 23 2514 lofty15 extremely16 The definite article on this word is ( ) because hewas mentioned previously. Therefore the listener will know whois being spoken about.17 Plural of ( ) – affair, matter.18 close examination, scrutiny19 increase20 joy, delight21 pleased22 This is a ( ). See Lesson 43.23 time24 to make happy25 to advance Page 170
  • 171. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 26 27 30 29 28 31 .26 decoration, embellishment27 plural of ( ) - vice28 to loathe, detest29 to be mutually jealous of30 to give a derisive or insulting name31 outrage, transgression Page 171
  • 172. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTest No. 18 [1] Approximately how many ( ) are there in the Arabic language? [2] How many groups of ( ) are there? What is the name of each group? [3] How many ( ) are there and what are they? [4] Which ( ) render ( ) to a noun and which ones to a verb? [5] What ( ) are ( ), ( ) and ( ) and what is the difference in their usage? [6] How many types of ( ) are there? Explain with examples. [7] Which ( ) render ( ) to a verb? [8] How many meanings does the particle ( ) have? What is the name of each one and what function does it serve? [9] How many types of ( ) are there? What is the work of each type? [10] For which meanings is ( ) used and what Page 172
  • 173. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four are its names?[11] Which ( ) are sometimes ( ) and sometimes ( )?[12] What is the difference in usage between ( ) and ( )?[13] What are the extra ( ) and when is each particle extra?[14] When a particle is extra, is it ( ) or ( )?[15] How many types of ( ) are there?[16] Explain the types of ( ) with examples.[17] Explain the types of ( ) and ( ). Page 173
  • 174. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 53 SentencesThe Definitions of ( ), ( ) and ( )1. The relationship between two or more wordswhereby they form a sentence is called ( ).That part of the sentence about which somethingis said, is called ( ) while whatever is saidis called ( ), e.g. ( ) is a ( ).There is a concealed relationship between ( )and ( ) which bonds the two words together.This bond is the ( ). In this sentence, regarding( ), information has been provided that he is( ). Therefore ( ) is the ( ) and( ) is the ( ).Similarly, ( ) is a ( ). Regarding( ), the word ( ) has provided some Page 174
  • 175. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourinformation about him. Therefore, the first part ofthis sentence, which is the verb, is the ( ) andthe second part is the ( ).2. From these examples, you can deduce that in a( ), the ( ) is the ( ), while in a( ), it is the ( ). In a ( ), the ( )is the ( ) and in a ( ), it is the ( ). The( ) is neither a ( ) nor a ( ) in asentence.3. From the examples, you will realize that anoun can be a ( ) and a ( ). In the aboveexample, the word ( ) is a noun and ( ) isalso a noun. The verb can only be a ( ). Itcannot be a ( ). A ( ) can neither be a( ) nor a ( ). Page 175
  • 176. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe Types of Sentences4. It was mentioned in Lesson 6 of Volume Onethat sentences are of two types: ( ) in which the first part is a noun and ( ) in which the first part is a verb.This distribution was with regards to thesequence of words.With regards to the meaning, sentences are alsoof two types: ( ), the meaning of which can be testified to be true or false, e.g. ( ) – The madrasah is open or ( ) – The madrasah was opened. The first sentence is a ( ) and the second, a ( ). It can be understood from both the sentences that the madrash has been opened. This is information which can be regarded as true or false. ( ), the meaning of which cannot Page 176
  • 177. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four be testified to be true or false, e.g. ( ) – Read, O boy. ( ) – Do not sit, O girl. There is no information been imparted in these sentences. On the contrary, there is an order to do some act or to refrain from something. Such a statement cannot be testified to be true or false because this can only be done with information.5. There are 11 types of ( ): [1] ( ) – the imperative, e.g. ( ) – Perform salāh. [2] ( ) – prohibition, e.g. ( ) – Do not ascribe partners to Allāh. [3] ( ) – interrogation, e.g. ( ) – Are you Yūsuf? [4] ( ) – wish, e.g. ( ) – I wish youth could return. [5] ( ) - hope, e.g. ( ) – Perhaps Allāh may create something thereafter. Page 177
  • 178. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [6] ( ) - vocative, e.g. ( ) – O students, you will succeed if you strive. [7] ( ) - request, that is, when you gently request for something, e.g. ( ) – Why don’t you alight by us so that we can attain benefit from you. [8] ( ) - oath, e.g. ( ) – By Allāh, I will plan against your idols. [9] ( ) - surprise, e.g. ( ) – How beautiful is Fātimah. [10] ( ) - contract, e.g. ( ) – I sold, ( ) – I bought, ( ) – I have married you to so and so, ( ) – I accepted. [11] ( ) - condition, e.g. ( ) – If you study, you will progress.A supplicatory sentence ( ) is also a( ), e.g. ( ) – May peace be uponyou. Page 178
  • 179. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 80Observe the analysis of the following sentences: . ( 1) Do not forget the favour among yourselves.This is a ( ) because it contains aprohibition. = Page 179
  • 180. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2) Are you Yūsuf?This is a ( ) because of the interrogatoryparticle ( ). A particle has no 32 = ( 3) He said, “I am Yūsuf.”This is a ( ).32 The discussion of ( ) will follow in Lesson 69. Page 180
  • 181. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) = = = ( )Remember that the ( ) of ( ) is called ( )and it is normally a sentence. Page 181
  • 182. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 81Look for the ( ) and ( ) in thefollowing letter. Page 182
  • 183. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ! . .Note : All the ( ) are marked in bold. Page 183
  • 184. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 54 Declension ( )Note 1: The declension of the noun was discussedin Lessons 10 and 11 of Volume One while thedeclension of the verb was discussed in Lesson 20of Volume Two. It seems appropriate to discussthis topic in greater detail here.1. Declension ( ) refers to the different signsused to distinguish the different cases of adeclinable word ( ). See Lesson 10.10.Note 2: The place of the ( ) is the final letterof the word. The ( ) and ( ) of thealphabets in the beginning or middle of a wordare not to be termed the ( ) although thispractice is prevalent.2. There are two types of ( ):( ) and ( ). Page 184
  • 185. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four [1] The ( ) are:This is the ( ) of a noun. The ( ) of a verbis ( ), ( ) and ( ).Note 3: Tanwīn is specific with an ( ). Neitherdoes it appear on a verb nor on a particle. Whenan ( ) has ( ) or it is ( ) or ( ), itdoes not have tanwīn.The ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are also( ), but these names are used more often forwords that are ( ). Similarly, these names arealso used for the ( ) and ( ) of thealphabets in the beginning or middle of a word, Page 185
  • 186. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foure.g. the ( ) of ( ) is ( ) and not ( ).The ( ) is ( ) and not ( ). However, the( ) will be termed ( ). [2] The ( ) are as follows:for nouns:for verbs: elision of elision of elision of elision ofNote 4: The method of pronouncing ( ), ( )and ( ) etc. is that an alif should be Page 186
  • 187. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourtemporarily inserted with every harakah, e.g.( ) becomes ( ), ( ) becomes ( ) and ( )becomes ( ). See Lesson 5, Note 1.(a) The ( ) of ( ), ( ) and ( ) is applied to thewords ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) whenthese words are related to any other word besidesthe pronoun of the singular first person( ), e.g. ( ) in ( ), ( ) in( ) and ( ) in ( ). However,when these words, with the exception of ( ), arerelated to the singular first person pronoun( ), they will have no ( ),having the same form in all three cases, e.g.See Lesson 11.2.Note 5: The word ( ) can only be ( )towards a visible noun ( ). It is rarely Page 187
  • 188. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) towards a pronoun.Note 6: The ( ) of the word ( ) is elided at thetime of suffixing this ( ), e.g. it is said ( ),( ) and ( ). The word ( ) can also have( ) attached to it, e.g ( ), ( ) and( ).Note 7: The ( ) of the above-mentioned sixwords only applies when they are not in thediminutive form ( ). Accordingly,they are referred to as ( ). When theyare ( ) – in the diminutive, their ( ) is thesame as a normal noun, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( )–small brother, etc. The diminutive will bediscussed in Lesson 74.6.(b) The ( ) of the dual form ( ) is ( )and ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ). Page 188
  • 189. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(c) The ( ) of the sound masculine plural( ) is ( ) and ( ) , e.g.( ) and ( ).(d) The ( ) of the dual form ( ) of ( )is ( ), e.g. ( ) and ( ).(e) The ( ) of the masculine plural of ( )and the singular feminine second person is ( ),e.g. ( )( ) and ( ).Note 8: The ( ) and ( ) only appear in the wordsof ( ) in ( ). In ( ), the( ) is elided, e.g.( ), ( ) and ( ).Similarly, ( ) etc. See the paradigms ofLesson 20.Note 9: The ( ) of ( ) and ( ) is a sign of Page 189
  • 190. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ). Therefore it is called ( ).Note 10: The alif of ( ) and the ( ) of ( ) in anoun is a sign of ( ). Therefore, changes takeplace in them. Examine the examples of ( ) and( ) above. However, they are not part of the( ) in a verb but are pronouns. No change canoccur in them. Similarly, the ( ) of ( ) and( ) is not a ( ) but is a pronoun.Therefore, no change ever occurs in it. It remainsconstant in the ( ), ( ) and ( ).( )3. Wherever the ( ) can be pronouncedwithout any difficulty, there the ( ) is clearlyattached to the word. Such ( ) is called( ). However, where the ( ) is Page 190
  • 191. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourdifficult or heavy to pronounce, there the ( )is not read, e.g. the words ( ) and ( ) are( ) because they have an ( )suffixed to them. See Lesson 38, Note 1. The( ) of these words is not read in all threecases, e.g.( ), ( ) and ( ) – Hebrought Mūsā.The ( ) is implied in such words, according tothe context. Such implied ( ) is referred to as( ). See Lesson 10.8 and Lesson38, Note 1.The words ( ) and ( ) are( ) or ( ). See Lesson 10.9. The ( )is ( ) in ( ). Page 191
  • 192. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe ( ) in ( ) only is ( ), e.g.Test No. 18 B (1) Define what is ( ). (2) Where does the ( ) occur? (3) Can the harakāt of the beginning and middle letters of a word be called ( )? (4) How many types of ( ) are there? (5) What are the names of the harakāt of ( )? (6) What is the name of the ( ) of a noun and a verb? Page 192
  • 193. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(7) Explain the ( ) of ( ). Whenthey are ( ), what are their ( )?(8) The letters ( ) and ( ) are the ( ) ofwhich words?(9) What is the sign of ( ) of ( ) and( ); ( ) and ( )?(10) What kind of ( ) is there in ( ) and( )?(11) How many types of ( ) are there?(12) What names are given to nouns like ( )and ( ) and what is their ( ) in all threecases?(13) What are nouns like ( ), ( ) and ( )called and what is their ( ) in all three cases? Page 193
  • 194. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 55 The Declension of a Verb ( )Note 1: The ( ) of a verb is discussed first,because the discussion of the ( ) of a noun islengthy.1. The perfect tense ( ) and theimperative ( ) are indeclinable ( ). Only theimperfect ( ), when it is devoid of( ), is declinable ( ).The ( ) of ( ) is ( ), ( ) and( ). In five word-forms, namely,( ), the ( ) is with( ), the ( ) with ( ) and the ( ) with( ). From the remaining word-forms, the twofeminine plurals, namely ( ) and ( ), are Page 194
  • 195. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourindeclinable ( ). The ( ) of the remainingseven word-forms is by means of the ( ).The ( ) and ( ) is by eliding the ( ).The ( ) is originally ( ). Due to sometemporary cause, it becomes either ( ) or( ).The Occasions of ( ) of a Verb2. When any of the ( ), namely,( ), precede the ( ), thelatter becomes ( ).You have learnt in Lesson 49 that the particle ( )creates the meaning of the ( - verbal noun) inthe ( ), e.g.( ) – Yourfasting is better for you.Note 2: The particle ( ) is most often translated Page 195
  • 196. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouras “to”, e.g. ( ) – I came to see you.The particle ( ) creates the meaning of negativeemphasis, e.g. ( ) – We will neverworship anyone besides Allāh.The particle ( ) indicates the cause of the action,e.g. ( ) - I embraced Islam in orderto succeed.The particle ( ) also written as ( ) comes inresponse to a sentence. It appears before the( ), e.g. if someone says, ( - Iembraced Islām), another person responds bysaying, ( - then you will succeed).3. In the following five instances, the particle ( )is ( ) – implied, that is, it is not mentioned inwords but is understood to be there. Due to thisimplied ( ), the ( ) will change to theaccusative case ( ). Page 196
  • 197. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four1. ( ) – the ( ) that occurs after ( ), e.g. ( ) – Allāh will not punish them while you are among them. Here the verb ( ) is in the meaning of ( ).2. ( ), e.g. ( )–I will never leave this land until my father permits me.3. ( ) when it means ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) – I will certainly adhere to you until you give me my right. In this instance, ( ) means ( ).4. ( ) – that is, the ( ) which has the meaning of ( ), e.g. ( ) – I came to you so that I can speak to you. In this sentence, ( ) means ( ).5. ( ), when it is in response to: (1) the imperative ( ), e.g. ( ) – Learn so that you succeed. Page 197
  • 198. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) the prohibition ( ), e.g. ( ) – Do not be hasty otherwise you will regret.Note 3: If after the imperative ( ) or theprohibition ( ), ( ) does not precede the( ), a jazm will read on it, e.g.( ) – Learn, you will succeed;( ) - Do not be hasty (otherwise) youwill regret. (3) the interrogation ( ), e.g. ( ) – Where is your house so that I can visit you. (4) desire or wish ( ), e.g. ( ) – I wish I had wealth so that I could spend it in the path of Allāh. (5) a request ( ), e.g. ( ) – Why don’t you come Page 198
  • 199. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to our gathering so that you can be honoured. (6) negative statement ( ), e.g. ( ) – He did not come to us so that we could give him the book. 6. After ( ) when it appears in the following instances: ( ) – You embrace Islam and you will simultaneously succeed. ( ) - Do not prevent (another) from an (evil) trait when you yourself perpetrate it.Note 4: If the particle ( ) appears after the verb( ) or any of its derivatives, it will be regardedas the abbreviated form ( ) of ( ). It willrender ( ) to ( ), e.g.( ) – He knew that therewill be people among you who are ill. See Lesson49. Page 199
  • 200. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 46 Word Meaning to exercise ( ) to grieve (1) to make someone succeed ( ) to give charity (10) to regard as easy (1) to misguide, to mislead (1) to break, infringe, violate (4) to appear, to become clear (3) to persevere, to persist (4) to be well- mannered, to be cultured ( ) to be generous ( ) to fail thread Page 200
  • 201. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to go near physical exercise ( ) to be abstinent ( ) to become a chief, to govern feeble, faint ( ) to disobey ( ) to string (pearls)Exercise No. 82(A) Examine the imperfect verbs ( ) inthe following examples and say whether they are( ) or ( ). If they are , state the reason. . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) Page 201
  • 202. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) .. ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) . (10) . (11) (12) . (13) . (14) . . (15) (16) Page 202
  • 203. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’āninto English. . ( 1) . . ( 2) . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) ( 6) .Exercise No. 83Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) O our Lord, we seek refuge in You fromdisobeying You.(2) Do not waste your time so that you do not failin your aim. Page 203
  • 204. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(3) Are you being lazy, then you will remainignorant.(4) Strive until you achieve your aim.(5) Trade in order to obtain benefit.(6) We will continue striving for the freedom ofour homeland until ( ) we reach our ambition.(7) Neither was the lazy trader going to make aprofit nor was the diligent one to suffer a loss.(8) Unite in order to be independent.(9) I wish I was young so that I could stand in therow of the mujāhidīn.(10) You will never be freed from the control ofthe westerners until you learn the modernsciences like them and you become selfless foryour nation.(11) Why do you not ponder over the gloriousQur’ān so that the door of guidance is opened foryou.(12) Do not follow your desires lest they misleadyou from the path of Allāh. Page 204
  • 205. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 56 The Jussive Case ( )1. You read about the particles( ) that render jazm to theimperfect in Lessons 20 and 49. Now rememberthat there are some nouns as well that render( ) to the ( ). Like ( ), theyappear before two sentences, namely the ( )and ( ). Accordingly, they are called( ) or ( ) – words that render aresponse. Meaning Word who what, whatever how, wherever when whenever Page 205
  • 206. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four wherever whenever whatever wherever which (masculine) which (feminine)Note 1: From the above-mentioned words, ( ),( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) as well as ( ), the followingwords: ( ), ( ) and ( ) are ( ) –interrogative pronouns. See Lesson 13.The words ( ), ( ) and ( ) are ( ) –relative pronouns. See Lesson 42. In these twoinstances, these words do not have any effect, e.g.( ) – Who is reading?( ) – This is the one who is teachingme.2. The above-mentioned ( ) render jazmto two verbs like ( ) when both the verbs Page 206
  • 207. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourare ( ).Examples:Whoever does any evil, ( 1)will be punished for it.Whatever good action ( 2)you do, Allāh knows it.Whatever you give, youwill be given a ( 3)recompense.Whenever you twostrive, you will succeed. ( 4)Wherever you are, death ( 5)will afflict you.As you are, so will be ( 6)your companions.Whichever sūrah you ( 7)read, you will benefitfrom it.Note 2: In the above-mentioned examples, thefirst verb or sentence is called the ( ) while the Page 207
  • 208. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foursecond one is called the ( ). The ( ) and( ) together constitute a ( ).From the above list of words, ( ) is used forintelligent beings and it is the most frequentlyone. The words, ( ) and ( ) are used for non-intelligent beings. ( ) and ( ) denote timewhile ( ) and ( ) denote place. The word( ) can denote time as well as place. ( ) and ( )have the capability of any of the above meanings.Note 3: Sometimes the word ( ) is used todenote the meaning of ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) – He said, "How willor when will Allāh bring this back to life?"4. When a ( ) occurs in the response ofthe imperative ( ), it will be in the jussive case( ), e.g. ( ) – Be silent, you will besafe. Page 208
  • 209. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThis jazm will apply when the meaning of ( - if)can be created at the beginning of the sentence.Consequently, in the above example, one can say( ) - If you remain silent, you will besafe.5. It is compulsory to prefix the particle ( )33 tothe response ( ) of a condition ( ), whenthe second sentence does not have the capabilityof being a response. This will apply when it is a: 1) ( ) 2) ( ) 3) ( ) 4) When ( ) is prefixed to the verb 5) ( ) 6) ( ) 7) ( ) or ( ) 8) ( ) – that is, such a verb in which all33 Such a particle is called ( ). Page 209
  • 210. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four the paradigms are not used, e.g. ( ), ( ), etc.Examples: Analysis SentenceThe response contains a ( 1)( ).The response contains ( 2)the imperative ( ).The response contains ( 3)( ).The response contains ( 4)( ).The response contains ( 5)( ).The response contains( ). ( 6) Page 210
  • 211. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe response contains a ( 7)( ).The following verse alludes to this:34That is, the particle ( ) will be prefixed to thesecond sentence, if the first sentence is a( ), ( ) – that is ( ) or ( ), or itcontains a ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) or( ).6. It is permissible to prefix the particle ( ) or notto do so if the response is a ( ) and it isbeyond the circle of the above-mentionedexamples.34 To prefix the particle ( ) to a verb is called ( ). Page 211
  • 212. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExamples:( ) – If there are athousand mujāhids among you, they willoverpower two thousand (disbelievers).( ) – Whoever returns towardssin, Allāh will take retribution from him.Note 4: You have read in Lesson 33 that the finalalphabet of a ( ), that is ( ), iselided in the jussive case ( ), e.g. the verb( ) becomes ( ), ( ) becomes ( ) and( ) becomes ( ).Exercise No. 84Analyse the following sentences as the one belowhas been done. Page 212
  • 213. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) Page 213
  • 214. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = " " = = = = = = . ( 1)The verb ( ) is the ( ) from ( ) meaning "tobe sociable and affable". 35 . ( 2)35 The particle ( ) in this sentence is ( ) and renders jazm tothe verb. It is ( ) because it is the ( ) of ( ). It haspreceded ( ) the verb. Page 214
  • 215. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 47 Word Meaning () (1) to attain, to do properly, to hit the mark, to reach to think ( ) to be hidden (1) to hide, conceal characteristic ( ) (3) to be sociable, affable remembrance, advice ( ) to bewitch, to charm evil pertinent, relevant, correct (3) to cooperate, to go along with (2) to bite firmly model, example ( ) to be kind, friendly ( ) to be fine, delicate, elegant, Page 215
  • 216. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four graceful foot sole, padded foot (of animals) canine tooth, tusk, fang ( ) to trample to respect, to revereExercise No. 85Note 5: Determine the reason and the sign of thejazm of ( ) in the following sentences.Some sentences have the particle ( ) prefixed tothem. What is the reason for this? .( ) (1) (2) .( ) .( ) (3) . (4) . (5) Page 216
  • 217. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (6) . (7) .( ) . (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) .Note 6: The verbs at the end of the latter fourstanzas are ( ), but due to the scale of the Page 217
  • 218. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourpoetry, a long kasrah is read on these words. Theword ( ) has two kasrahs. It will also be readwith a long kasrah. These factors are permissiblein poetry.Exercise No. 86Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . ( 1) ( 2) . . ( 3) . ( 4) ( 5) . . . ( 6). ( 7) Page 218
  • 219. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 57 The Declension of a Noun ( )1. With regards to ( ), nouns are of threetypes: (1) ( ) – Indeclinable Nouns whose finalradicals remain unchanged in the different casesand they are not affected by any ( ), e.g. (2) ( ) triptotes36 – thosenouns whose ends change due to a change in caseand which accept ( ), ( ) and ( ) withtanwīn, e.g.36This is a class of nouns that is fully declined. The Arabs calldeclension ( ). Page 219
  • 220. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) ( ) diptotes37 – nounswhich do not accept tanwīn and in thenominative case ( ), a dammah is used,while a fathah without tanwīn is used in theaccusative and genitive cases ( ),e.g.2. The indeclinable nouns ( ) are veryfew. They are as follows: Pronouns ( ). These are discussed in37These are certain classes of nouns that are not fully declined.European grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. (ANew Arabic Grammar by Haywood and Nahmad, p. 34, 1970,Lund Humphries) Page 220
  • 221. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourLessons 6, 11, 14, 15, 17 and 41.Indicative Pronouns ( ). See Lesson12.Interrogative Pronouns ( ). SeeLesson 13.Relative Pronouns ( ). See Lesson42.Conditional Nouns ( ). See Lesson 56.Compound Numbers ( ) – that is, from( - 11) till ( - 19). See Lesson 44.Vague Nouns ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ),( ), ( ). See Lesson 64.Nouns of Sound ( ), e.g. ( - thesound of a crow), ( - the sound used to make acamel sit), etc.( ) – these are words which are notverbs but have the meaning of verbs, e.g.( - to be far). See Lesson 75.The scale of ( ) if it is used to denote thename of a female, or it is an adjective or it Page 221
  • 222. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four denotes the meaning of the imperative ( ), e.g. ( - name of woman), ( - a transgressing woman), ( - meaning “beware”).Note 1: The dual forms of the ( ) and( ) are declinable, e.g. ( ), ( ),( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ).( )3. These are the types of ( ) and themethod of recognizing them:(1) A proper noun ( ) will be ( )when: a) it is feminine and it has more than three alphabets or its middle alphabet is ( )– having a harakah, e.g. ( ), ( ) and ( ). b) it is non-Arabic and it has more than three alphabets, e.g. ( ), ( ). The name Page 222
  • 223. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) is fully declinable ( ). It will also be ( ) if its middle radical is ( ), e.g. ( ) – name of a fort or it is feminine, e.g. ( ) – Egypt. However, there is a difference of opinion with regard to the word ( ). According to some scholars, it is masculine while others are of the view that it is feminine. c) where two words are joined in such a manner that they have become one word, e.g. ( )38 – name of a city. Such a compound is called ( ) or ( ). d) such a noun which has an extra alif and nūn at the end, ( ). e) it has the same scale as a verb, e.g. ( ), ( ). f) a proper noun on the scale of ( ), e.g.38 The word ( ) is the name of an idol while ( ) is the name of aking. Page 223
  • 224. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), ( ). Very few words are used on this scale.Note 2: The plural of some adjectival nouns( ) also appears on the scale of ( ) andthey are ( ), e.g. ( ) is the plural of( - other). ( ) is the plural of ( – alltogether). However, the scale of ( ) used as thefeminine plural of the elative ( ), is( ), e.g. ( ), the plural of ( ) and ( ),the plural of ( ). See 14.3.(2) An adjective ( ) will be ( )when: it is on the scale of ( ), on condition that its feminine form is not on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( - intoxicated), ( - thirsty). The feminine forms are ( ) and ( ) respectively. The word ( ) is ( ) because its feminine form is Page 224
  • 225. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ). it is on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), etc. it is such a numeral whose meaning has repetition, e.g. ( ) – one by one, ( )– one by one. Each of these words contain the meaning of ( ) – one by one. ( )– in twos, ( ) – in twos. This continues in a similar manner till ( ) and ( ) – in tens. See 46.5.(3) When an extra ( ) appears at the endof any noun or adjective, it is also ( ),whether the word is singular, e.g. ( - name ofa woman), ( - a beautiful woman), ( -red) etc. or whether it is plural, e.g. ( -scholars), ( - messengers), etc.Note 3: The word ( ) which is the plural of( ) is ( ) because its hamzah is not extra Page 225
  • 226. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourand is changed from a ( ). The word ( ) wasoriginally ( ).However, the word ( ), the plural of ( ),although having an original hamzah, is used as( ), e.g. ( ).(4) the plurals which appear on the followingscales are ( ): Plural Example Singular Meaning Scale silver coin gold coin elder lie musjid lamp statute circle, calamity Page 226
  • 227. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIf a round tā ( ) is suffixed to these scales,the word becomes ( ), e.g. ( - teachers),( - plural of ).All the above-mentioned scales are called( - the final plurals) because afurther broken plural cannot be constructed fromthem, although a sound plural may be formed,e.g. ( - elders). However, this is very rare.4. You have already learnt that in the genitivecase ( ), a noun that is ( ) cannottake the kasrah. It accepts only the fathah.However, when the definite article is prefixed tosuch a noun or it is ( ), it accepts the kasrahin the genitive case ( ), e.g.Translation: There is a place for the wealthy, thepoor, the white and the black in the madrasahsand musjids of Egypt. Page 227
  • 228. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe words in bold are ( ) but they are( ).Similarly, if any proper noun is regarded asindefinite, tanwin and kasrah can be read on it,e.g. ( ) – I saw an Uthmān.5. The ( ) of the dual and sound plural formsof a ( ) is the same as ( ) words,e.g.Note 4: We have explained the section of( ) in an innovative and simplifiedmanner. In the ancient books of Arabic Grammar,it is expounded in another style which is slightlymore difficult to grasp. Then too, we will clarifythe old method and explain it here so that you donot incur any difficulty when you study otherbooks of Grammar. Page 228
  • 229. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe Old Method of Explaining ( )When any two of the following causes are foundin a noun, it will be ( ). These aspectsor causes are: Causes Meaning ( ) proper noun or adjective feminine scale of the verb changed from original extra alif and nūn non-Arabic combination of two words to form one extra alif succeeded by hamzah the final plural scale Page 229
  • 230. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(i) Firstly understand that ( ) refers to a wordthat has changed from its original form into anew form. It is of two types: ( ) and( ).If there is an indication or proof that a word haschanged from its original form to adopt the newone, it is called ( ) or ( ), e.g. theword ( ) – three three. One cause is ( )while the other is ( ). The meaning of thisword indicates that it was originally ( )and then it changed to ( ). Accordingly, it issaid to have ( ).Words which do not have an indication or proofof change of form are said to have ( ),e.g. ( ), ( ), etc. These words are ( )because they do not contain any other causeexcept ( ). It is therefore assumed that thesewords were originally ( ) and ( ) and have Page 230
  • 231. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fournow taken the form of ( ) and ( ). This iscalled ( ).(ii) The cause, ( ), cannot combine with ( ).If any adjective is made into a proper noun, itsadjectival quality ( ) no more remains, e.g. theword ( ) is originally an adjective because it isan ( ). When someone is given the nameof ( ), it only remains a proper noun.Consequently, it will not be ( ).(iii) An Arabic adjective cannot be ( ) nor canit be ( ).(iv) The ( ) and ( )are such causes that take the place of two causes.They are individually sufficient to render a word( ), e.g. ( - desert), ( -scholars), ( - mosques), ( - candles). Page 231
  • 232. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIf any cause from no. 3 till no.8 combines with( ) in any word, it will be ( ), e.g.( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( ).If any cause from no.3 till no.6 combines with( ) in any word, it will be ( ).However, the ( )39 will not be consideredin this case. Only the ( ) and( ) will be considered, e.g.( ) and ( ) have ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( );39It was mentioned in Lesson 4 of Volume One that there arethree signs for a word to be feminine, namely, ( ) – ( ), ( ) and ( ). Page 232
  • 233. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) or ( ) has ( ) and ( );( ) has ( ) and ( ).Examples of nouns that are ( ): Examples Causes Page 233
  • 234. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ) ( ) (Vocabulary List No. 48 Word Meaning ever ( ) (1) to expose, reveal jug, pitcher () (7) satisfaction, pleasure orange (4) to be created, formed ( ) (4) to adorn oneself, to don jewellery effort, eagerness ( ) to be great, exalted most exalted favour, beautiful Page 234
  • 235. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four clothing (2) to make eternal, eternalize, immortalize pillar, member of a family or group to be bad, evil, foul, to hurt severe, strong character, nature, good qualities( ) to please, to be to someone’s liking ( ) to go about, to circumambulate( ) to seclude oneself concern, attention bow rainbow glass cup no wonder, it is small wonder Page 235
  • 236. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four glory, splendour extreme, limit, duration spring to appear, to fulfil indigo violetExercise No. 87(A) Which words are ( ) in the followingsentences: : ( 1) . ( 2). ( 3) . ( 4) Page 236
  • 237. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: . ( 1) ( 2) . . .. ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . Page 237
  • 238. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(C) Examine the following letter carefully andtranslate it into English. . .( ). . . . . ! . . . . Page 238
  • 239. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . Page 239
  • 240. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 58 The Cases of the Noun1. You have learnt in Volume 1, Lesson 10 and inseveral other places, the different occasions wherea noun is rendered ( ), ( ) and ( ).This will now be discussed in certain detail in thislesson and in the following lessons.2. As a reminder, we will first note the differentcases of a noun: ( 3) (2) ( 1) ( 4) Nominative ( 3) (2) ( 1) ( 5) ( 4) ( 6) ( 9) (8) ( 7) Accusative (11) (10) (12) Page 240
  • 241. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) ( 1) GenitiveThe first category, namely ( ) isreferred to as the ( ), the second one,namely ( ) is called ( )while the third one, namely ( ), istermed as ( ).Each one will be now discussed in detail. The Nominative Case ( )The ( ) and ( )3. The position of the ( ) and ( ) inArabic is after the verb, e.g. ( ),( ).4. If the ( ) and ( ) precede the verb,they will be referred to as the ( ) in the analysis Page 241
  • 242. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourof the sentence, while the remainder of thesentence will be the predicate ( ). In this way,there will actually be two sentences, a smaller oneincluded in the main sentence. The analysis of thesentence, ( ) will be as follows: =( ) ( )5. If the ( ) succeeds the verb, the latter willalways be singular, even if the ( ) is dual orplural, e.g. Plural Dual SingularSuch a ( ) is called ( ). See Lesson 18.1. Page 242
  • 243. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four6. You have learnt in Lesson 18 that when the( ) is a broken plural ( ), whether it ismasculine or feminine, the verb can be eithermasculine or feminine. One can say ( )or ( ). Similarly, one can either say( ) or ( ). One can use amasculine or feminine verb for the soundfeminine plural ( ) but only amasculine verb can be used for the soundmasculine plural ( ). Therefore onecan only say ( ) and not( ). However, the sound plural ofthe word ( ), namely ( ) or ( ) is treated likeits broken plural ( ). Hence, one can use thesingular feminine verb for it as well, e.g.( )40.Note 1: You have learnt that the word ( ) was40 The nūn of the word ( ) has been elided due to being ( ). Page 243
  • 244. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouroriginally ( ). Therefore its sound plural is( ) which was abbreviated to ( ).7. If the ( ) is a pronoun ( ), it is necessaryfor the verb and the ( ) to correspond ingender, e.g.( ), ( ).Such a ( ) is called a ( ).If the ( ) is the plural of an untelligent being( ), its pronoun is normally singularfeminine and sometimes plural feminine, e.g.( ) – I bought thedogs and they guarded my house.If the plural of an intelligent being replaced theword ( ), the masculine plural would beused, e.g.( ) – I hired the youthand they guarded my house.8. The position of the ( ) is immediately afterthe verb without any separation. This is followed Page 244
  • 245. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourby the object ( ). However, it is not necessaryto maintain this sequence. A separating word canintervene between the verb and the ( ), e.g.( ). Sometimes the ( ) precedesthe ( ) and even the verb, e.g. ( ),( ). However, the ( ) cannot precedethe verb. If the ( ) appears before the verb, itwill not be called the ( ) but will now be calledthe ( ).Where is it necessary to make the ( ) precedethe ( ) or succeed it?9. It is necessary to make the ( ) precede the( ) in the following instances: (a) when both the ( ) and the ( ) lackoutward ( ), both have the ability of being the( ) or the ( ) and there is no way todistinguish between them, e.g. ( )–Yahyā honoured Īsā. If the word ‘Īsā’ has to Page 245
  • 246. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourprecede the ( ), it will be regarded as the ( )and what the speaker meant will not be achieved.However, in examples such as ( -Yahyā ate a guava), it is permissible to make the( ) succeed the ( ) because a guava is notsomething that can eat Yahyā. (b) when the ( ) occurs after ( ) or anyword with a similar meaning, e.g.( – Zaid did not honouranyone besides Ālī). If one has to make the ( )precede the word ( ) by saying,( ) – No one honoured Ālī besidesZaid, the meaning will change. The word ( )creates limitation, e.g.( – Zaid only honoured Ālī). Thissentence has the same meaning as the first one. Itis necessary to make the ( ) precede the ( )otherwise the meaning will change.10. In the following instances, it is necessary to Page 246
  • 247. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourmake the ( ) succeed the ( ): (a) when the ( ) has a pronoun referringto the ( ) attached to it, e.g. ( –Khālid’s nation honoured him). In this example,the word ( ) is the ( ). Attached to it is apronoun ( ) which reverts to the ( ), namelyKhālid. If one has to say ( ), it willnecessitate uttering a pronoun before mentioningthe person or thing which it refers to( ). This is generally regarded asdefective in Arabic.Note 2: You have learnt above that the sequencein a sentence is first the verb, followed by the( ) and then the ( ). Even if the ( )precedes the ( ), in status it will succeed the( ). In the above-mentioned example, if theword ( ) precedes the ( ), the pronoun ( )refers to such a noun which comes later in wordsand in status. This is not permissible. However, ifa pronoun referring to the ( ) is attached to the Page 247
  • 248. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ), ( ) will be permissible, e.g.( – Khālid honoured his nation),because although the word Khālid succeeds thepronoun in words, it precedes it in status due to itbeing the ( ). (b) when the ( ) occurs after the word( ), e.g. ( – No onehonoured Ālī besides Zaid). If one has to make the( ) precede the word ( ) in this case, themeaning will be distorted. (c) if the ( ) is attached to the verb, onewill be compelled to make the ( ) succeed it,e.g. ( – Zaid hit you). The pronoun ( ) isthe ( ) in this example and it is attached tothe verb.11. You have learnt in Lesson 17 that some verbshave two or three objects. However, the( ) of the passive verb, which is ( ), Page 248
  • 249. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourremains one. The remaining objects will remain( ) as normal, e.g. ( – Zaidregarded Hāmid to be wealthy). In the passivetense, this will be changed to ( –Hāmid was thought to be wealthy).Note 3: You have learnt the method of changing( ) into ( ) in Lessons 14, 15 and25. When the need arises, form the ( )accordingly.12. The verbal noun ( ) and some derivednouns ( ) also have a ( ) and ( ).See Lesson 22. These words also render ( ) tothe ( ) and ( ) to the ( ), e.g.( – The one whose horsesurpassed the horse of Zaid came). In thisexample, the first ( ) is the ( ) of ( )while the second one is the ( ). The definitearticle ( ) in this case is an ( ). Therefore Page 249
  • 250. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe meaning of ( ) is ( ). See Lesson42.6. The ( ) and ( ) will be discussedin detail in the forthcoming lessons.Vocabulary List No. 49 Word Meaning () (7) to put to the test, to afflict (10) to drain off, to extract () (1) to distract, to divert attention ( ) to pull, to render a kasrah to any noun ( ) to brood, to incubate (an egg), to raise (a child) to seduce, to entice to tempt someone to commit evil ( ) to sever relations, to traverse ( – ) to reproach (2) to tear, to rip apart to attack, to jump Page 250
  • 251. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) to demolish Bedouin dung egg church suddenly hide, skin time, sometimes group magician field, courtyard fat candle, lamp healthy monastery bird Page 251
  • 252. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four fortune teller, diviner mouse chick prey youth clothing to attack suddenly shoe, sandal hair of camel, etc. fuelExercise No. 88Note 4: Recognize the ( ) and ( )in the following sentences. Ponder over theoccasions where the verb and the ( )correspond and where they do not correspond. Page 252
  • 253. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourAlso note where the ( ) necessarily precedes orsucceeds the object. (1 . . (2 (3 . (4 . . (5 . (6 (7 . Page 253
  • 254. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .Exercise No. 89Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān: . (1 . (2 (3 . (4 . . (5 (6 . . (7 Page 254
  • 255. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8 (9 . . (10Exercise No. 90Translate the following sentences into Arabic:It is said that the lion has been given so muchstrength that it can kill a large ox with one strike.Most of the time ( ), it comes out of its denat night to hunt. It attacks its prey suddenly justas ( ) a cat jumps onto a mouse. Its two eyeshave been made in such a way that it can see atnight just as it can see during the day. All theanimals fear it. Therefore it is called the king ofthe animals. May Allāh save us from its evil. Page 255
  • 256. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTest No. 191) What is the original position of the ( ),( ), and the ( )?2) If the ( ) or the ( ) precede the verb,what are they termed as?3) Do the analysis of these two sentences:( ) and ( ).4) If the ( ) or ( ) are ( ), whatchanges occur in the verb by the changing of the( ). If the ( ) is ( ), what changes occur?5) What word-form of the verb is used with themasculine sound plural ( ) and thefeminine sound plural ( )?6) Where is it necessary to make the ( )precede the ( ) and succeed it?7) If a transitive verb ( ) has two orthree objects ( ), how many representatives ofthe doer ( ) will be rendered ( ) when Page 256
  • 257. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe passive tense ( ) is used?8) Change the active tense verbs ( ) tothe passive tense ( ) in the followingsentences, delete the ( ) and make the ( )the ( ): . (1 (2 . (3 . . (4 . (5 . (6 Page 257
  • 258. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 59 The Subject and Predicate ( )1. You have already learnt that the first part of a( ) is called the ( - subject) and thesecond part is called the ( - predicate). Both arein the nominative case ( ). See Lesson 6.Note 1: However, if there appears any factor( ) in the ( ) that renders ( ) to eitherthe ( ) or the ( ), then ( ) will be renderedto it, e.g.( ) – Indeed the earth is round.( ) – Khālid was brave.2. The ( ) can be singular41 ( ) as well as anincomplete compound ( ), e.g.41 Singular in this context means not being a compound, whetherit is singular ( ), dual ( ) or plural ( ). Page 258
  • 259. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) or ( ). However, itcannot be a sentence ( ) or a ( ), that is( ) or ( ).3. A singular noun ( ), an incompletecompound ( ) and a completecompound ( ), namely a ( – sentence)or a ( ) can occur in the predicate ( ).Observe the following examples: Sentence Analysis Both the ( ) and the ( ) are ( ). The ( ) is a ( ). The ( ) is a ( ). Page 259
  • 260. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Sentence Analysis The ( ) is a ( ). The ( ) is a ( ). The ( ) is a verb thereby constituting a ( ). The ( ) is a ( ). The ( ) is a ( ). The ( ) is made up of ( ).4. If the ( ) is a ( ), whether ( ) or( ), it requires a ( ) that refers to the( ). Look at the sixth example. The verb ( )has a ( ) which is ( ) concealed in it and this( ) refers to the ( ). It is also the ( ). Theverb together with its ( ) constitutes a Page 260
  • 261. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ). This in turn forms the ( ) of the( ), which is ( ) in this case.5. Similarly, the sentence ( ) has a ( )which refers to the ( ), namely ( ). Thecompound ( ) which is made up of a ( )and a ( ) constitutes the ( ) while theword ( ) is the ( ). This minor ( )forms the ( ) of ( ) which is the ( ) of themajor ( ).6. One ( ) can have several predicates ( ), e.g.( ).In this example, the word ( ) is the ( ). Theremaining four nouns form the ( ).Sometimes there are several ( ) in sequence ina sentence. The ( ) of each one follows insequence, e.g. Page 261
  • 262. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – Hāmid issitting, Khālid is standing and Sālih is riding.Such a sequence is called ( ).The Occasions Where the Predicate has toPrecede the Subject7. Originally, the ( ) precedes the ( ).However, it is necessary to make the ( )precede the ( ) in the following instances:(a) when the ( ) is an ( ), e.g. ( ),( ). In these examples, the words ( ) and( ) are the ( ) because they contain theadverbial meaning ( ). Consequently, theycannot be the ( ). They cannot succeed anywords because the ( ) always appearat the beginning of a sentence, whether they arethe ( ) or the ( ).Note 2: The words ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and Page 262
  • 263. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) are adverbs and will consequently alwaysbe the ( ). The remaining ( ) like( ), ( ) etc. will always be the ( ).(b) if there is such a pronoun ( ) attached tothe ( ) which refers to the ( ), e.g( - The owner of the house is in it).The word ( ) is the ( ) while( ) is the ( ) because the ( ) has a( ) attached to it and this ( ) refers to the( ). If the ( ) has to be brought at thebeginning, it will lead to ( ).(c) when the ( ) is indefinite ( ) and the ( )is ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( – I have acloth); ( - There is a man in the house).The words ( ) and ( ) are ( )respectively in both these sentences.(d) when the ( ) is limited to the ( ), that is, Page 263
  • 264. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourwhen the ( ) occurs after the word ( ), e.g.( - No one is at a loss except forthe lazy one). The ( ) is ( ). If you bring itto the beginning, the meaning will be distorted.Note 3: The method of recognizing the ( ) andthe ( ) is that the ( ) is the one about whichsome information is imparted while theinformation itself is the ( ). The verb and the( ) cannot become the ( ). Page 264
  • 265. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Exercise No. 91 Examine the analysis of the following sentences: (1) ( ) = = (2)–( ) ( ) = Page 265
  • 266. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) =Vocabulary List No. 50 Word Meaning (1) enrage utensil (1) to hum, to buzz complete month, full moon idleness, inactivity exemplary beauty, name of the daughter of Egyptian poetess, Āishah Taymūrīyah Page 266
  • 267. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2) to move (4) to conceal, go into hijāb (4) to don the niqāb, to cover the face (2) calm, tranquillity, peace eyelid generous fragrance( ) to cover, to conceal shine, brilliance, splendour rising toil, hard work, trouble regret, grief, sorrow speech rebellious musk creation devoid Page 267
  • 268. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four shame, disgraceExercise No. 92(A)Note 4: Recognize the ( ) and ( ) in thefollowing sentences. What is the reason for the( ) preceding the ( ) in some of the sentences. . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) (10) . (11) Page 268
  • 269. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (12) . (13) . (14) . (15) . (16) . (17) . (18)(B) Recognize the ( ), ( ), ( ) and( ) in the following poems. (1) (2) Page 269
  • 270. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Page 270
  • 271. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTest No. 20[1] What is the difference between the ( ) andthe ( )? [2] What is the difference between the( ) and the ( )?[3] How can you recognize the ( ) and the ( )in a sentence?[4] In which instances does the ( ) have toprecede the ( )?[5] If the ( ) is a visible noun ( ), whatchanges occur in the verb due to the changes inthe ( )?[6] Change the ( ) and the ( ) to a( ) and the ( ) to a ( ) and a ( ) inthe following sentences. . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) Page 271
  • 272. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7)[7] Change the ( ) in the following sentences tothe plural form and make the necessary changesin the ( ) in order to conform to the ( ): ( 1) ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6)[8] Construct five sentences in which the ( ) is asentence ( ), five sentences in which the ( ) isa ( ) and five sentences in which it isnecessary to make the ( ) precede the ( ). Page 272
  • 273. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 60 The Accusative Case ( )The Object( )1. The ( ) which is generally referred to asthe ( ) is a noun on which the action of thedoer occurs.2. Most transitive verbs ( ) have one( ), some have two while others have three.The following verbs have two objects: to to think to find to make to take knowThe verb ( ) has three objects.Examples: Page 273
  • 274. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Hāmid knew that Alī was learned. Hāmid informed Mahmūd that Alī was learned.3. The ( ) causes no change in the verb, e.g.4. The ( ) can be a visible noun ( ) asin the above example and it can be a pronoun( ) , e.g.In this sentence, the first ( ) is a( – attached pronoun)while the second and third objects are( – detached pronouns).5. You have learnt that the original position of the( ) is after the ( ), although it ispermissible to make it precede the ( ).However, when there is a confusion between the Page 274
  • 275. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) and the ( ) and there is no indication asto which one is which, the ( ) should succeedthe ( ). See 58.106. It is compulsory to make the ( ) precedethe ( ) in the following instances: (a) when there is such a pronoun ( )attached to the ( ) which refers to the ( ),e.g. ( - The teacher’s studenthonoured him). (b) when the ( ) of the ( ) isattached to the verb, e.g. ( - The leaderhonoured me). (c) when the ( ) is limited, e.g.( - From among theslaves of Allāh, only the learned ones fear Him).This meaning could also be expressed as follows:( ). (d) when the ( ) is such a word thatneeds to be at the beginning of the sentence. Page 275
  • 276. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThese words are ( ), ( ) and( ), e.g.( - Who did you see?)( - What do you intend?)( - Whatever good you do, youwill be rewarded for it). See 56.2.( - How many books did you read?).( - I have read many books.) In thissentence, the word ( ) is ( ).In this case, the ( ) has to precede the verb aswell in order to be at the beginning of thesentence.7. In the following three instances, only the( ) is mentioned while the ( ) and the ( )are implied: (i)( ) means to warn or to caution, e.g.( ) – Beware of laziness. This was Page 276
  • 277. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouroriginally ( ). The word ( ) which isa( ) and ( ) is implied here. The ( ) hasto be repeated in this case. Similarly, one can say,( ) – This literally means: “Keepyourself away from laziness and keep lazinessaway from you.” It was originally,( ). Instead of theword ( ), the words ( ) or ( ) could beunderstood to be implied. (ii)( ) means to spur on, to incite or to urge, e.g.( ) - Adopt diligence. This sentencewas originally ( ). Another example is,( ) – Adhere to the ideal of manhood(valour) and courage. Here also, the verb with its( ), namely ( ) is implied. (iii)( ) means to specify or to intend someone Page 277
  • 278. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourin particular, e.g.( ) – We, that is, theprophets, neither inherit from anyone nor doesanyone inherit from us. The word ( - Ispecify) or ( - I mean) is implied. The word( ) is the ( ) of this verb. Similarly, onecan say, ( ) – We, the Arabs… or,( ) – We, the Muslims…8. The above-mentioned three places areaccording to the rule. Many examples can bemade following the rule. Besides these, there arecertain instances which are ( ) – as heardfrom the Arabs, where the ( ) and ( ) areomitted and only the ( ) is mentioned.When welcoming someone, the host says,( ) which is the abbreviated formof ( ) - You havecome to your own people, you have tread the softand easy path and you have obtained an Page 278
  • 279. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourexpansive place, that is, welcome to you.( ), is the abbreviated form of( ) – Leave the man in his condition.( ), is the abbreviated form of( ) – We seek Your forgiveness, Oour Rabb.( )9. In some sentences the ( ) is mentionedbefore the verb. In place of the ( ), a ( ) ismentioned after the verb which refers to the( ), e.g. ( ) – I read the book. In suchsentences, the preceding noun is called (- independent of) because the verb has becomeindependent of it due to having a ( ).Note 1: This rule is not about a ( )- apreceding object. In the above-mentionedexample, the ( ) of the verb is the pronoun( ) that is attached to it. It is for this reason Page 279
  • 280. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthat the cases of ( ) of this noun havechanged.10. The ( ) of a noun that is ( ) is of 3types: (a) It is necessary to render ( ) to such anoun if it succeeds words that are alwaysfollowed by a verb, like the ( ) and( ), e.g.( ) – If you obtain knowledge, itwill benefit you.( ) – Why dont you teach your son? (b) If the noun succeeds a ( ),namely ( ) or ( ), or a ( ), namely( ) or ( ), it is better to read a ( ) on it,although it is not necessary to do so, e.g.( ) – I neither met Zaid nor didI see Ámr.( ) – Do you recognize the twomen? Page 280
  • 281. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIt is permissible to read ( ) on the ( ) inthe above-mentioned examples, but it is not betterto do so. (c) when the noun succeeds ( ),which means suddenly, it is essential to read a( ) on it, e.g.( ) – I entered thehouse when suddenly (I found) my fatherrebuking the youth.Similarly, if it precedes the ( ),( ), ( ), ( ) or the( ), ( ) will be necessary, e.g.( ) – If you serve knowledge, itwill raise you.( ) – The boy whom you saw isintelligent. (d) Besides the above-mentioned situations,both ( ) and ( ) are permissible, e.g. Page 281
  • 282. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – I read the beneficialbooks always.11. When ( ) is read on a noun that is( ), it is analyzed as the ( ) of animplied verb ( ) and the verb that succeedsthis noun is regarded as the ( ) of the impliedverb.If ( ) is read on this noun, it will analyzed as thesubject ( ), while the remainder of the sentencewill be the predicate ( ). You will understandthis from the analysis of the following sentences.Exercise 93Analyze the following sentences: ( 1) ( 2)In the first example, ( ) is compulsory while Page 282
  • 283. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) is compulsory in the second one. ( ) = = = .= = = Page 283
  • 284. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four = = = =Vocabulary List No. 51 Word Meaning (1) to advance, to face () (1) to light, to illuminate (1) to exceed the limit (2) to be deficient, to squander merchandise ( ) to draw, to attract hungry Page 284
  • 285. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four companion anthology of poetry, governmental office, account books customer, client, buyer very high naked ( ) to overpower, to compel ( – ) to don, to wear article or thing found claimant of prophethood, title of a famous poet ( – ) to erase storeroom, depot, shop ( ) to scold, to reproachExercise No. 94Determine where the ( ) is ( ) in the Page 285
  • 286. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourfollowing examples and the reason for this. Alsodetermine where this is permissible and wherenecessary. In which examples are both the ( )and the ( ) elided? What is the ( ) that hasbeen elided? . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . ( 9) . (10) (11) Page 286
  • 287. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 42 (12) . . (13) . (14) . (15) . (16) . (17) . (18) .( ) (19)Exercise No. 95Hereunder follow some examples of ( ).Determine where ( ) is compulsory, where( ) is compulsory and where both arepermissible. ( 1) . ( 2)42 The hamzah is for ( ). This is part of a verse of poetry. Page 287
  • 288. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6). ( 7) . ( 8) ( 9) : (10)Exercise No. 96(1) Which book did you buy?(2) How many rupees did you give to the worker?(3) What did you see in Bombay and whom didyou meet?(4) My father called my brother.(5) Whatever you do, you will receive its reward. Page 288
  • 289. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(6) Only knowledge makes a person successful.(7) Wherever you find Hāmid, send him to me. Iwant to give him an excellent watch.(8) Do not keep on reproaching the children anddo not unncecessarily trouble the animals.Exercise No. 97Insert the ( ) in the following passage andtranslate it. .. . . . . . . Page 289
  • 290. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 43 . . . .43 bunch Page 290
  • 291. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 61 ( ) The General Object(1) Some examples: . ( 1)Allāh addressed Mūsā directly. . ( 2)The thief was severely beaten. . ( 3) I travelled like a courier (lit. the travelling of acourier). . ( 4)The clock struck twice.(2) In the above-mentioned examples, the words( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are all( ). You have learnt in Lesson 43 ofVolume 3 that the ( ) is a verbal noun Page 291
  • 292. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) mentioned after its verb, either foremphasis ( ), to indicate the manner in whichan action is done ( ) or to indicate the numberof times the action is done ( ). It is ( ).3. The first example indicates emphasis ( ) ofthe action, the second and third ones denote themanner in which the action was done ( ) whilethe fourth one shows the number of times theaction was done ( ).4. The manner in which the action is done ( )can be denoted by a ( ) as in example 2 or by( ) as in example 3.5. When only emphasis ( ) is denoted, asynonym can be used, e.g.( ) – The orator stood up.( ) – I sat down.The words ( ) and ( ) are synonymous as Page 292
  • 293. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourare ( ) and ( ).6. Sometimes the verbal noun ( ) occurs as the( ) of an adjective ( ). In this case,( ) is rendered to the ( ) and this becomesthe ( ), e.g.( ) – He delivered a mosteloquent address.The word ( ) is the ( ) of ( ).7. The words ( ), ( ), an adjective togetherwith the( ) – a word denoting a number,are all used as a ( ) and are therefore( ), e.g.( ) – He inclined completely.( ) – He was slightly affected.( ) – Remember Allāhabundantly.( ) – The thiefwas lashed ten times. Page 293
  • 294. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe word ( ) is the ( ) of ( ) but it is( ) because of being the ( ). The word is the ( ) and is therefore ( ) insteadof the ( ). You can understand the otherexamples in a similar manner.8. There are many sentences in Arabic where onlythe ( ) is mentioned while the rest of thesentence is elided.Examples:( ) – May it do you much good orI hope you enjoy it.( ) – How strange or howastonishing!( ) – I thank you.( ) – May Allāh protect you.( ) – Listenand obey.( ) – also. Page 294
  • 295. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourA junior in response to the call of a senior says( ). The word ( ) is thought to beoriginally ( ). The verb was elidedwhile the word ( ) was made ( ) to ( ) –the second person pronoun. Due to ( ), thenūn of the dual ( ) form drops off. The word( ) remains. Further decreasing of alphabetsresults in the word ( ). The meaning is, “I amat your service, not once, but numerous times.”In a similar manner, the word ( ) wasoriginally ( ). The meaning is, “I ampresent to assist you two times, that is, severaltimes.” This word was also changed from( ) to ( ).Note: The ( ) is seldom used in Urduand not used at all in English. Therefore there isno need to translate it when translating fromArabic to English. Page 295
  • 296. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The Object of Cause ( )9. The ( ) or ( ) was explained inLesson 43 of Volume 3. It is also a verbal noun( ) that is used to indicate the reason for theaction, e.g.( ) – I stood up to honour theteacher.( ) – I hit the boy to discipline him.The words ( ) and ( ) are the ( ) inthese sentences.However, if a ( ) is attached to the ( ), itwill no longer be called the ( ) but will nowbe referred to as ( ),e.g.( ) – I hit the boy to disciplinehim. Page 296
  • 297. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourUnderstand the differences in the following threeexamples well:The word ( ) is a ( ) in the firstsentence, ( ) in the second sentence and( ) in the third sentence. All threesentences are ( ). Page 297
  • 298. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 52 Word Meaning fodder (7) to desire to catch, to arrest (7) to discover, to find out bankruptcy (4) to sip (2) smoking, to fumigate (2) encouragement (4) to do intentionally ( ) to trust, to rely on prize, award impatient fear ray company, partnership Page 298
  • 299. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four astute, clever, gentleman character, nature, habit companion, master pouring, casting gift, bond, relation nature (3) to punish time, period, era address, sign dense reed, tree with branches accounting department to plot, to conspire benefit, necessities rebellious pleasure possessing power, able Page 299
  • 300. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (3) to endure, to suffer grazing livestock (sheep, camel, cattle, goats) comfort, prosperity, life of ease punishment, warning( ) to abandon, to leave experience faithful to accustom, to habituate( ) to take refuge, to resort( ) to allow, to permit purchase wealthy necessary work Page 300
  • 301. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 98Look for the ( ) and the ( ) in thefollowing sentences. ( 1) . . ( 2) ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5). ( 6) ( 7) . . ( 8) ( 9) . (10) Page 301
  • 302. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (11) . (12) . " " " (13) . " (14) . (15) .Exercise No. 99(A) Underline the ( ) and the ( )in the following verses of the holy Qur’ān. . ( 1) . . ( 2) Page 302
  • 303. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 3) . . ( 4). . . . . . . . ( 5) (6) . ( 7) . . ( 8)(B) Translate the following letter written by astudent to his elder sister. Page 303
  • 304. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four. . . . .Note: The reply to this letter is at the end of thenext lesson. Page 304
  • 305. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTest No. 211. How many types of ( ) are there?2. Define the ( ).3. What changes occur in the verb due to the( ).4. On which occasions is it essential to make the( ) precede the ( )?5. On which occasions is it essential to make the( ) precede the ( )?6. What is meant by ( )?7. Explain the different cases of ( ) of thenoun that is ( ).8. Define the ( ).9. Which words can take the place of the( )?10. Construct 12 sentences in which four have the( ) for emphasis, four denote the type ofaction and four denote the number of the action.11. Analyze the following sentences: Page 305
  • 306. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . • . •(12) Define the ( ).(13) Construct nine sentences using the followingverbal nouns ( ) as ( ): (4) (3) (2) ( 1) ( 9) (8) (7) ( 6) ( 5)(14) Analyze the following sentences: ( 1) . ( 2) Page 306
  • 307. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 62 The Adverb ( )1. ( ) – I read the lessonin the morning in front of the teacher.You learnt in Lesson 43 that the ( ) or( ) is a noun which denotes the time or placein which the action took place. In the abovesentence, the word ( ) and ( ) are ( )because the former denotes the time while thelatter indicates the place of the action. You canalso term the former ( ) and the latter( ).2. You have read most of the words of( ) and ( ) in the previouslessons, scattered in different places and includedsecondarily. Hereunder follows a list of most ofthe ( ). Page 307
  • 308. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )Word Meaning second minute hour day week year century period, always time morning, early evening morning evening night day always Page 308
  • 309. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIf a ( ) does not precede the ( ), itwill always be ( ). If the word is not ( ),it will always have tanwīn at the end, e.g.( ) – Remember Allāh in themorning and evening.However, only those words of ( ) willbe ( ) that are unspecified ( ). Thesewords are as follows: ( ) Word Meaning above below in front in front behind behind before Page 309
  • 310. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four slightly before after slightly after opposite opposite, face to face with opposite, in front of facing, in front of with by at, by, in the presence of between, among in front of right, right hand side left, left hand side left, left hand side east west Page 310
  • 311. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four south north left hand, left side mile a measure of length (3 miles) 12 miles, mailNote 1: The words ( ) and ( ) are synonyms.The difference between the two is that the word( ) is general for all things, real or abstract,whether present or absent while the word ( ) isonly used for things that are present. Forexample, a person can say ( )–This statement is true in my view, but he cannotsay ( ).Similarly, he can say ( ) even if the bookis not with him but is at home or somewhere else.However, he can only say ( ) if the bookis physically with him. The same difference Page 311
  • 312. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourapplies to ( ) and ( ).Note 2: Pronouns ( ) can be suffixed to thewords ( ) and ( ) as they are suffixed to ( )and ( ). Attachment of the pronouns to the words ( ) and ( ) Third Person ( ) singular Masculine dual plural singular Feminine dual plural Page 312
  • 313. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Second Person ( ) singular Masculine dual plural singular Feminine dual plural First Person ( ) singular dual, pluralSee Lesson 11.4 of Volume 1.3. From the above-mentioned ( ),besides the latter 10, all the others are used with( ). Sometimes the words ( ), ( ), ( )and the four directions are also used with ( ). Page 313
  • 314. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExamples:( ) – on top of the mountain,( ) – under the tree,( ) – I sat on his left-hand side,( ) – I ran a mile, not 3 miles.4. The definite article ( ) and the ( ) canbe prefixed to the ( ). The particle ( )is most often prefixed to the words ( ) and( ) while the particle ( ) is generally usedwith the remainder of the nouns. For thedirections, the particle ( ) is used, e.g.( ) – sitting to the right andto the left,( ) – The rivers flow beneath it,( ) – The ocean is to the west ofIndia.5. Those ( ) that are specific andindicate a particular place, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), Page 314
  • 315. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ), ( ) etc. generally succeed the word ( )and are therefore ( ), e.g.( ) – I performed salāh in themusjid.44 ( ) – I lived in Makkah.However, after the verbs ( ), ( ) and ( ),most of the above-mentioned ( ) areused without the particle ( ) and they are( ), e.g.( ) – I entered the musjid.( ) – I alighted in a village.( ) – I lived in Makkah.6. Some of the ( ) are indeclinable( ). They are:(a) The word ( – ever) is used for the perfect44 The word ( ) is read with a fathah because it is ( ). SeeLesson 57. Page 315
  • 316. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(past) tense while ( ) is used for the futuretense. Both these words are ( ) and theyare ( ), that is, the final alphabetalways has a dammah, e.g.( ) – I never drankwine nor will I ever drink it.(b) ( – where, wherever, since). It is a( ) and it is also used for time. It is( ). It is normally ( ) towards asentence, e.g. .Then stream forth from where the people streamforth.(c) ( ) and ( ) are originally declinable ( )but when the ( ) is elided, they become( ), e.g.( ) Page 316
  • 317. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four– To Allāh belongs the command before and after,that is, before everything and after everything.When the phrase ( ) is ( ) – that isthe ( ) is elided, it becomes( ) even though it is not a ( ), e.g.( ) – I eat fruit andnothing else.Note 3: Sometimes the word ( ) has themeaning of “until now”, e.g. ( ) –Till now the matter has not been decided.(d) ( – here), ( ) and ( – there, at thattime), ( ) or ( – there, that way). These areindicative pronouns ( ) having themeaning of adverbs included in them.Accordingly, they are also called ( ).Examples:( ) - We will sit here.( ) - Who is sitting there? Page 317
  • 318. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – At this point, Zakarīyāsupplicated to his Lord.Note 4: The phrase ( ) is used in the meaning of“hence, therefore, for that reason,” e.g.( ) – Winedestroys the intelligence. Therefore it has beenprohibited in Islam.(e) The words ( - where), ( - from where,how), ( – when), and ( – when), are used forinterrogation ( )45 as well as for a condition( ).46 They also contain the meaning of adverbsin them, hence they are included among the( ).The word ( ) is a ( ), ( ) is both a( ) and ( ) while ( ) and ( )are ( ). Sometimes the particle ( ) is45 See Lesson 13.46 See Lesson 56. Page 318
  • 319. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foursuffixed to ( ) and ( ), thus forming the words( ) and ( ).Note 5: The words ( ) and ( ) have the samemeaning. However, the difference between thetwo is that the word ( ) is used when one asks aquestion about something important, e.g.( ) – When will the day of reckoningbe?One cannot say ( ) – Where are yougoing?(f) The words ( – whenever), ( – as longas, while, when, until), ( – how long, often,frequently), ( – seldom, sometimes), are also( ).Examples:( ) - Whenever theykindle a fire, Allāh extinguishes it.( ) – The youth stood while wecompleted our salāh. Page 319
  • 320. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) - How long have we been waitingfor you.( ) – We seldom saw him.(g) The words ( – when) and ( – when)are ( ). The word ( ) is generally usedfor the future tense even though it precedes thepast tense, e.g.( ) – When the sky will splitasunder.The word ( ) is most often used for the past tenseeven though it precedes the ( ) - imperfecttense, e.g.( ) – Andwhen Ibrāhīm and Ismāīl were raising thefoundations of the Ka’bah.Note 5: The ( ) is always succeeded by averb while ( ) can be succeeded by a verb or anoun, e.g. ( ) – when both of them Page 320
  • 321. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourwere in the cave.However, ( )47 is always succeeded by anoun, e.g. ( ) – Iascended the mountain and suddenly there was alion sleeping in the cave.The word ( ) is sometimes used for ( ) – toprovide the meaning of suddenly. It can besucceeded by a verb, e.g. ( )– While I was sitting, Zaid suddenly appeared.Note 6: In the holy Qur’ān, wherever the word( ) is used, the word ( ) or ( ) is implied.Hence the meaning of ( ) is,“Remember when Ibrāhīm was raising…”Note 7: The word ( ) also has the meaning of“therefore,” e.g. ( ) – Ihonoured him because he is a pious man. In thiscase, the word ( ) will be regarded among theparticles ( ).47 The ( ) that has the meaning of suddenly. Page 321
  • 322. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four7. When the words ( ) and ( ) are ( )towards ( ), they become:( )=( ) – on that day, then, at that time;( )=( ) – at that time, then, that day.Similarly, one can say ( ) – at that time. Inthese words, there was a sentence after theparticle ( ). The sentence was deleted andreplaced by tanwīn. For example, the word ( )was originally ( ) – the day on whichsuch and such a thing occurred.Note 8: The words ( ), ( ) and ( )are written as ( ), ( ) and ( )respectively.8. The following words take the place of the( ) and are therefore ( ): 1. the ( ) – verbal noun, 2. ( ) 3. ( ) Page 322
  • 323. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 4. ( ) and 5. those words which indicate the whole ( ) or the part ( ).Examples:( ) – I came at sunrise.( = ) – How long didyou stay?( ) – I stayed for four days.( ) – I stood on this side.( ) – I walkedthe whole day and a quarter of the night.Note 9: In the second and fourth examples, thewords ( ) and ( ) are ( ) becausethey are ( ). The ( ) cannot be written inwords. Page 323
  • 324. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four The ( )The ( ) is a noun that appears after( ) – a ( ) that denotes attachment.48 Thenoun appearing after such a ( ) is ( ), e.g.( ) – I went along the street.( ) – I travelled with your brother.( ) – We greeted him together withhis father.10. Only in a sentence where the ( ) cannot be( ), will ( ) be rendered to the nounsucceeding the ( ). In the above-mentioned threeexamples, the ( ) cannot be ( ).In the first example, if ( ) is taken as ( ),the meaning will be, “I and the street went.” Thiswill be a nonsensical statement.48 See Lesson 43.7 and Lesson 51.7. Page 324
  • 325. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIn the second example, ( ) is not permissiblebecause one cannot make ( ) on a( ) without any separating word/sin between. However, if you say,( ), the ( ) will be ( ) andnot ( ).In the third example, ( ) is only permissibleon a ( ) if the ( ) is repeated onthe ( ), e.g. if you say, ( ),the ( ) will be ( ) and not ( ). Thiswill be discussed in Lesson 71 in the section of( ).In some sentences, both ( ) and ( )are permissible, e.g.( ) – The leader came and his armycame.( ) – The leader came with his army. Page 325
  • 326. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four11. Examine the analysis of the followingsentence: ( ) I entered the madrasah with your brother on Wednesday. – Page 326
  • 327. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 53 Word Meaning (7) to retreat, to renounce (one’s religion) (1) to breastfeed (1) to travel at night to make someone travel to take an oath, to make a vow (3) to bless strength, harm, hurt (4) to branch out, to ramify (2) to make beloved snake map, chart back, buttocks, behind breastfeeding Page 327
  • 328. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four net, snare, trap worker, employee, go (2) to perform, to carry out cricket the sanctified musjid (of Makkah) the musjid of Baitul Muqaddas purpose, aim, desire while fresh flower news of your good health to come small brother to be fully aware of, to be well informed (1) to disclose, to reveal dated Page 328
  • 329. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four cash (3) to rewardExercise No. 10049(A) Look for the ( ) or ( ) in thefollowing sentences. Examine where the( ) and ( ) are ( ). ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) .49 In the original Urdu book, this exercise has been erroneouslynumbered as 95. Accordingly, all the exercises from this oneonwards, will differ from the original. For easy reference, look atthe Lesson number and the exercises that follow it. Translator Page 329
  • 330. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) .( ). ( 5) ( ). ( 6) ( 7) . . ( 8) ( 9) (10) (11) (12) Page 330
  • 331. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(B) Translate the following verses of poetry. ( 1) 50 ( 2)Exercise No. 101Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān. . ( 1) ( 2) . . ( 3) . ( 4)50 Due to ( ) at the end of the stanza, an alif is read on the word( ). Page 331
  • 332. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) .Exercise No. 102(A) Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) When you want to recognize the fourdirections on a map, place the map in front. Theside that is on top will be north, the one at thebottom will be south. The one on the right will beeast and the one on the left will be west.(2) Calcutta is to the east, Karachi to the west,Mount Himalaya to the north and Ceylon to thesouth in the map of India.(3) To the north of my house is a market, amadrasah to the south, a road to the east and agarden to the west.(4) Our madrasah is approximately at a distanceof 3 miles to the east. Page 332
  • 333. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(5) We are occupied in seeking knowledge thewhole day and after Asr we go to play cricket.(6) Look at this picture. My brother is sitting atmy right and my younger brother is standing onmy left. My servant is standing behind me.(7) It is necessary for your health to exercisemorning and evening.(8) My friends, enter the musjid and perform IshāSalāh. Then go to your houses and do not go outof the house at night.(B) Translate the following letter which a sisterwrote in response to her brother. . . . . . Page 333
  • 334. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . . Page 334
  • 335. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourTest No. 22(1) Define the ( ) and explain how manytypes there are.(2) How many types of nouns are ( )which have the ability to be ( ) because ofbeing adverbs ( )?(3) Which words can take the place of ( )?(4) Construct ten such sentences which containthe following words: .(5) Analyze the following sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2)(6) Define the ( ).(7) After the ( ), in which cases is it necessary toread ( ) on the succeeding word?(8) In the following sentences, where is it Page 335
  • 336. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fournecessary to read ( ) after the ( ) and why? ( 1) . ( 2) ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6)(9) Analyze sentence number 1 and number 5from the above-mentioned sentences. Page 336
  • 337. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 63 The Condition ( )1. Examine the following sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5)The words ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( )etc. are ( ) because they occur as the ( ) inthe sentence. You have learnt in Lesson 43.9 thatthe noun that describes the condition of the ( )or ( ) or both is called the ( ) and it is( ).A new fact here is that the word ( ) indicates Page 337
  • 338. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe condition of the word ( ) which is a( ) while ( ) indicates the condition of( ) which is ( ). This shows that a ( )and ( ) can also have a ( ).2. The person or thing whose condition is beingdescribed is called ( ) or ( ).In the first example, the ( ) is the pronounof the ( ), namely the ( );in the second example, it is ( );in the third example, it is ( ),in the fourth example, it is ( )and in the fifth example, it is ( ).3. In order to recognize the ( ) in the sentence,one should ask the question, “in what condition?”or “how?” The answer to these questions willprovide the ( ) as you can see in the aboveexamples. Page 338
  • 339. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four4. The ( ) is generally a derived noun( ) and indefinite ( ). The ( ) isdefinite ( ). Sometimes the ( ) is ( )because of ( ), e.g.( ) – I believed in Allāh alone.In this sentence, the word ( ) is the ( ) ofthe word ( ). Therefore it is ( ). The word( ) has become ( ) because of ( ).5. An ( )51 can also be ( ) in thefollowing cases: • when it indicates a resemblance, e.g. ( ) – Álī turned around and attacked like a lion. • when it indicates sequence, e.g. ( ) – Enter one person at a time. • it is a number, e.g. ( )– They came in twos, threes and fours.51 A noun from which no other words are derived. Page 339
  • 340. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four • it indicates a price, e.g. ( ) – The oil was sold for one dirham per ritl (a weight). • it is a word being described ( ), e.g. ( ) – We revealed it as an Arabic Qur’ān. • it indicates a transaction between two parties, e.g. ( ) – I sold the wheat from hand to hand (in cash).6. A sentence, whether ( ) or ( ) canalso be the ( ). This requires a connector ( )between the ( ) and the ( ). The ( ) caneither be ( ) or a ( - third personpronoun) or both. Type of Examples Sentence Meaning Seek Example of knowledge ( ) when you are a youth. Example of Rashīd came Page 340
  • 341. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) laughing. Example of Rashīd came both laughing.See Lesson 43.11.Note 1: If you say ( ), the word( ) being a ( ), will form the ( -adjective) of ( ). It will not be the ( ) because( ) is indefinite and a sentence is also regardedas indefinite. In this case, the ( ) will not bedefinite. Therefore it is referred to as the ( ).However, although the analysis of the sentencechanges, there is no significant difference in themeaning.7. The ( ) can be numerous, e.g.( ) – Mūsā returnedto his nation in anger and regret.8. If the context permits, the sentence preceding Page 341
  • 342. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe ( ) can be elided, e.g. when a person isreturning from a journey, it is said to him,( ) – Go safelyand return profitably.Exercise No. 103Observe the analysis of the following sentences:(1) Page 342
  • 343. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(2)Vocabulary List 54 Word Meaning to harm, to hurt, to trouble (4) to smile (4) to be ready one who is in need of a bath (2) to shave Page 343
  • 344. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four unripe (2) to trim (the hair), to shorten having a saddle (2) to turn upside downExercise No. 104Determine the ( ) and the ( ) in thefollowing sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) Page 344
  • 345. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 9) . . (10) ) (11) .( : (12)Exercise No. 105Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: ( 1) . . ( 2) Page 345
  • 346. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) ( 7) . ( 8) . . ( 9) (10) . . (11) (12) . Page 346
  • 347. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 106Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) When children strive in their youth, theybecome leaders when they are adults.(2) Do not drink hot tea because it is harmful forthe teeth.(3) I entered the madrasah while all the boys inmy class were present.(4) My father and I came to the musjid when thekhatīb (imām) was delivering the sermon on themimbar (pulpit).(5) The hypocrite stands for salāh while he is lazyand showing off.(6) My brothers, do not ever leave the madrasahexcept when you are perfect in the knowledge ofDīn and in the subjects of Logic.(7) I turned each page of this book and I read eachand every chapter.(8) O noble woman, why are you distressing mewhereas you know that I intend good for you?(9) Allāh does not punish any slave when heseeks forgiveness. Page 347
  • 348. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 64 Specification ( )Examine the following sentences: Translation Sentences(1) I purchased a ritl(a weight) of clarified ( 1)butter.(2) Sadaqatul fitr isone sā (a weight) of ( 2)barley.(3) I sold ten dhirā (anarm’s length) of silk. ( 3)(4) I have twenty ( 4)horses.(5) The date has asimilar amount of ( 5)butter.(6) There is not acloud in the sky that ( 6)is equivalent to apalm. Page 348
  • 349. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(7) The utensil was full ( 7)of milk.(8) The place was good ( 8)with regards to its air.(9) The best of people ( 9)are those with the bestcharacter.(10) I have more wealth (10)than you.1. In the above-mentioned ten examples, the finalword is called ( ) or ( ) in the terminologyof Arabic Grammar.You have learnt in Lesson 43.12, that the nounwhich removes the vagueness in meaning fromany word or sentence is called ( ). The nounfrom which the vagueness is removed is called( ).2. In the first group of examples (from 1 to 6), the( ) refers to different amounts or measures ofan item, e.g. ( ) ritl is a weight, ( ) sā is akind of measure, ( ) dhirā is a measurement Page 349
  • 350. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourand ( ) is a number while ( ) and ( ) arenot any specific weights but together with their( ), they indicate an estimate. In short, allthe above-mentioned nouns have some kind ofvagueness in them which cannot be removedwithout a ( ).There is no vague noun in the second group offour examples. However, there is a vagueness inthe sentences themselves, e.g. when you say,( - the utensil was filled), this is a sentencewhich is vague because we do not know what theutensil was filled with. Was it filled with water,milk, honey or something else? When you say( ), the commodity has been specified.3. Sometimes the ( ) of something that is not acommodity, is also used if it has vagueness, e.g.( ) – a ring of silver.4. Remember that the ( ) will always be an( ), that is, such a noun that either has Page 350
  • 351. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourtanwīn or the nūn of the dual or plural or it is( ). A word having the definite article ( ) isnot regarded as an ( ).5. The ( ) is always ( ) – indefinite.However, if the particle ( ) precedes it, it can be( ) – definite, e.g. ( ) or ( ).6. The ( ) of weights, measures and distance isalways ( ). Sometimes, due to ( ) orprefixing the particle ( ), it becomes ( ).Examine the undermentioned examples: Page 351
  • 352. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1) I drank a ritl of milk. ( 2) I bought a sack of wheat. ( 3) I have a feddan52 of land.7. The ( ) of numbers has been explained indetail in Lessons 44 and 45.8. The sign of recognizing a ( ) is that it willoccur in answer to the question, “what thing?”, or“from what thing?”, or “regarding what?”, or“concerning what?”52 A square measure equivalent to 4200.330 m2 in Egypt. Page 352
  • 353. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Allusion to Numbers ( )9. The following words are used to allude tounspecified numbers: Word Meaning how much, how many how much, how many so much, so manyAccordingly, they are called ( ). They areindeclinable ( ). These words also havevagueness in their meanings and to remove thisvagueness, a ( ) is required.The ( ) of ( ) is ( ) and singular( ) e.g. ( - How many books didyou read?) while the ( ) of ( ) is ( ).Sometimes it is singular ( ) e.g. ( -How many books I read.) and sometimes it isplural, e.g. ( - How many books I Page 353
  • 354. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourread.) See 13.6 and 13.7.If ( ) is in ( ), its ( ) will alsobe in ( ), e.g. ( ) – For howmany dirhams did you purchase (it)?Due to the particle ( ) in this sentence, the( ) is in ( ).One can also say ( ).The particle ( ) always precedes the ( ) of( ). Accordingly, it will always be ( ), e.g.( ) – There weremany prophets with whom many saints foughtbattles.The ( ) of ( ) is ( ) and ( ), e.g.( ) - I spent so many dirhams.( ) - I have so many dinars.( ) - I bought the book for somany rupees. Page 354
  • 355. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe word ( ) is most often repeated when used,e.g. ( ) - I spent so manydirhams.The words ( ) and ( ) are always used at thebeginning of a sentence. This is not essential forthe word ( ).Note 1: The word ( ) does not only denoteallusion to numbers but it can also denote anallusion to some matter or speech, e.g.( ) – Zaid did such and suchthing or said such and such thing.For this purpose, the words ( ) are alsoused, e.g.( ) – Zaid did such andsuch thing or said such and such thing.Note 2: The words ( ) and ( ) denotelarge amounts while the word ( ) denotes asmall amount. Page 355
  • 356. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 107Determine the different types of ( ) in thefollowing sentences: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) . ( 7) . 54 53 . ( 8). ( 9)53 earthenware jug54 family Page 356
  • 357. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 55 . (10) . (11) 56 (12) . . (13) 57 . (14) (15) 58Exercise No. 108Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: . ( 1)55 to become clear, to regain consciousness56 to overflow57 result58 joy Page 357
  • 358. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2) . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) . . ( 6) . ( 7) . ( 8) . . . ( 9) (10) .Exercise No. 109Translate the following sentences into Arabic. Page 358
  • 359. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(1) We bought one gram of gold for 100 dollars.(2) Nowadays one kilogram of good wheat isobtained for 15 rupees.(3) I drank two cups of coffee now.(4) Two kilograms of ghee (clarified butter) isenough for six kilograms of meat.(5) Mahmūd is younger than Khalid in age but hehas more knowledge.(6) From all the animals, the camel is the mostwell known with regards to its size, obedienceand contentment.(7) The mango is a very famous fruit in India andPakistan for its taste, fragrance and colour.(8) When I heard about the success of youryounger brother, my heart was filled with joy.(9) The one who has more knowledge andintelligence is greater.(10) This house is 20 metres in length and 15metres in breadth.Exercise No. 110Examine the analysis of the following sentences.. ( 2) . ( 1) Page 359
  • 360. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( )( ) ( ) ) ) ( ( Page 360
  • 361. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 111From now, the instructions for most exercises willbe in Arabic. .(Complete the following sentences by placingsuitable words of tamīz in the empty spaces.) . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4)59 ( 5) 61 60 .59 types60 giraffe61 peacock Page 361
  • 362. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 112 .Make each of the following words a tamīz in asuitable sentence.. . . . . . . . . . . .Exercise No. 113 .(Change the tamīz in the following sentences fromthe present form to every other possible form.Take into consideration the change that this willcause in the mumayyaz.) . ( 1) . ( 2) .(linen) ( 3) Page 362
  • 363. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) . (a weight) ( 5) . ( 6)Exercise No. 114 . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . . ( 4) 62 . ( 5)62 reception hall. Page 363
  • 364. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 115 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . . ( 7) Page 364
  • 365. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 65 The Exception ( )1. You have read the explanation of ( )in Volume 3, Lesson 43.8. Here additionalinformation will be provided.2. The meaning of ( ) is to exclude somethingfrom several things. In the terminology of ArabicGrammar, it refers to the exclusion of the wordssucceeding the particle of exception from thestatement preceding it, whether positive ornegative, that is, to indicate that the succeedingstatement is different from the preceding one, e.g.( ) – I ate the fruits except thegrapes, that is, I did not eat the grapes.( ) – I did not eat the fruitsexcept the grapes, that is, I only ate the grapes.3. There are two categories of ( ): 1) ( ) where the excluded word is Page 365
  • 366. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four from the same species as the ( ) – the word from which the exclusion is made, e.g. ( ) – The people came except Zaid. 2) ( ) where the excluded word is not from the same species as the ( ), e.g. ( ) – The horses came except the donkey.Note 1: The ( ) is used very seldom.4. You have learnt that ( ) is countedamong the ( ) but it is not always ( ).Its ( ) is of three types: 1) If the ( ) is mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( ) – a positive sentence not having ( ) or ( ); or it is ( ), then ( ) will be rendered to the ( ) as explained in the above examples. Page 366
  • 367. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2) If the ( ) is mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( ) – a negative sentence, then ( ) can be rendered to the ( ) or the ( ) of the preceding words can be followed, e.g. ( - The flowers did not bloom except for one rose). ( - I did not greet those who returned from a journey except the first one). 3) If the ( ) is not mentioned and the sentence preceding ( ) is ( ) – an incomplete statement, the ( ) of the ( ) will be according to its position in the sentence. The particle ( ) will have no effect on the sentence, e.g. ( ) Such a ( ) is called ( ).5. Besides ( ), the other words of ( ) are: Page 367
  • 368. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ). They all mean“except” or “besides”.6. The words ( ) and ( ) are nouns. The wordsucceeding them is ( ) because of being( ).The ( ) of the word ( ) itself is similar to( ). It will therefore be of three types, e.g. . (1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (77. The words ( ) and ( ) are originally( ) but they were found to be ( ) inArabic sentences. Accordingly, the grammarians Page 368
  • 369. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourcounted them amongst the ( ). Theword ( ) is also counted as a ( ), whilesometimes it is regarded as a ( ). The( ) succeeding it could be read ( ) or( ). The words ( ) and ( ) alwaysremain as verbs. The ( ) succeeding themwill always be a ( ) and hence ( ).Examine the following examples:1. ( ) – I plucked theflowers except the rose.2. ( ) – I visitedthe musjids of the city except one.3. ( ) – I cut thetrees except the date palm.4. ( ) – I recited thebook except one page. Page 369
  • 370. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 55 Word Meaning (10) to seek medical advice, to consult (a doctor) to tire, to disable to correct, to make amends injured to surround to be empty, to be alone with someone to treat (a patient) illness evil, bad ( ) to accompany, to befriend misguidance ( )( ) to stray, to wander about love poetry, flirtation certainly Page 370
  • 371. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four shining star the sun and the moon to rejectExercise No. 116Determine the ( ) and the ( ) in thefollowing examples: ( 1) . . ( 2) ( 3) . . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6) Page 371
  • 372. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 7) . . ( 8) ( ) ( 9) .. (10) . (11) : (12) . (13) . Page 372
  • 373. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 117Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: ( 1) . . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7)Exercise No. 118Translate the following sentences into Arabic:(1) All the boys were successful except the lazyboy.(2) The Muslim women go out with hijāb exceptKhālidah.(3) I did not take anything from these fruits Page 373
  • 374. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourexcept one orange.(4) A Muslim does not fear anyone except Allāh.(5) I befriended everyone except the arrogant one.(6) We do not worship anyone besides Allāh.(7) All the boys are present in our school todayexcept Mahmūd.(8) All the girls succeeded except one lazy girlwho wasted her time in play and amusement.Exercise No. 119(A) .Complete the following sentences by placing( ) in the blanks, fill in the i’rāb andexplain where two possibilities of i’rāb arepermissible. ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) Page 374
  • 375. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8)(B).By using the word ( ), make an exception in thefollowing sentences and fill in the i’rāb of the( ) and the particle of ( ), that is, theword ( ). ( 9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) Page 375
  • 376. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(C) . (15) . (16) . (17) . (18) . (19) . (20)Exercise No. 120. Page 376
  • 377. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 121 ( 1) .Construct 3 sentences in such a manner that the( ) must have ( ). ( 2) .Construct 3 sentences with ( ) wherebytwo types of i’rāb are permissible. ( 3) .Construct 3 sentences using ( ) wherebythe i’rāb of each one corresponds to itsrequirement in the sentence. Page 377
  • 378. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 66 The Vocative ( )1. You have learnt in brief about the vocative inLesson 43.9 of Volume 3 that it also falls in thecategory of the ( ). It will only be ( )in the following cases:(a) when it is ( ), whether it is singular, dualor plural, e.g. ( – O the citizen of India),( – O the two citizens of Makkah),( – O the citizens of Madīnah),(b) when it resembles a ( ), e.g.( - O the one climbing the mountain),(c) it is ( ) - indefinite andunintended, e.g.( - O man, hold my hand).Note 1: The word ( ) is not a ( ) but it hasthe meaning of ( ), therefore it is called Page 378
  • 379. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – resembling a mudāf.In the phrase, ( ) no specific person isintended as in the case of a blind person who callsout to someone without looking or pondering.2. If the ( ) is ( ) - singular, that is, it is not( ), it is regarded as ( ) in ( ),whether it is singular, dual or plural, e.g.( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ).Note 2: The word ( ) has 3 meanings: (1) singular (2) not to be ( ) – a compound and (3) not to be ( ).In the context here, the third meaning is intended.In a phrase such as ( ), when it is ( ),the following factors have to be observed: 1. One can read fathah or dammah on the word ( ), but a fathah is better: ( ) or ( ). 2. Although the word ( ) is the adjective of Page 379
  • 380. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ), only a fathah can be read on it because it is ( ). 3. The hamzatul wasl in such examples is also elided in writing from the word ( ).4. Sometimes the ( - vocative particle) iselided, e.g. After Elision Original Word5. You have learnt in Lesson 11.5. (Volume 1) thatwhen the ( ) has ( ) – the definite article,either the particle ( ) for masculine or ( )for feminine is prefixed to it. Sometimes theindicative pronoun ( ) is prefixed to it,e.g. ( ) – O messenger, convey; Page 380
  • 381. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – O the peaceful soul;( ) – O man, believe in Allāh.Sometimes, the particle ( ) is elided, e.g.( )However, although the word ( ) is definite, it isused simply as ( ) without the word ( )being prefixed to it. The phrase ( ) is generallyused in place of ( ).6. When the ( ) is ( ) to ( - the firstperson pronoun), it can be read in several ways:The following forms are permitted for the words( ) and ( ):7. When the word ( ) is ( ) to the words Page 381
  • 382. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) or ( ), they can be read as ( ) or( ). This is not permissible for any otherword.8.You have read in Lesson 43, Note 8, that the( ) is succeeded by a sentence called the( ). The ( ) together with the( ) form a ( ). Look atLesson 43, page 319 for an analysis of thesentences.Abbreviated Vocative( )9. Sometimes the final alphabet of the ( ) iselided for the sake of making the word lighter inpronunciation, e.g. to say ( ) or ( ) insteadof ( ). Instead of ( ), one can say( ) or ( ). This is called ( ) and sucha( ) is called ( ). Page 382
  • 383. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 3: It was mentioned in Lesson 49 (e) that the( ) – the vocative particles are ( ), ( ),( ), ( ) and ( ). From these, ( ) is used for nearand far; ( ) and ( ) for near; and ( ) and ( ) forfar.Lamenting( )10. Lamenting or mourning over a deceased iscalled ( ). The one who is addressed is called( ). The particle ( ) is used most ofteninstead of ( ) before the ( ). An alif and hā( ) are suffixed to the ( ), e.g.( ) – O my mother, ( ) – O my daughter.The Appositive of the Vocative( )11. If the ( ), which is ( ), is Page 383
  • 384. Arabic Tutor – Volume Foursucceeded by an adjective, • if it is ( ) and without the ( ), it is necessary to read a ( ) on it, e.g. ( ), ( ). • if it has ( ), whether it is ( ) or ( ), it is permissible to read it with a ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) – O Rashīd, the one whose father is noble, ( ) - O the charming Rashīd.If any noun is ( ) on a ( ), it will havethe same i’rāb as the ( ), but if the ( )has ( ), ( ) or ( ) can be read on it, e.g.( ) – O the bondsman andbondswoman of Allāh,( ) – O mountains and birds,hymn the praises (of Allāh) with him. Page 384
  • 385. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 56 Word Meaning (1) to announce good news, glad tidings (1) to shine, the brightness of dawn () (1) to pass a legal verdict prostitute, rebel (4) to flirt ( ) to make free from want, to become independent (4) to do in an affected manner, to do reluctantly good fortune, grandfather successor to go close to ( ) to observe, to graze obscenity, intercourse fat, obese spike (of grain), ear (of corn) Page 385
  • 386. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four clarity, purity darkness ( ) to present itself, to arise lean, emaciated Sūrah Fātihah sin, transgression beard an evil man take it easy, slowly to go far, distant one who is far( – ) to be saved, to be delivered( ) to snatch, to remove, to extract affection, love loving, affectionate Page 386
  • 387. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four dryExercise No. 122Find all the different types of ( ) in thefollowing sentences, especially the nouns of( ) and ( ). (1 . (2 . . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 (7 . Page 387
  • 388. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four. (8 . (9 . (10 (11 . : (12 (13 (14 (15 Page 388
  • 389. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 123Translate the following verses of the holy Qur’ān. (1 . (2 . . (3 . (4 . . (5 (6 . (7 . Page 389
  • 390. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (8 (9 . . (10 (11 . . (12Exercise No. 124Translate the following sentences into Arabic.(1) O Abdul Karīm, why are you not striving tosucceed in the final examination.(2) O my paternal uncle’s son, wake up earlyevery morning and come with me for salāh.(3) O the sons of Hājī Ismāīl, follow your piousfather and become his true successors.(4) O youth, understand the Qur’ān and practiceon its guidance. In it lies your success and thesuccess of your nation.(5) O student, if you read this book andremember it, it will be sufficient for you for the Page 390
  • 391. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourknowledge of Morphology ( ) and Grammar( ).(6) There is no book more beneficial than the holyQur’ān.(7) I have neither any book nor any paper.(8) There is no means of salvation greater than theoneness of Allāh. Page 391
  • 392. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 67 The Genetive ( )(1) ( ) (2) ( )1. A noun will be in ( ) in only twoinstances: 1) when it succeeds any of the ( ), e.g ( ) – a ring of silver. 2) when it is ( ), e.g. ( ) – a ring of silver.2. The details of the ( ) were mentionedin Lesson 49 while ( ) was discussed inLessons 7 and 11. More details are mentionedhere.The Types of ( )3. There are two types of ( ):(1) and (2) Page 392
  • 393. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe ( ) occurs in a compound where the( ) is one of the derived nouns ( ),like the ( ), ( ) and ( ),e.g.( ) – one treading the path, ( )–one whose hand is cut, ( ) – one whoseface is handsome.The ( ) occurs in a compound where the( ) is a noun besides the ( ), e.g.( ) – the light of the moon, ( )–the path of the one who treads it, ( )–Hasan’s face. In this example, the word ( ) isthe name of a person.4. In ( ), the ( ) is ( ) without theparticle ( ). Therefore, the particle ( ) cannot beprefixed to the ( ). However, in ( ),the ( ) is not ( ). Accordingly, when theneed arises, the particle ( ) can be prefixed to it Page 393
  • 394. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourwhen it is ( ) or ( ). It can also beprefixed to a singular word ( ) when the( ) has the particle ( ) prefixed to it or it is( ) to another word having ( ), e.g.( ) – The one following the truth isassisted.( ) – The one treading thewrong path is forsaken.( ) – Thetwo conquerors of Syria are Khālid and AbūÚbaydah .( – ) – The citizens of Makkahand the pilgrims are all safe today in the era ofKing Ibn Sa’ūd – May Allāh assist him with hisopen help – as long as he follows the sunnah andsafeguards the sanctity of the safe city.According to the above explanation, one can say( ) but not ( ). If the ( ) is Page 394
  • 395. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ), then instead of ( ), one should say( ), e.g.( ) – Khālid, the helper of Zaid. Inthis case, the word ( ) is not a ( ) butinfact is a ( ). The details of this follow inLesson 70.Note 1: Revise the section on the ( ) of( ) once more in Lesson 23.5. If a singular word is ( ) to the first personpronoun ( ), a jazm and a fathah can be read onthe ( ), e.g. ( ) or ( ). If such a wordoccurs at the end of a sentence, it is permissible toappend a ( ) to it, e.g. ( ) – my book; ( )– my reckoning.If an ( )63 or ( ) are ( ) tothe first person pronoun ( ), a fathah will be read63 See Lesson 10.8 and 10.9. of Volume One. Page 395
  • 396. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouron the ( ), e.g. ( ) – my staff; ( ) – myjudge.The same applies to the dual ( ) and soundmasculine plural ( ), e.g. original word changes toIn all these examples, the ( ) falls off dueto ( ). Page 396
  • 397. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourVocabulary List No. 57 Word Meaning to degrade, abuse to incinerate, burn to be or become poor to join, combine, interrelate to spread, to be glad, to be delighted to contract, to be depressed, to be dejected to withdraw, to segregate, to be isolated to devote, to apply oneself eagerly to search to enter a monastic life, to abandon secular pleasures steadfastness anxiety, uneasiness to be careful, to be wary Page 397
  • 398. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four talk, speech, thought, new ( ) to arrive, to untie (a knot) year close friend ( ) to imagine, to think disorder, imbalance one who abandons the world, monk hill mercy, help, leisure ( ) to pour out, to spill power, reign ( ) circuit to consult( )( ) to mold, to create to make a picture Page 398
  • 399. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four consolation, solace ( ) to treat harshly life ( ) to be absent to be excessive, to demand a very high price( )( ) to deceive, to betray ( ) to comprehend, to understand commander to talk nonsense to give someone something despised effort sunny day moonlit night a long period life, means of subsistence Page 399
  • 400. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) to incite to evil incitement to evil, satanic inspiration ( ) to postpone, to delay ( ) to marry ( ) to get up, to rise flower, blossom ( ) to direct, to steer direction, course, angle deep pit, gorge childExercise No. 125Determine the ( ), ( ) and ( )in the following sentences. Pay particularattention to the types of ( ), the ( ) and( ). Page 400
  • 401. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (1 . (2 . . .. (3 .( ) .( ) . (4 . . .( ) . .( ) Page 401
  • 402. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (5 . (6 .Exercise No. 126Translate the following letter of Abū Bakr : . . . . . . . Page 402
  • 403. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 403
  • 404. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 127Translate the following poetry of Tughrāī (514A.H.): ( 231) Page 404
  • 405. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 128Translate the following letter into English: . . . . –– –. – Page 405
  • 406. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 129Translate the response to the above letter: – – . . . . . Page 406
  • 407. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 68 Apposition ( )Note 1: You have learnt the cases of a noun: ( ),( ) and ( ). Now the occasions where a nounfollows its preceding noun in i’rāb will beindicated.1. ( ) is the plural of ( ). A ( ) is a wordthat adopts the i’rāb of its preceding noun. Thepreceding noun is called the ( ).2. There are four types of ( ): (a) ( ) or ( ) (b) ( ) (c) ( ) (d) ( ) Page 407
  • 408. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe Adjective ( )3. A ( ) or ( ) is a ( ) which describes thebeing of the ( ) or something related to the( ), e.g. ( ) – the noble man.( ) – the man whose father is noble.In the first example, the word ( ) describes theman while in the second example, it describes theman’s father. However, when analyzing, it will becalled a ( ) of ( ) in both cases.The first type of ( ) is called ( ),while the second type is called ( ).4. The ( ) corresponds to the ( ) in( ), in ( ) – being definite orindefinite, in gender and in number as you havelearnt in Lessons 3, 4 and 5. However, the Page 408
  • 409. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) only corresponds with the ( ) in( ) and ( ). The ( ) alwaysremains singular even if the ( - ) isdual or plural. Secondly, the ( ) corresponds ingender to the succeeding word and not thepreceding word as you have learnt in Lesson 23.7.Hereunder follow more examples so that you canunderstand the rule more thoroughly. Page 409
  • 410. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 410
  • 411. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four5. You have learnt in the previous lessons thatthere is very little difference between a ( ) anda ( ). See Lesson 6, Note 1, in Volume One.Similarly, there is a resemblance between ( ),( ) and ( ). Hereunder follow more examplesso that you can distinguish between them easily. Page 411
  • 412. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNow ponder over the difference between eachone. In the first example, ( ), afterconstituting the ( ) and ( ) form the( ). ( ) which is ( ) cannot be anythingelse except the ( ).In the second example, the words, ( ) and( ) are ( ). Hence they can only be Page 412
  • 413. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) and ( ).In the third example, ( ) is ( ), being the( ) of ( ). Thereafter, ( ) is ( ).Therefore it cannot be the ( ). However, it canbe the ( ) because it indicates the condition ofthe ( ). Consequently, it is ( ).Similarly, in the first example of line 2, ( )together with its ( ), forms a ( )and can only be a ( ) because a ( ) is always( ). How can it be the ( ) of a ( )? Yes, inthe second example, ( ) is ( ). Therefore,( ) can become its ( ).In the third example, ( ) is the ( ) and it is( ). Hence, ( ) which is a ( ), canonly be the ( ) of the ( ). Page 413
  • 414. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIn the third and fourth lines, ( ) and( ) are ( )64 and form the ( ) inthe first case, a ( ) in the second and ( ) inthe third.6. Remember that an ( ) is generally usedas a ( ). Only in a few instances is ( )a( ), e.g. ( ) – Zayd, the son of Ámr;( ) – Khalid, the Barmak;( ) – this man;( ) – this Zayd;( ) – this son of the king;( ) – these sons of ours.In these examples, the second word is technicallythe ( ) although it is an ( ).The ( ) is regarded as a ( ). See Lesson64 See Lesson 8.23. Page 414
  • 415. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four2.12. The ( ) itself can be the ( ) of an( ) or it can be the ( ) of its ( ).Examine the third example where ( ) is the( ). It is the ( ) of the ( ). In thefourth example, the ( ) is the ( ) of( ) – a proper noun.In the fifth and sixth examples, the ( ) isthe ( ) of the ( ).Note 2: In the first example ( ).., theword ( ) is the ( ) while ( ) is the( ). You will find two unique points in thisphrase. The first is that the tanwīn of the word( ) has been elided without any reason. In thesecond example, the hamzah of the word ( ) hasnot been written. The reason for this is that thisphrase is used extensively and it was regarded asnecessary to lighten the phrase ( ). Page 415
  • 416. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 3: You are reminded that a ( ) after a( ) is regarded as a ( ) and it is regarded as a( ) after ( ). Do not forget this point.Vocabulary List No. 58 Word Meaning to look surface, tanned skin to guide ) ( to crowd ( ) frame, tyre to extinguish, to stifle to please, to delight to pluck out, to exterminate Page 416
  • 417. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four steamship pond brave, fearless mat to scatter, to disarrange to moisten to prevent, to frustrate noise shoe, boot ) sympathizer, one who feels( pity suburb, tribe, alive tourist( ) to swim house, dwelling nation, tribe, masses to hunt Page 417
  • 418. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to be similar to noise, din, uproar to support, to sustain( ) lush (garden), luxurious severe, bitterly cold dome to soil, to stain ( ) to loll one’s tongue with thirst or fatigue, to pant( ) passer by flower vase ( ) raining ( ) refreshing, invigorating ( ) wealthy, prosperous ( ) having a saddle crowded place moderate ( ) to be far off, to leave, to depart, to emigrate, to immigrate Page 418
  • 419. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to fear calm, peaceful, tranquil neatness, attire, dressExercise No. 130Determine which phrase is ( ) and( ) in the following paragraph:. . . , . . , . Page 419
  • 420. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 131Determine which words are ( ), ( ) or ( )in the following sentences: .1 . .2 . , , .3 .Exercise No. 132 ............. ( 1) ............. ( 2) ............. ( 3) Page 420
  • 421. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ............. ( 4) ............. ( 5) ............. ( 6) ............. ( 7) ............. ( 8) ............. ( 9) ............. (10)Exercise No. 133 .............(1) ............. ( 2) ............. (3) ............. ( 4) ............. ( 5) ............. ( 6) Page 421
  • 422. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 134 : , , , , . , , ,Exercise No. 135 :Exercise No. 136 () : : ( ) ( 1) ( 2) Page 422
  • 423. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) : ( ) ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6): () ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) Page 423
  • 424. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four () : ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) (clear) ( 4)Exercise No. 137 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . Page 424
  • 425. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) . ( 5) .Exercise No. 138Translate the following passage into Arabic. Tryto use as many ( ) as possible. My RoomI have a room. My room is not cramped65 but isspacious and beautiful. Its walls are coloured. Itsceiling is high. It has four windows that are 2m inlength and 1.5m in breadth. Each window hasclear pieces of glass in it so that when it is closed,it does not prevent the light from entering. Myroom has a broad door whose height is 3m. Bothits doorframes66 are very beautiful.6566 Page 425
  • 426. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourMy room has a very long table, the four sides ofwhich are engraved67. I place my books on it byarranging them neatly. I sit at this table to studymy books. There are two extremely beautifully-made and beautifully woven ( ) chairs. Thereis a beautiful bed whose legs ( – ) areengraved. There is a clean bed sheet on it whichlooks very pleasing. There is a large mirror onone side whose frame ( ) is gilded ( ).Besides the above-mentioned items, my room hasa small round table which pleases the onlooker.There is a very beautiful vase in the middle of it,whose sides are golden. Every morning, thegarderner ( ) brings fragrant flowers( - ) and arranges ( or ) them.Therefore my room is, with the grace of Allah,like a room from among the rooms of Jannah. Ilive comfortably and sleep peacefully in it. Allpraises and gratitude are due to Allah.67 Page 426
  • 427. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 69 Emphasis ( )1. The second kind of ( ) is ( ). Its purpose isto remove the doubt of the listener regarding the( ). Read the following examples: .1(1) The minister himself spoke to me. .2(2) I met the minister himself. .3(3) I wrote to the minister himself. .4(4) The whole pond was filled. .5(5) I read the entire book. .6(6) I completed all the work. Page 427
  • 428. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .7(7) Both the brothers succeeded. .8(8) Honour both the parents. .9(9) We lived in both the houses. .10(10) Both my sisters succeeded. .11(11) I love both my sisters. .12(12) I am pleased with both my sisters. .13(13) I saw the crocodile, the crocodile. .14(14) The crescent appeared, it appeared. .15(15) I will not, I will not betray the pledge. .16(16) You are blamed, you are blamed. Page 428
  • 429. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four2. Since you said, “The minister spoke to me,” thelistener could have a doubt in your statementbecause it is no ordinary feat to speak toministers. He may think that perhaps theminister’s deputy or his secretary spoke to youand you attributed it to the ministermetaphorically. By saying ( ) – himself, youhave removed the listener’s doubt and createdemphasis in the statement. Hence, such words arereferred to as ( ) and the word that is beingemphasized is called the ( ).Note 1: In place of the word ( ), the word ( )can also be used. In place of ( ), ( ) can beused. The words ( ) and ( ) are specific forthe dual case. This is a total of six words. It isessential to have a ( – pronoun) with thesewords. The pronoun will correspond with the( ). Examine the previous examples.3. In the last four examples, the words have beenrepeated for the sake of emphasis. In the first Page 429
  • 430. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourexample, the ( ) is repeated, in the second, the( ), in the third, the ( ) and in the fourth, theentire sentence is repeated.4. The emphasis derived by the repetition ofwords is called ( ) and the emphasisachieved by words that are different from the( ) but conform in meaning to them, is called( ). Hence the first 12 examples aboveare ( ) while the last four examples are( ).5. Like the ( ), the ( ) follows the ( ) in(i’rāb).6. The emphasis of a ( ) is donewith a ( ), whether the pronounsare ( ), ( ) or ( ). Observe thefollowing examples: . ( 1)(1) I myself fulfilled the task. Page 430
  • 431. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ( 2)(2) No one saw you, you. . ( 3)(3) I greeted him, him. . ( 4)(4) I myself will saddle the horse. . ( 5)(5) You, you open the window. . ( 6)(6) Farīd himself read the book.The first three examples have ( )while the second three have ( ).Observe the second example: the ( ) is a ( ) and in the third example, it is ( ), butfor emphasis, only a ( ) has beenused. This type of emphasis using pronouns isalso ( ).7. If you want to render the ( ) of a Page 431
  • 432. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) using the words ( ) or ( ), firstyou have to construct the ( ) with a( ) as done above. Thereafter, theemphasis using ( ) or ( ) can be done.Observe the following examples: . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) . ( 5) ( 6)In these examples, the word ( ) can also be usedin place of ( ).Note 2: If you want to emphasize the dual formwith the words ( ) or ( ), their plural formswill be used, e.g. ( ) Page 432
  • 433. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourIt is incorrect to say ( ). Page 433
  • 434. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 139 () . ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) ( 4) . . ( 5) . ( 6) . ( 7) . (boat) ( 8) . ( 9) (console) (10) . Page 434
  • 435. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four .(neglect) (beware) (11) . (12) (13) . (14) .(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān: (1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . . ( 4) Page 435
  • 436. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 140 () ... ( 1) . ... ( 2) . ... ( 3) . ... ( 4) . ... ( 5) ... ( 6) ( ) . ... (1) . ... (2) . ... (3) . ... (4) . ... (5) Page 436
  • 437. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... ( 6) . ... ( 7) . ... ( 8) ( ) ( ) ( )Exercise No. 141 . ... ( 1) . ... ( 2) . ... ( 3) Page 437
  • 438. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... ( 4) . ... ( 5) . ... ( 6) . ... ( 7) . ... ( 8)Exercise No. 142 . ... ( 1) . ... ( 2) . ... ( 3) . ... ( 4) . ... ( 5) . ... ( 6) . ... ( 7) Page 438
  • 439. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... ( 8)Exercise No. 143 ( 1) . ( 2) . ( 3) . ( 4) .Exercise No. 144 ( 1) : Page 439
  • 440. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 2) ( ) ( ) ( )Note 3: Sentences are most often analyzed in thismanner in Arabic. Page 440
  • 441. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Page 441
  • 442. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 70 ( )1. ( ) is a ( ) which is intended in thesentence. The ( ) or ( ) is merelymentioned as an introduction. There are 4 typesof ( ):(1)(2)(3)(4)Examine the following examples carefully.(A). ( 1). ( 2). ( 3) Page 442
  • 443. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(B). ( 1). ( 2). 68 ( 3)(C). 69 ( 1). 70 ( 2). ( 3)(D). ( 1)68 - sail69 The fragrance of the garden diffused.70 - recital Page 443
  • 444. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four. ( 2) 71. ( 3)2. You will find a common factor in all the above-mentioned examples where the first noun is notthe intended aim, but in fact, the second one is.The second noun is called the ( ). In the firstexample, if one has to say only ( ), the aimof the speaker will not be understood. However,if one has to say ( ), the original aim isunderstood. By saying ( ), one benefit isobtained and that is, before understanding theoriginal aim, the listener prepares for it.By pondering over the remaining examples, youwill reach this conclusion. However, in ( ),the ( ) is not intentionally mentioned first, butis a slip of the tongue. In order to correct themistake, the ( ) is mentioned.71 – piastre - currency of Turkey Page 444
  • 445. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four3. Now examine the difference in the four typesof examples. First ponder over the examples of( ) and you will realize that the ( ) refersexactly to the ( ), that is, Alī refers to the sameperson indicated by Al-Imām. Similarly, Khalīlrefers in total to the trader. The word ( )refers to Husain. This is therefore a fullrepresentation by the ( ) of the ( ). Hence itis called ( ) or ( ).By pondering over the examples of ( ),you will realize that the ( ) is part of the ( ), not the ( ) in total. In the first example,( ) is a part of ( ). Accordingly, it is called( ).In ( ), the ( ) is neither part of the( ) nor the total of it. It is something relatedto the ( ). In the sentence,( ) – The garden was fragrant, the Page 445
  • 446. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouractual aim of the sentence is to indicate that thefragrance of the flowers of the garden spreadaround whereas this fragrance is neither part ofthe garden nor a whole of it. The fragrance issomething related to the garden. The land of thegarden is not something that emits a fragrance.As an introduction, the garden was mentioned.Such a ( ) is called ( ).By reading the examples of ( ), you willunderstand that the first word was mentioned bymistake. By mentioning the ( ), one rectifies theerror, e.g. in the sentence ( ), theword ( ) was mentioned by mistake. The aimwas to say ( ). Hence, such a ( ) is called( ).4. The ( ) and ( ) require a( ) that refers to the ( ) as you can see inthe previous examples.5. The ( ) is sometimes ( ) and the ( ) Page 446
  • 447. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouris ( ) and sometimes vice versa.6. If the ( ) is ( ) and the ( ) is ( ), a( ) is required with the ( ), e.g.( = ).See Lesson 20, Note 2.In this example, the first ( ) is the ( )and the second one is the ( ) being( ).Exercise No. 145 (1 . (2 . Page 447
  • 448. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (7(B) Translate the following verses of the holyQur’ān. . . (1 . . (2 (3 (4 . . (5 Page 448
  • 449. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 146 ....... (1 ....... (2 ..... (3 ...... (4 ..... (5 ..... (6 ...... (7 ..... (8Exercise No. 147 ..... (1 ..... (2 . ...... (3 . ...... (4 . ....... (5 Page 449
  • 450. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . ... (6 . ... (7 . ... (8 . ... (9 . ..... (10 Exercise No. 148 .72 7372 dates73 cheetah Page 450
  • 451. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 149 (1 . (2 –( ) –( ) –( ) Page 451
  • 452. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 71 ( )1. The fourth kind of ( ) is the ( ) which ispreceded by any of the ( ). Its ( ) iscalled the ( ).Note 1: The ( ) were discussed in detailin Lesson 50.1. Revise it once more.2. Like the other ( ), the ( ) follows its( ) in ( ).3. The ( ) of one ( ) can occur on another( ), one ( ) on another ( ) and one ( ) onanother ( ).Examples:(1) The apricots and the grapes ripened. Page 452
  • 453. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(2) I ate the apricots and the grapes.(3) These are apricot and grape trees.(4) The sky thundered and it gleamed withlightning.(5) The children are fearing the thunder andlightning of the sky.(6) If the sky thunders and gleams with lightning,you will never come out.In the first three examples, the ( ) of one ( )on another is shown in all three cases ( ), ( )and ( ). In the second three examples, the ( ) Page 453
  • 454. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourof one ( ) on another is shown in all three cases.The ( ) of one ( ) on another is shown inthese three very examples because a ( ) togetherwith the ( ) constitutes a ( ).4. If you want to render ( ) on a( ), first emphasize ( ) it with a( ), e.g.( ) – You and the ones with yousucceeded.( ) – O Adam, you andyour wife live in Jannah.In the second example, the ( ) is a( ) which is concealed in the verb( ).Note 2: In such sentences, if one does notemphasize the ( ), the ( ) will not beregarded as ( ) but will be ( ). The Page 454
  • 455. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fournoun succeeding it will have ( ), e.g.( ) – You live with your wife inJannah.5. If you want to make ( ) on a ( ), itis generally regarded as essential to repeat the( ) on the ( ), e.g. ( )and not ( ). However, sometimes therepetition of the ( ) is overlooked inpoetry. The following stanza of Sa’dī Shīrāzī iswell known:He reached the heights with his perfection. Heremoved the darkness with his beauty.All his attributes are excellent. Send blessingsupon him and his family.Note 3: After repeating a ( ) once, if thereare further ( ), it will not be necessary to Page 455
  • 456. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourrepeat the ( ) again, e.g.( )Note 4: If ( ) is made on an ( ), it is notnecessary to repeat the ( ), e.g.( )6. Most Grammarians have stipulated a fifth ( ),namely ( ). In this, the second wordexplains the first. The ( ) are not usedfor this purpose, e.g.( ) Alī who is better known by thename of Zaynul Abidīn;( ) – Al Kaleem who is Mūsā ( ).;( ) – Abū Hafs who is Úmar ( ).In such examples, the second word is the( ). However, according to someGrammarians, these can fall into the category of( ). Page 456
  • 457. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 150 (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8Exercise No. 151 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 Page 457
  • 458. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... (4 ... (5 ... (6 ... (7 ... (8 ... (9 ... (10Exercise No. 152 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 ... (4 ... (5 ... (6 Page 458
  • 459. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ... (7 ... (8Exercise No. 153 ... (1 ... (2 ... (3 ... (4 ... 59 ... (6Exercise No. 154" " " " Page 459
  • 460. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 72 The Verbal Noun ( )Note 1: Most of the basic rules of Morphologyand Grammar have been enumerated in theprevious lessons. In the following lessons, someremaining essential and miscellaneous rules ofMorphology will be explained.Note 2: In the terminology of Grammar, anyeffect of ( ) on the case of a noun or verb iscalled ( ). The words causing the effect arecalled ( ) and the words on which the effectoccurs are called ( ). An ( ) is mostly averb or ( ). The derived nouns ( ) andthe ( ), like the verb, sometimes render ( )to the ( ) and ( ) to the ( ).1. The scales of the verbal nouns of ( ) arenot ( ) that is, there is no fixed rule for them. Page 460
  • 461. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThey are based on ( ) – as heard from thepeople of the language. Nevertheless, byinvestigation it is known that with regards to themeaning, the scales do follow a pattern. Thefollowing occurs most often:(a) the ( ) of those verbs which indicate anoccupation come on the scale of ( ), e.g.( – to weave), ( – to sew), ( –agriculture), ( – medicine);or they indicate a position, e.g. ( –successorship), ( – leadership), ( –deputyship), ( – to deliver a sermon) etc.(b) the scale of ( ) indicates movement, e.g( – to boil), ( – to flow), ( – to movearound), ( – palpitation) etc.(c) the scale of ( ) indicates colours, e.g.( – red), ( – blue), ( – green), etc. Page 461
  • 462. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 3: However, the verbs of these verbal nouns( ) are not used from ( ) but are usedfrom ( ), namely the verb ( ), e.g.( – to be red), ( – to be green).(d) the scale of ( ) is used for illnesses, e.g.( – headache), ( – colds), ( –dizziness), etc.Note 4: The above-mentioned three verbal nounsare made from the ( ) – the passive tense.The perfect (past) tense of these verbs is ( ),( ) and ( ). The one who suffers from aheadache is called ( ), the one who has acold is ( ) and the one who is dizzy is ( ).(e) the scales ( ) and ( ) are used for theintensive form, e.g ( – to indicate properly).This is derived from ( ). Page 462
  • 463. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( – to move around thoroughly). This isderived from ( ).( – to remember a lot). This is derived from( ).If a verb does not indicate any of the above-mentioned meanings, then most often thefollowing will occur:(f) the scales ( ) or ( ) are used for thoseverbs whose ( - perfect tense) is on the scaleof ( ), e.g. ( – to be easy, soft) – derivedfrom ( ), ( – to be clever) – derivedfrom ( ).(g) the scale of ( ) is used for those passiveverbs whose ( - perfect tense) is on the scaleof ( ), e.g. ( – to be happy) – derived from( ),( – to be thirsty) – derived from ( ), Page 463
  • 464. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fouretc.(h) the scale of ( ) is used for those passiveverbs whose ( - perfect tense) is on the scaleof ( ), e.g. ( – to sit) – derived from ( ),( – to wake up, to stand) – derived from( ), etc.(i) the scale of ( ) is used for those active verbswhose ( - perfect tense) is on the scale of( ) or ( ), e.g. ( – to wash) – derived from( ),( – to eat), ( – to command), ( - to speak),( – to understand), ( – to listen), etc.(j) only three verbal nouns are used on the scaleof ( ), e.g. ( – to be clean), ( – toaccept), ( – to covet).Note 5: The total number of scales for the verbal Page 464
  • 465. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fournouns of ( ) is approximately 32 amongwhich ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ) are verycommon.( )2. The ( ) of all the ( ) is generallyused on the scale of ( ), e.g. ( ),( ), ( ).Only seven verbal nouns come on the scale of( ), namely: Meaning to return to be gentle to come to take a siesta to become old Page 465
  • 466. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to travel to returnIf a verb is ( – see 26.3), the scale willalways be ( ), e.g. ( – derived from ) – to promise,( – derived from ) – to fear.Sometimes a ( ) is suffixed to the scales of ( )and ( ), e.g. Meaning to be merciful to ask to be close by to promise to advise Page 466
  • 467. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 6: You may remember that the scales ( ),( ) and ( ) are used for ( ). See22.4.Verbs that are not from ( ) have their( ) on the scale of the ( ), e.g.( ), ( ), ( ).( )3. The verbal nouns of ( ) and( ) are ( ), that is, they follow arule. See 25 (a). Regarding them, remember thefollowing: The ( ) of ( ), although generally onthe scale of ( ), sometimes comes on the scaleof ( ), e.g. from ( – to show) – ( ), from Page 467
  • 468. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( – to remind) – ( ). This scale isspecifically used in ( ) most of the timeand always in ( ), e.g. from ( – tocongratulate) – ( ), from ( – to make abequest) – ( ). See Lesson 33, note 6. The scale ( ) is not used in ( ). See 26.3.For ( ), only ( ) is used, e.g. ( – tocorrect), ( - to change). The ( ) of ( ) and ( ), instead ofbeing ( ) and ( ) are ( ) and ( ).See Lesson 31, Note 5.( )4. The ( ) of an intransitive verb alwaysremains active ( ). Without changing theword-form of a transitive ( ), the active or Page 468
  • 469. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourpassive meaning can be used according to theneed, e.g. ( ) can refer to the killing of Zaid,that is, Zaid being the killer ( ) or the victim ofbeing killed ( ). The meaning will bedetermined according to the context. It is mostlyused in the active tense.Note 7: The active tense is also referred to as( ) and the passive tense is referred toas ( ).The Effect of the ( )5. The ( ), like its verb, renders ( ) to the the( ) and ( ) to the ( ). It is most often( ) to its ( ), e.g. ( …- Rashīd’s recitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.)Sometimes it is ( ) to the ( ). Then it willbe ( ), e.g. ( – Therecitation of the Qur’ān pleased me.) There are Page 469
  • 470. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourvery few examples where the ( ) renders ( )to the ( ), e.g.( – Today I saw Zaid hittingÁmr.)Vocabulary List No. 59In the following list of words, similar to verbs,alphabets or numbers are inserted next to the( ) to indicate the ( ). Word Meaning ( ) (1) to guide (1) to render deaf ( ) (1) to render blind ( ) (2) to clap hands (2) to estimate ( ) to gain power, to consolidate ( ) to enable, to strengthen Page 470
  • 471. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ) to give water to drink ( ( ) to build ( ) to open, to separate ( ) to become burdensome ( ) to become hungry ( ) to become dusty, to be poor ( ) relative (1) to bear, yield, produce (1) to remove( ) to mention, remembrance( ) to whistle song, hymn, anthem danger neck thorn bone Page 471
  • 472. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four national school guardian, protector ( ) to be blessed, right flank of armyExercise No. 155 . (1 . (2 . (3 . (4 (5 . (6 . (7 . Page 472
  • 473. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (8 . (9 . (10Exercise No. 156Translate the following verses of the Qu’rān. (1 Page 473
  • 474. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (2 (3 . . (4. (5 (6 . . (7 . Page 474
  • 475. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 73 ( )Note 1: Although the term ( ) generallyindicates the ( ), but the ( ),( ), ( ) and ( ) are alsoincluded in it.In ( ) and ( ), the scales of the( ), ( ), ( ) and some ofthe ( ) were discussed from Lessons 22 till25. The remaining ( ) and ( )scales will be enumerated in this lesson.1. The ( ), like its verb, also renders ( )to the ( ) and ( ) to the ( ), if thefollowing conditions are met: a) It must have ( ), b) It must occur after ( ), Page 475
  • 476. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four c) It must occur after ( ), d) It occurs as a ( ) in the sentence, e) It occurs as a ( ) in the sentence.Examples: =) (1 .( (2 . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (7Note 2: You have learnt in Lesson 42.6 and 52.4that the ( ) prefixed to the ( ) and the( ) is generally in the meaning of ( ),the ( ). Page 476
  • 477. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four2. In the above-mentioned five sentences, the firstnoun after the ( ) is the ( ) and thesecond noun is the ( ). In the sixth example,the pronouns of the dual and the plural whichcan be understood from the ( ) are the( ) and the word ( ) is the ( ). In thefinal example, the ( ) has two objects( ).3. The ( ) is used most often with ( ),that is, it is ( ) to its ( ). This isparticularly in the case when the action occurs inthe past tense, e.g. ( ) – Zaid is thedrinker of the coffee, that is, he is a habitualdrinker of coffee.( ) – All praises are dueto Allāh, the originator of the skies and the earth.( ) – Mahmūd is the killer of thelion.In these three examples, the action is understoodto have occurred already. Page 477
  • 478. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four4. You know that the ( ) of the ( ) and( ) is elided when it is ( ).However, a speciality of the ( ) is thateven without ( ), the ( ) is sometimes elided.Examples:On the right side, the ( ) is ( ) whileon the left, it is not ( ) because thesucceeding word is the ( ) and is therefore( ).( )5. In Lessons 22 and 25, from the ( ) and( ), the scales of the ( ) were Page 478
  • 479. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourenumerated. Revise those scales.6. The ( ) does the work of the( ), that is, it renders ( ) to the( ) and if there are two ( ), itrenders ( ) to the second one, e.g.( ) – Zaid’s horse was surpassed.( ) – Khālid’s two brotherswere taught weaving.( )7. The ( ) is a word that is derived froman intransitive verb to indicate the attribute ofsome being, e.g. ( – good), ( – beautiful),( – easy), ( – happy), ( – lazy).Note 3: The difference between ( ) and( ) is that the meaning of the verbal nounis temporary in the ( ) and permanent in Page 479
  • 480. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe ( ), e.g. the word ( ) indicates theact of hitting, emanating from a doer and thisattribute does not remain with him all the time.The word ( ) indicates that beauty is apermanent attribute of someone. It is notsomething that emanated temporarily from him.8. The word-forms of ( ) come ondifferent scales and they are all ( ) – as heardfrom the Arabs. Only a few are ( ) and theseare as follows: (1) the words which indicate colours,defects and forms are on the scale of ( ) for thesingular masculine and ( ) for the singularfeminine. The plural of both is ( ) as you learntin Lesson 23, e.g. ( – – ) – red.Note 4: When the scale of ( ) is used for( ), it is called ( ) and when it isused for ( – the superlative), it is called Page 480
  • 481. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ). (2) The scale ( ) is used mostly toindicate the profession of someone, e.g. ( –tailor), ( - carpenter), ( - baker), ( –one who cups blood), ( – cloth merchant), etc.Sometimes this scale is made from ( ), e.g.from ( – vegetables) the word ( –greengrocer) is derived and from ( – camel),the word ( – camel driver) is derived.9. For words other than ( ), the scale of the( ) is used for the ( ), e.g. ( –peaceful), ( – straight).10. The ( ) also renders ( ) to the ( )but it is used most often with ( ), e.g.( – his face is handsome). The word( ) is the ( ) of ( ) and is therefore Page 481
  • 482. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ). In the phrase ( – handsomefaced), the ( ) is ( ) to its ( ). (Itwould be preferable to revise Lesson 23 inVolume 2.)Besides these two forms, the ( ) is used inother ways which are rarely used. You may readabout these in the detailed books of Grammar.( )11. If the ( ) has an intensive meaning, itis referred to as ( ), e.g. ( – verylearned), ( – most ignorant).Note 5: Although the ( ) also has anintensive meaning, the intensity is in comparisonto something else. See Lesson 24. The ( )is not compared to anything else.12. All the scales of ( ) are ( ), the most Page 482
  • 483. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourcommon of which are: Scale Example Meaning shedder of blood very learned very big very truthful eternal very sacred one who changes a lot very quarrelsome very virtuous one who speaks a lot very amazing distinguisher one who finds faults very cautious very learned Page 483
  • 484. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four one with a big load13. There is no difference in gender for the scalesof ( ). Some word-forms which have a ( )suffixed to them, are not feminine. This is the ( )of ( ), e.g. ( – very learned). However, ifthe scale of ( ) is used for the ( ), a ( ) is usedto denote the feminine form, e.g. ( – avery helpful man), ( – a very helpfulwoman). If the scale of ( ) is used for the( ), there will be no difference, e.g. (= – an injured man), ( – an injuredwoman). Yes, in some examples, the adjectivecorresponds to the ( ), e.g.( – a beloved woman).If the scale ( ) is used for a ( ), a ( ) will besuffixed to it for the feminine form, e.g.( – a male camel with a load), Page 484
  • 485. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( – a female camel with a load).However, if it has the meaning of a ( ), therewill be no difference, e.g. ( – an asceticman), ( – an ascetic woman).( )14. You have studied the paradigm of( ) and the method of its usage inLesson 24 in detail.The word-form of ( ) is generally usedfor the ( ). However, sometimes it is used forthe ( ), e.g. ( ) – very excused, ( – verypreoccupied), ( – very famous), ( – verywell-known).The ( ) also renders ( ) to the ( ).However, with regards to ( ), this effectof it is only found in one sentence, namely, Page 485
  • 486. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( )-Ihave not seen anyone in whose eye the colliriumlooks more beautiful than the eye of Zaid. Theword ( ) has rendered ( ) to the word( ) in this sentence. Many examples of thisnature can be constructed. More details can befound in the elaborate and exhaustive books.( )15. The noun which has a ( ) suffixed to itis called ( ), e.g. ( ) – Egyptian,( ) – one connected to knowledge.Although the ( ) is generally an( ), by suffixing a ( ) to it, anadjectival meaning is created in it. Hence, like an( ), it occurs as the adjective of a noun, orthe ( ) of a ( ), e.g. ( ) – a dailynewspaper, ( ) – This man is an Page 486
  • 487. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourEgyptian.16. Keep the following factors in mind whenconstructing the ( ): (1) delete the ( ) from the end of a noun,e.g. from ( ), the ( ) will be ( );from ( ), it will be ( ). (2) the extra alphabets within a word areelided, e.g. ( ) from the word ( ). (3) some nouns are ( ) – theirfinal alphabets are elided. At the time of ( ),these alphabets revert to their original positions,e.g. from the word ( ) which was originally ( ),we attain ( ); from ( ) which was originally( ), we obtain ( ). (4) the ( ) and the hamzah ( ) of( ) when it is extra, will be changed to a Page 487
  • 488. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ), e.g. ( ) changes to ( ), ( ) changesto ( ), ( ) changes to ( ). If the hamzah of ( ) is original, itwill remain, e.g. ( ) changes to ( ). (5) the plural of ( ) is most often( ), e.g. ( ) – Egyptians. Sometimesthe broken plural is used, e.g. ( ) is the pluralof ( ), ( ) is the plural of ( ).17. Remember the following ( ) inparticular: Original Meaning Noun Umayyad Bedouin of Hadramout, a city of Yemen spiritual Page 488
  • 489. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four of the Lord Quraishite Nazarene natural of Rayy, a city of Persia YemeniVocabulary List No. 60 Word Meaning (1) to make dumb (1) to make someone speak the book revealed to Ísā time, season maternal, illiterate ( ) harm, misery explanation, exposition Page 489
  • 490. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to repent complete ember clothing bosom friend, hot water true believer, orthodox to be hard-hearted fault-finder ingenious, quick-witted soft clear living in ease and luxury to hope helper an infernal tree( ) night traveller, to penetrate vicious, malicious Page 490
  • 491. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four edge the hard rock nude, naked rain brave cheerful, humourous flooded, covered,obscure death helpless tottering, reeling gift timid, fearful, coward awakeNote: ( ) was originally ( )–( ). Itwas inverted and made into ( ). This is similarto the word ( – weapon belt) when it is usedin the phrase, ( ) – bristling with arms. Page 491
  • 492. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 157 . . (1 . (2 . (3 . (4 . (5 . (6 . (7 . (8 . (9 (10 . . (11 Page 492
  • 493. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four . (12 .Exercise No. 158Translate the following poetry into English: Page 493
  • 494. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 764: Page 494
  • 495. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 74 The Dual, Plural and Diminutive The Dual1. You have learnt the method of constructing thedual in Lesson 5. Hereunder follow a few specificpoints:Those nouns which are ( ) – that is, thefinal alphabet is elided, at the time of making thedual, this alphabet returns, e.g. from ( )=(and ( ), from ( ) = ( ) and ( ).However, if an alphabet is prefixed or suffixed tothe word in place of the elided letter, it will notreturn in the dual form, e.g. ( ) was originally( ), ( ) was ( ), ( ) was ( ). The dual ofthese words will respectively be ( ), ( ) and( ).The word ( ) was originally ( ), ( ) was ( ). Page 495
  • 496. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe dual forms will be ( ) and ( ). Theelided alphabet does not revert.The ( ) and the hamzah of ( )most often change into a ( ), e.g. from ( ), weobtain ( ), from ( ), we obtain ( ).The dual of ( ) can be ( ) or ( ), butthe ( ) which had been changed to an alif,changes into a ( ) in the dual, e.g. ( ) changes to( ). The Plural2. You may remember that the plural is of twotypes: ( ) and ( ). ( ) isfurther divided into ( ) and ( ). See Lesson5.3. Page 496
  • 497. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourThe Sound Masculine Plural( )3. The sound masculine plural is made from thosenouns which form a ( ) or ( ) of a maleintelligent being, e.g. ( ) – truthfulmen. Besides adjectival nouns, very few otherwords have a masculine sound plural, e.g. ( )– plural of ( ), ( ) – plural of ( ), ( )– plural of ( ), ( ) – plural of ( ), ( ) –plural of ( ) and ( ) – plural of ( ).The plurals of proper names are made on thesound masculine scale, e.g. ( ), etc.The Sound Feminine Plural( )4. The plurals of adjectival nouns which form the( ) or ( ) of ( ) – intelligent femalebeings, are normally ( ), e.g. Page 497
  • 498. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) – pious women.Besides the ( ), the plural of thefollowing nouns is also ( ): a) The noun which has a ( ) – a round tā at the end, whether it is for the feminine gender or for the singular form, e.g. ( )– the plural is ( ). This tā is for ( ). The plural of ( ) is ( ). This tā is for ( ) - the singular form. However, there are a few words which do not have a sound plural, e.g. ( ), ( ) etc. The plural of ( ) is ( ) and ( ), while the plural of ( ) is ( ) and ( ). b) Proper names of females, e.g. the plural of ( ) is ( ). c) Those verbal nouns ( ) which have more than three alphabets, e.g. ( ), ( ). Page 498
  • 499. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four d) Those nouns which have an ( ) or ( ) suffixed to them for the sake of ( ), e.g. the plural of ( - fever) is ( ) and the plural of ( ) is ( ). It also has a broken plural, namely ( ).The Broken Plural( )5. The ( ) is of two types74: ( ) and( ).The ( ) is a plural expressing an amountnot exceeding ten. It has only four scales whichare: Example Scale74 See Lesson 5.3. Page 499
  • 500. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourNote 1: If ( ) is prefixed to ( ) or it is( ) to such a word which indicates an excessamount ( ), it can refer to more than ten, e.g.( ) – In it (heaven) arethose things which the souls desire and whichplease the eyes.( ) – Honour your children.In these examples, the words ( ), ( ) and( ) indicate an excess amount.If the plural of a noun has only one scale, it mayindicate ( ) or ( ), e.g. the plural of ( ) isonly ( ) and the plural of ( ) is only ( ).The scales of ( ) are many and most ofthem are ( ) - as heard from the Arabs. Onlythe following scales follow a rule: Page 500
  • 501. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four1. ( ) is the plural of ( ), e.g. ( - ), ( ), ( ).2. ( ) is the plural of ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ).3. ( ) is the plural of the ( ) that is ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ).4. ( ) is the plural of ( ), ( ) and ( ), e.g ( ), ( ), ( ). One alphabet has been elided from ( ) and two from ( ).5. ( ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). When the scale of ( ) is used for a feminine word, its plural also comes on this scale ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). Page 501
  • 502. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four6. ( ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ).7. ( ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ). The plural of the superlative ( ) also comes on this scale, e.g. ( ), ( ). This is the case even though it has a sound plural, e.g. ( ). See Lesson 24.8. ( ) is the plural of ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ).9. If the penultimate alphabet of a four-letter word is a ( ), its plural will be ( ), e.g. ( ), ( ).10. ( ) is the plural of ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( - ), ( ), ( ), ( ). Page 502
  • 503. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 11. ( ) is the plural of ( ), ( ) and ( ), e.g. ( - ), ( - ), ( ).The Diminutive( )6. To indicate the diminutive of anything, a nounthat is ( – 3 letter word) is transferred to thescale of ( ) or ( ). This is called ( )or ( ) and the original word is referredto as ( ), e.g. ( ) from the word ( – dog),( ) from ( ), ( ) from ( ), ( ) from( ) which was originally ( ), ( ) from ( )and ( ) from ( ). The first noun is( ) and the second one is ( ).If the word is ( – 4 lettered), the scale for thediminutive is ( ), e.g. ( ) from ( ) and Page 503
  • 504. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( ) from ( ).If a word is ( – 5 lettered), and it does nothave a ( ), the same scale of ( ) is used forthe ( ), e.g. ( ) from ( ). Thefinal alphabet has been elided.If the word has a ( ), the scale for the( ) will be ( ), e.g. ( ) from( ) and ( ) from ( ).Note 2: If the harakah of the alphabet precedingthe ( ) corresponds to it, that is, an ( )preceded by ( ), a ( ) preceded by ( ) or a( ) preceded by a ( ), it is called ( ), e.g. ( ),( ), ( ).If it does not correspond, it will be called ( ), e.g.( ), ( ).7. Remember the ( ) of the followingnouns in particular: Page 504
  • 505. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Noun DiminutiveVocabulary List No. 61 Word Meaning (1) to keep ready, to observe( ) spear those (same as ) (7) to take out or to throw an arrow (2) to provide accommodation Page 505
  • 506. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four white, sharp sword fine spear archer fixed, immovable curtain bed arrow one who cries or screams crown idol large bowl pool, basin of Khatt – a port of Bahrain sharp sword Page 506
  • 507. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four equipment, instrument, device compatriot, among, numerous honourable, dominant horserider cooking pot, deg ( ) to intend, to adopt moderation part of the front of a house that is attractive, recess in musjid wall fresh, living in luxuryExercise No. 159Examine the plurals in the following verses anddetermine the singular form of each one. (1 . Page 507
  • 508. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four (2 . (3 . (4 . . (5. . (6 Page 508
  • 509. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourExercise No. 160(A) Translate the following poetry:(B) The following verses have the ( )contained in them. Underline each of the( ). The origins of these words areprovided after the verses. Page 509
  • 510. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourOriginal Diminutive Meaning word dot musk rose birthmark, beauty spot tatoo cheek that shining forenoon face moon good luck Page 510
  • 511. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four child antelope outer garment, jubbah dreadful influence, attack lion Page 511
  • 512. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four Lesson 75 The ( )1. The ( ) are those words which are notverbs but have the meanings of verbs. They areall indeclinable ( ).2. Most of them have the meaning of theimperative ( ) while some have the meaning ofthe perfect tense ( ). The following verbshave the meaning of the imperative ( ): 1) ( ) – come. Like the ( ), it also has a paradigm:e.g.( ) – Say O people of the book, come to aword that is equal between us and you that we donot worship anyone besides Allah. Page 512
  • 513. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 2) ( ) – give, bring. It also has a paradigm:e.g.( ) – Say, bring yourevidence if you are truthful. 3) ( ) – take. Its plural is ( ), e.g. ( ) – Here, take my book of deeds and read it. Sometimes the pronoun of the second person ( ) is attached to it and a paradigm is constructed as follows: 4) ( ) – come, go, bring. This verb can either be transitive, e.g. ( )– Those who are saying to their brothers, “Come to us,” or intransitive, e.g. ( ) – Bring your witnesses. The phrase ( ) is very commonly used. Literally it means, “continue pulling”. Consequently it conveys the meaning, Page 513
  • 514. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four “understand this in a like manner, and so on, etc.” similar to the phrase, ( ), which means, by analogy or correspondingly.Note 1: This word is ( ) in the dialect ofHijaz, that is, it is used with this word-form forthe singular, dual, plural, masculine and femininewithout any change, as is clear from the aboveexamples. However, in the dialect of the BanūTamīm, it is ( ) and it has a paradigm,namely, ( ). 5) ( ) – come, e.g. ( ) – She said, “Come to me.” He replied, “I seek the refuge of Allah.” The pronoun of the second person ( ) changes according to the number of listeners, e.g. ( , ). 6) ( ) – choose, take, help yourself to, e.g. Page 514
  • 515. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four( , ) – Choose gentleness;( ) – Adopt the fear of Allah.The feminine forms can also be constructedfrom it.7) ( ) – Bring him to me.8) ( ) – Keep away from me.9) ( ) – take this.10) ( ) – take, e.g. ( ) – take the date.11) ( ) – hasten, advance, e.g. ( ) – Hasten towards salāh.12) ( ) – wait, leave it.13) ( ) – leave, e.g. ( )– Leave thinking about something that is not necessary for you. Page 515
  • 516. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 14) ( ) – stop. 15) ( ) – be silent, keep quiet. 16) ( ) – accept. 17) ( ) – beware, be cautious; ( ) – descend. Similarly, there can be many ( ) on the scale of ( ).3. The ( ) which have the meaning of theperfect tense ( ) are as follows: 1) ( ) – to be distant, e.g. ( ) – Distant (far- fetched) is that which you are promised. 2) ( ) – what a difference between, how different they are, e.g. ( ) – What a difference is there between the learned and the ignorant one. Page 516
  • 517. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four 3) ( ) – hastened, e.g. ( ) – Old age hastened to the ones with worry.Note 2: There is ( - intensity) in the above-mentioned three words. The Specialities of Some Verbs4. The following verbs are most often used in thepassive tense ( ):Translation Example Meaning WordI was pleased to be happyto meet you.The one who to bedisbelieved puzzledwas puzzled.He is to beunconscious. unconsciousRashīd liked to likethe speech of Page 517
  • 518. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourthe Bedouin.There is noharm on the to beone who is compelledcompelled (toeat harām). to adore to adore to have a cold to have a headacheSo and sowas to beconcerned concernedwith the Page 518
  • 519. Arabic Tutor – Volume Fourpublishing ofthis book.The verb ( ) can be read as ( ) as well, e.g.( ) – I made you a friend.From the verb ( ), the form of the firstperson ( ) is most often used as ( ), e.g.( ).Vocabulary List No. 62 Word Meaning (7) to smile (1) to have enmity enemy (1) to overlook more glorious to reveal, to disclose Page 519
  • 520. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to test, to try potency to arrive in the evening, to leave relevant, correct chain to go east, to go to complain to complain ( ) to pour ( ) to pardon, to forgive( ) to be miserly (3) to assault, to attack benefit, gift, award to come early in the morning, to go, to leave the finest, the best to go west, to go away Page 520
  • 521. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four iron collar stupid, dull-witted denier to be a neighbour to untie, to unravel war share (of positive qualities, of religion) parrot sleep( ) to attack suddenly, to assasinate ( ) to dispel worries, grief worry, sorry, grief, distress peaceable, peace-loving picture ) habitation, eg. villa ( to incline Page 521
  • 522. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four to turn away, to deviate, to digress realm, kingdom arrow vicissitudes, ups and downs strong emotion, passion desire, love excusable love, legal desireExercise No. 161(A) Translate the following stanzas of poetry andnote the use of the verbs. ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) Page 522
  • 523. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( 4) ( 5) ( 6) ( 7) ( 8) ( 9)(B) Translate the following anecdote whichcontains some of the ( ). . . .. . . .. . Page 523
  • 524. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four ( ) . Some Specialities of PoetryThe following factors which are not permitted inprose are permitted in verse: (1) It is permissible to read a tanwīn on a ( ) word, e.g. Sometimes, in order for the words to correspond, this is permitted in prose as well, e.g. ( ) and ( ) can be read as ( ) and ( ). Page 524
  • 525. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(2) It is very common to lengthen the fathah,dammah and kasrah and read them like an( ), ( ) and ( ). The sound of a yaa is madeon the final jazam. Sometimes the sound of a( ) is made, e.g.In these verses, ( ) has been read as ( ),( ) as ( ) and ( ) as ( ) in order thatthese words rhyme. Page 525
  • 526. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four(3) Sometimes a kasrah is read at the end of averb for the sake of rhyming, e.g. Here the word ( ) is read as ( ).(4) The sound of a ( ) is read at the end of theparticles ( ), ( ) and ( ). They are read as( ), ( ) and ( ), e.g.(5) The hamzah of ( ), ( ) and ( ) is deletedin pronunciation, e.g.In order to fit the scale of the poetry, ( ) is Page 526
  • 527. Arabic Tutor – Volume Four read as ( ) and ( ) is read as ( ).(6) It is also permitted in Arabic poetry at the timeof necessity to divide the final word of the firststanza into two parts. The first part remains in thefirst stanza, while the second part of the wordforms the beginning of the second stanza, e.g.With the help of Allāh and His divinely-givenability, the fourth volume of Arabic Tutor hasbeen completed. All praises are due to Allah . Page 527
  • 528. Arabic Tutor – Volume FourMay He accept it from me and grant benefit to thestudents by means of it. The End. Page 528

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