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Arabic tutor 1

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Arabic tutor 1

  1. 1. Volume One A Translation of popularly known asMadrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  2. 2. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyahAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission ofMadrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied incritical articles and reviews.Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for IslamicResearch, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, SouthAfrica. Page 2 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  3. 3. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneTitle Arabic Tutor - Volume OneAuthor Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān ( )Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm MuhammadFirst Edition R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007Published by Madrasah In’aamiyyah P.O. Box 39 Camperdown 3720 South AfricaTel +27 31 785 1519Fax +27 31 785 1091email al_inaam@yahoo.com Page 3 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  4. 4. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneÀbdullāh Ibn Àbbās narrates that Rasūlullāh said,“Love the Arabs for three things: • because I am an Arab, • the Qur’ān is in Arabic and • the language of the people of Jannah is Arabic.” Page 4 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  5. 5. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Contents of Each VolumeVolume One: Lesson 1 to Lesson 15Volume Two: Lesson 16 to Lesson 25Volume Three: Lesson 26 to Lesson 43Volume Four: Lesson 44 to Lesson 75 Page 5 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  6. 6. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Contents Transliteration........................................................................10 Introduction............................................................................13 Reviews of this Book .............................................................17 Indications ..............................................................................25 Notes........................................................................................25 Request....................................................................................26 Translators Note ...................................................................26 Terminology ...........................................................................28 Terminology ...........................................................................28Lesson 1.......................................................................................31 Words and the Types of Words...........................................31 The Types of Nouns ..........................................................32 The Types of Definite Nouns...........................................33Lesson 2.......................................................................................35 The Particles of ( ) and ( ).......................................35 Vocabulary List No. 1 .......................................................38 Exercise No. 1.....................................................................40 Test No. 1 ............................................................................42Lesson 3.......................................................................................44 Compounds ............................................................................44 The Adjectival Phrase .......................................................45 Vocabulary List No. 2 .......................................................47 Exercise No. 2.....................................................................49 Page 6 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  7. 7. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneLesson 4.......................................................................................50 Gender.....................................................................................50 Vocabulary List No. 3 .......................................................52 Exercise No. 3.....................................................................53Lesson 5.......................................................................................55 Singular and Plural ...............................................................55 Vocabulary List No. 4 .......................................................59 Exercise No. 4.....................................................................61 Test No. 2 ............................................................................62Lesson 6.......................................................................................64 Sentences with a Noun - ....................................64 Vocabulary List No. 5 .......................................................69 The Nominative Detached Pronouns .............................71 Exercise No. 5.....................................................................73Lesson 7.......................................................................................77 The Genitive of Possession...................................................77 Vocabulary List No. 6 .......................................................80 Exercise No. 6.....................................................................84 Test No. 3 ............................................................................86Lesson 8.......................................................................................88 The Scales of Words ..............................................................88 Exercise No. 7.....................................................................93Lesson 9.......................................................................................94 The Broken Plural..................................................................94 Vocabulary List No. 7 .....................................................101 Exercise No. 8...................................................................103 Page 7 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  8. 8. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Test No. 4 ..........................................................................106Lesson 10...................................................................................108 The Cases of Nouns.............................................................108 The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns ...............109 Vocabulary List No. 8 .....................................................118 Exercise No. 9...................................................................119Lesson 11...................................................................................123 The Genitive of Possession.................................................123 Vocabulary List No. 9 .....................................................133 Exercise No. 10.................................................................135 Test No. 5 ..........................................................................140Lesson 12...................................................................................142 Indicative Pronouns ............................................................142 Vocabulary List No. 10 ...................................................147 Exercise No. 11.................................................................148 Test No. 6 ..........................................................................151Lesson 13...................................................................................152 Interrogative Pronouns.......................................................152 Vocabulary List No. 11 ...................................................156 Exercise No. 12.................................................................157 Test No. 7 ..........................................................................164Lesson 14...................................................................................166 The Verb................................................................................166 Vocabulary List No. 12 ...................................................173 Exercise No. 13.................................................................176Lesson 15...................................................................................181 The Imperfect .......................................................................181 Page 8 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  9. 9. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneVocabulary List No. 13 ...................................................189Exercise No. 14.................................................................191An Arabic Letter ..............................................................195Test No. 8 ..........................................................................196 Page 9Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  10. 10. Arabic Tutor – Volume One TransliterationThe following method of transliteration of the Arabic lettershas been used in this book: ā b t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s Page 10 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  11. 11. Arabic Tutor – Volume One d t z á í ú gh f q k l m n ū h ī, y Page 11Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  12. 12. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneSome Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows: (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam) May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon him - used for Nabî (Àlaihis salām) Salutations upon him – used for all prophets (Radiallāhu ‘anhu) May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the Sahâbah (Jalla Jalāluhū) The Sublime – used for Allâh (Àzza wa jall) Allāh is full of glory and sublimity( ) (Rahimahullāh) May Allâh have mercy on him – used for deceased saints and scholars Page 12 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  13. 13. Arabic Tutor – Volume One IntroductionFrom the multitudes of letters which this humble writer hasreceived from every corner of India, there still seems to be afervent desire in this age to learn Arabic and to understandthe final message of Allāh , namely the Qur’ān.However, no primary syllabus that conformed to the timeswas presented to the seekers of Arabic – such a syllabusthat could increase the enthusiasm of the learners.The ancient method of teaching Arabic and its syllabusfrom the very outset made one lose courage. Even themodern books have been deficient in creating an urge in thestudent.Experience shows that only a syllabus which has easy rulescoupled with teaching the language can increase theenthusiasm of the student. The rules must assist the learnerin mastering the language. While learning the language, therules are refreshed. Page 13 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  14. 14. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneIn reality, choosing such lessons and providing a sequencefor them is no ordinary task. This is merely the grace of theAlmighty Allāh who made this writer accomplish suchan enormous task.“That is the grace of Allāh. He grants it to whoever Hedesires.”All thanks are due to Allāh that this book was found tobe extremely beneficial wherever it was read or taught.Many seekers of Arabic have written that they had losthope after several attempts. If they had not obtained thisbook, they would not have learnt Arabic.This is the fourth edition of this book. Initially, this bookwas written in two parts. Now it has been divided into fourparts so that it can serve as a proper syllabus for highschools from the fourth class till matric.This is the first part of the book. The lessons have beendecreased when compared to the previous editions.However, the exercises have been increased to an extentthat they can serve the place of an Arabic reader. Page 14 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  15. 15. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThis part contains only fifteen lessons. But you will besurprised to note how much Arabic is taught with such afew lessons. The method of analysing sentences andrecognition has been so well explained, that one cannotachieve this by learning several other prevalent ArabicGrammar books.The key to each part has also been published. Due to this,many learners have learnt Arabic on their own.A student doing self-study can complete this part in aboutsix weeks. However, due to the presence of several othersubjects in high schools, it will be appropriate to make it aone year course in the fourth class. In Arabic seminariesand Dārul Úlūms, where only Arabic is taught, all fourparts of this book can be easily taught in one year.Nevertheless, this book is such that every text bookcommittee and those in charge of the syllabi in themadrasahs should include it in their syllabus in order toremove the difficulties of the students. They will berewarded by Allāh and thanked by the people.The summary of the opinions of the Ulamā of everyprovince of India and the reviews of magazines andnewspapers is that this has been the most successfulattempt to simplify Arabic. This book is worth being Page 15 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  16. 16. Arabic Tutor – Volume Oneintroduced in government and non-govermental schools sothat the teaching of Arabic can be simplified.This humble servant is grateful to all those who renderedbeneficial opinions. May Allāh reward them with thebest of rewards.The following pages contain the valuable opinions of somescholars. This should serve as a means of encouraging theseekers of Arabic. Others will not have to waste their timein looking for the merits of this book.The servant of the students(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān ( )Bindi Bazaar, Bombay, IndiaMuharram 1361 A.H. Page 16 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  17. 17. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Reviews of this Bookby the Úlamā, professors of Arabic, authentic journals and the lovers of ArabicÀllāmah Shabbir Ahmad Úthmānī ( )This book is worth including in the syllabi of the madāris. Itis perhaps the best book written in this subject. The authorhas done a tremendous favour to the seekers of Arabic.Moulānā Manāzir Ahsan Gilānī ( ), teacher at JāmiahUthmāniah, HyderabadMay Allāh reward you. This is a tremendous task. You havefavoured the Muslims greatly. You have decreased aburden from my shoulders.Moulānā Khājah Àbdul Hayy ( ), professor at Jāmi’ahMillīyah, DelhiI taught the first part to the students as an experiment. Ihave found this book to be the easiest from all the bookswritten on this subject.Abul A’lā Maududi, editor of Tarjumanul Qur’ān, Lahore Page 17 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  18. 18. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThis is the most successful effort at explaining the languageof Arabic and its rules.Moulānā Muhammad Nāzim Nadwī ( ), teacher atNadwatul Ulamā, LucknowMany books have been written in India to learn the Arabiclanguage in the shortest period possible. However, I havenot seen any book till now that concisely meets the needs ofthe time. Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to thegratitude and thanks of the Indian students and teachers forhaving written a very beneficial, easy and concise textbookto fulfil this need…From my personal experience I know that this book is veryvaluable in providing benefit. It is worthy of being includedin Arabic madrasahs and English schools so that thestudents can learn the language in a short period. Page 18 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  19. 19. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneMoulānā Àbdul Qadīr Siddīqī ( ), teacher at Jāmi’ahUthmāniah, HyderabadIf this book is included in the syllabus, it will be verysuitable. It is better than other books.Moulānā Àbdul Wāsi’ ( ), teacher at Jāmi’ahUthmāniah, HyderabadI completely agree with the opinion of Moulānā ÀbdulQadīr Sāhib.Àllāmah Sheikh Àbdul Qādir ( ), professor atElphinstone College, BombayThis is a successful endeavour. If this book is included inthe initial Arabic syllabus, it would be more beneficial thanother books.Moulānā Ghulām Ahmad ( ), head teacher at MadrasahÀrabīyah, Jāmi’ Musjid Bombay Page 19 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  20. 20. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneWe have included this textbook in the syllabus of ourmadrasah. Experience shows that it is very beneficial.Moulānā Habībur Rahmān Sherwānī ( ), HyderabadI have studied the book, ‘Àrabī kā Mu’allim’. It seems to bebetter than the previous books.Moulānā Lutfur Rahmān ( ), HyderabadThe success you have achieved in simplifying Arabic hasnot been achieved by anyone, not even by the EuropeanOrientalists. This book is not merely ‘dry’ Grammar but isan excellent textbook of Grammar and an interestingcollection of literature.Janāb Ghulām Àlī, advocate of the High Court, BombaySuch an interesting and easy book of Arabic Grammar hasnot been seen before. My children study it with greatinterest. Page 20 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  21. 21. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneMoulānā Sayyid Muhammad Yahyāpūr ( ), IlāhabādThere is no doubt that the author will long be rememberedfor this book and in the hereafter it will be a means of greatreward for him.Moulānā Muhammad Sa’īd ( ), SultānpūrThe books of Punjab and U.P. and the book ‘Kalāme Àrabī’ ofMeerut are non-entities in front of your book.Moulānā Muhammad Siddīq Kīrānwī ( )This humble servant has several books of this type e.g.Raudatul Adab, Kalāme Àrabī etc. However, the excellentmanner in which you have presented the summary fromMīzān till Kāfiyah cannot be found in the above-mentionedbooks.Moulānā Sa’īduddīn Khān ( ), IndorIndeed Arabic has been simplified. Your effort is worthcongratulating. Page 21 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  22. 22. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneZamīndār, a newspaper of LahoreWithout exaggeration, we can say that the learned authorhas achieved extraordinary success. In our opinion thisbook is worth including in the syllabi of all government andnon-government schools where Arabic is taught. Wespecifically request the Punjab Text Book Committee togrant the students the opportunity to benefit from it.Al-Jam’īat, a newspaper of Delhi“Arabī Kā Mu’allim” in reality conveys the meaning of itsname – that is, it is an Arabic tutor. My desire is that theprincipals of Arabic institutes include it in their syllabi.The Journal “Adabī Dunyā” of DelhīMany books have been written till now in the modern trendin order to simplify Arabic. I have seen practically all ofthem. However, the manner in which Moulanā ÀbdusSattār Khān has simplified a complex language such asArabic cannot be found anywhere. Page 22 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  23. 23. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThe newspaper “Zamzam” of LahoreThe manner of teaching and understanding adopted in thisbook does not create any burden on the mind. Every fact isthoroughly learnt like a known fact. In our opinion there isno better series to promote Arabic.The Journal “Balāgh” of AmritsarMoulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to congratulationsfor having converted this stone (Arabic Grammar) intowater. He has explained all the rules from Mīzān till Kāfiyahin an easy-to-understand manner.Ilāhī Bakhsh, MalayaI have ordered many books of Arabic Grammar andMorphology written in Urdu and English and have spentmuch money on them. But by Allāh, these books have novalue in front of your book. I do not have sufficientpowerful words to describe the assistance I have receivedfrom your book in learning Arabic. Even now, if a Muslimfinds Arabic to be difficult, he is unfortunate and lackscourage. Page 23 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  24. 24. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneJanāb Muhammad Hanīf, Upper Primary School,HazārībāghI had a desire to study Arabic for a long time. I used manybooks but it was futile. When I studied your book, Imastered Arabic in a very short while. The surprising thingwas that I received no assistance from any teacher. Yourbook in reality is a mirror of the Arabic language.Muhammad Sharafud-dīn, HyderabadI thought that Arabic was so difficult that I could not evenimagine learning it. However, as soon as I saw your book,my courage increased and I began studying it. I completedthe first part in a few days. Now send me the second part. Ido not think there is any book easier than this one.Dr. Muhammad Àbdul Quddūs, MadrasI read the first part of your book. It helped metremendously to the extent that now I am able to write afew sentences in Arabic. Undoubtedly your book will createa great revolution. Page 24 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  25. 25. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThis amount of recommendation is sufficient for the onewho understands; otherwise so many reviews werereceived that a separate book could be compiled for thispurpose. Indications1) The inverted comma ( ) is used to indicate the plural of anoun.2) In order to refer to a particular lesson, the lesson numberand fact number will be mentioned in brackets thus: (5-2)meaning lesson number 5, fact no. 2.3) The ( ) of the verb is mentioned in brackets after it. Notes1) Do not start a new lesson until you have mastered theprevious one.2) Translate each exercise with particular care.3) Sometimes you may not understand a point. Remainsteadfast and seek the assistance of someone. Perhaps lateron you will understand the point yourself. Page 25 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  26. 26. Arabic Tutor – Volume One RequestA request is made to the teachers to study the bookthoroughly before teaching it. During your teaching stint,you will be able to refer your students to previous lessonseasily. There is no need to memorize the rules parrot-fashion. As you continuously repeat the examples, the ruleswill become ingrained in your mind. You will also learn theArabic terms at the same time. It is appropriate to teach thebook twice. First teach it superfluously and then in detailthe second time. Translators NoteTranslating is indeed a difficult task and I therefore do notclaim to have fulfilled the right of translating this book. Iask the reader to overlook all shortcomings. Thoseattempting to translate any work of this calibre, will realizethe great hurdles one has to overcome, especially wherethere are many technical terms involved.I have made an attempt to clarify the text as much aspossible and simplify the rules so that the beginner cangrasp them quickly. Where there was a need, I have addedexplanatory footnotes. Page 26 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  27. 27. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThe original Urdu text of the book contains many errors,especially in the Qurānic verses. I have corrected these inthe English version. In many cases, I have used tables toenlist sentences or examples. This was done for the sake ofgreater clarity although the original text does not have suchtables. Many new Arabic words used in the exercises havenot been mentioned in the vocabulary. I have enlisted theseas well. Many singular words did not have their pluralslisted. I have included these also for the benefit of thestudents.I have used the arrow sign ( ) to indicate the direction ofthe text. In some cases, the text has to be read from left toright as in English, while in other instances, it has to be readfrom right to left as in Arabic.I have provided the English equivalents of the Arabicgrammatical terminology for the sake of information. Thestudent need not learn the English terms. If one learns theArabic terms and understands them well, it is sufficient.May Allāh accept this humble effort from me and make ita means for my salvation, Āmīn. Page 27 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  28. 28. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Terminology Terms Meanings the diacritical points namely fathah ( ), kasrah ( ) and dammah ( ). a letter with a harakah the diacritical point ( ) also known as jazm fathah ( ) kasrah ( ) dammah ( ) two fathahs ( ), two kasrahs ( ) or two dammas ( ) the sound of the nūn created when reading the tanwīn a letter having a fathah, eg. ( ) a letter having a kasrah, eg. ( ) a letter having a dammah, eg. ( ) a letter having a sukūn, eg. ( ) Page 28Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  29. 29. Arabic Tutor – Volume One a letter having a tashdīd ( ) to make a noun definite to make a noun indefinite the ( ) attached to a noun the noun having ( ) singular dual plural a collective plural, e.g. ( ) - nation masculine – also known as ( ) feminine – also known as ( ) the letters of the alphabet ( ), ( ) and ( ) Page 29Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  30. 30. Arabic Tutor – Volume One the letters besides the ( ) One hamzah is that of the ( ). Another hamzah is an alif that is mutaharrik ( ) or an alif having jazm like the alif of ( ) The initial hamzah of a word which is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word, e.g. ( ) Page 30Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  31. 31. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 1 Words and the Types of Words1. A word having a meaning is called ( ). It is of threetypes: ( ) – noun, ( ) - verb and ( ) - particle.An ( ) is independent of other words in indicating itsmeaning. It also does not have any tense, e.g. ( ) – man,( ) – specific name, ( ) – to hit, ( ) – good, ( )–he, ( ) – I.A( ) is a word that indicates some action together withone of the three tenses, e.g. ( ) – he hit, ( ) – he went,( ) – he is going or he will go.A( ) is a word whose meaning cannot be understoodwithout an ( ) or ( ), e.g. ( ) – from, ( ) – on, ( ) –in, ( ) – till, ( ) – The man went to the Page 31 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  32. 32. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onemusjid.The Types of Nouns2. Nouns are of two types:(1) ( ) – definite and(2) ( ) – indefinite.An indefinite noun is a word which refers to a generalthing. The word ( ) – a man, does not refer to anyspecific person. It can refer to any person. The word ( )does not refer to any particular good thing. Every goodthing can be called ( ).A definite noun refers to a specific thing. Zaid ( ) is thename of a particular person. Makkah ( ) is the name of aspecific city. ( ) – the man - refers to a specific person. Page 32 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  33. 33. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThe Types of Definite NounsDefinite Nouns are of seven categories: 1. ( ) – proper nouns, e.g. ( ), ( ). 2. ( ) - pronouns, e.g. ( ) – he, ( ) – you, ( ) - I. 3. ( ) - the demonstrative pronoun, e.g. ( ) – this, ( ) – that. 4. ( ) - the relative pronoun, e.g. ( ) – who, ( ) – who (feminine). 5. ( ) – vocative case, e.g. ( ) – O man, ( ) – O boy. 6. ( ) - the noun having ( ), e.g. ( ) the horse, ( ) – the man. 7. ( ) – a noun which is related to any of the above-mentioned definite nouns, e.g. ( )– Zaid’s book, ( ) – this person’s book, ( ) – the book of the man. Page 33 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  34. 34. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneNote: In these examples, the word ( ) has becomedefinite.Besides the above-mentioned definite nouns, all othernouns are indefinite. They are also of several types, two ofthe main categories being:(1) ( ) – a word that denotes the being ofsomething, living or non-living, e.g. ( ) – man, ( )–horse, ( ) – stone.(2) ( ) - a word that indicates the quality ofsomething, e.g. ( ) – beautiful, ( ) – ugly. Page 34 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  35. 35. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 2 The Particles of ( ) and ( )1. The tanwīn1 is generally attached to a word that isindefinite. In this case, it is regarded as a particle thatrenders a noun indefinite ( ).2 It is translated as ‘a’or ‘an’ in English, e.g. ( ) – a man, ( ) – an apple, ( )– water. There is no need to translate it everywhere as in theexample of ( ) – water.Note 1: Sometimes a proper noun also has tanwīn, e.g.( ), ( ), ( ). In such a case, the tanwīn is notregarded as a ( ).2. The definite article of Arabic is ( ).3 It is also called ( ). When ( ) is prefixed to any indefinite word, itbecomes definite. Now the word is termed as ( )–1 See Terminology on page 22.2 This is similar to the letter ‘a’ in English.3 It is similar to the word ‘the’ in English. Page 35 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  36. 36. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onea word made definite by ( ). Consequently, ( ) – a horse,is indefinite while ( ) – the horse, is definite.3. When ( ) is prefixed to a word having tanwīn, thetanwīn falls off. Note the above example.4. When any word precedes a word having ( ), the firstword is joined to the lām of the second word andpronounced (by joining). The hamzah of the ( ) is knownas hamzatul wasl.4 It is not pronounced, e.g. ( ) – thedoor of the house. To read ( ) here is incorrect.Note 2: If there is a sākin letter before the ( ), the sākinletter is normally read with a kasrah. However the word( ) is read with a fathah. Therefore, ( ) is read as ( ) and ( ) is read as ( ).5. When a word having tanwīn precedes the definite article,the nūn of the tanwīn5 is rendered a kasrah and joined to4 See under terminology.5 See under terminology. Page 36 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  37. 37. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onethe lām. If after the word ( = ), the word ( )appears, it will be read as ( ).Note 3: The alif of ( ), ( ) and ( ) is also hamzatul wasl.It is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word.Examples: ( ) is read as ( ) – He is a son;( ) is read as ( ) – This is a name;( ) is read as ( ) – Zaid is a son;( ) is read as ( ) – Hāmid is a name.When ( ) is prefixed to ( ) and ( ), the lām of the ( ) isrendered a kasrah and joined to the ( ) and ( ). Therefore( ) is read as ( = ) and ( ) is read as ( = ). This rule is overlooked in general conversation.6. When ( ) is prefixed to a word having one of the lettersof ( ), the lām of the ( ) is assimilated into theharf shamsī, that is, at the time of pronunciation, instead ofreading the lām, the harf shamsī is pronounced. No jazm is Page 37 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  38. 38. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onewritten on the lām in such a case but a tashdīd is written onthe harf shamsī, e.g. ( ) – the sun, ( ) – the man,etc.The ( ) are:Besides these letters, the other letters are called ( ), e.g. ( ) – the moon, ( ) – camel.Vocabulary List No. 1Note 4: After prefixing the definite article to these words,pronounce them. Word Meaning man house dates fruit ignorant Page 38 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  39. 39. Arabic Tutor – Volume One learned good, beautiful bread lesson sin messenger zakāh easy thing prayer light good, clean oppressor just one who forgives transgressor ugly Page 39Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  40. 40. Arabic Tutor – Volume One noble, generous milk water day boy cat day and orExercise No. 1Note 5: When speaking, pause on the last letter, that is, donot read any harakah on the final letter. Read the word( ) as ( ) and ( ) as ( ). If you are reading oneword, pause on its last letter and if you are reading severalwords, pause on the last word, e.g. ( ).(A) Read these words and translate them: Page 40 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  41. 41. Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( 5) ( 4) (3) ( 2) ( 1) (9) (8) (7) ( 6) (12) (11) (10) (13)(B) Translate the following words or phrases into Arabic.Use the definite article ( ) wherever the words are definite.(1) a horse (2) a man (3) a man and a horse (4) bread andwater (5) a man and a fruit and a house (6) the salāh and thelearned man (7) the pious one and the transgressor (8) theman or the horse (9) the milk and the bread (10) a man anda horse (11) the ugly one and the beautiful one (12) a catand a boy (13) the moon and the sun (14) the camel or thehorse. Page 41 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  42. 42. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneTest No. 11. What is the definition of ( )?2. How many types of words are there? Define each onewith examples.3. What is the major difference between a noun and a verb?4. How many tenses are there?5. From the following words, state whether the words are( ), ( ) or ( ).6. Define what is ( ) and ( ) with examples.7. How many types of ( ) are there?8. Say whether the following words are definite orindefinite.9. In the above-mentioned words, what type of ( ) and( ) are they?10. What is the hamzah of ( ) called?11. Join the word ( ) to the words ( ), ( ) and ( ) andread them. Page 42 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  43. 43. Arabic Tutor – Volume One12. When ( ) is added to the words ( ) and ( ), how arethey read?13. What is ( )?14. How is a word having tanwīn joined to a word having( )?15. What are the ( ) and the ( )? Page 43 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  44. 44. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 3 Compounds1. A combination of two or more words is called ( ).The relationship between them is called ( ).2. Compounds are of two types: ( ) incomplete and ( )complete.(a) An incomplete compound ( ) is a combinationof words from which no information, order or desire isunderstood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g. ( )–a good man; ( ) a man’s book.(b) A complete compound ( ) is a combination ofwords from which some information, command or wish isunderstood, e.g. ( ) - The man is good. Thisstatement provides us with the information that the man isgood.( ) – Take the book. The order of taking the book isunderstood from this sentence.( ) – O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. Arequest is understood from this statement. Page 44 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  45. 45. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneA complete sentence is also called ( ) or ( ).3. Incomplete compounds are of several kinds, e.g. ( ), ( ), ( ), etc. Here we willdiscuss ( ). The other types will be discussedlater on, as will complete sentences.The Adjectival Phrase( )4. A ( ) is a compound in which the secondword describes the first word, e.g. ( ) – a piousman. The word ( ) describes the word ( ) with thequality of piety.5. The first part of a ( ) is ( ),6 while thesecond part is ( ). In the above example, the word( ) is ( ) while the word ( ) is ( ).6 See Lesson 1, fact no.4 Page 45 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  46. 46. Arabic Tutor – Volume One6. The first part of ( ) is called ( )7 whilethe second part is called the ( )8. In the above example,the word ( ) is a ( ) while the word ( ) is a( ).7. If the ( ) is indefinite ( ), the ( ) will also be( ), otherwise it will be ( ). In the compound ( ), both parts are ( ) - indefinite. In the phrase ( ), both parts are ( ) - definite.8. The same declension ( )9 that applies to the ( )will apply to the ( ).9. A ( ) and all other incomplete compoundsform part of a sentence.7 a word that is being described.8 adjective.9 This will be discussed in detail in Lesson 10. Page 46 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  47. 47. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneVocabulary List No. 2 Word Meaning garden sea melon big, large deep bad apple pomegranate street palace place mosque king cheese pen Page 47 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  48. 48. Arabic Tutor – Volume One rose good sweet broad strong clean wide great salty small redThe above list contains many ( ) and ( ). Bycombining them, you can form many compounds of ( ) – adjectival phrases. Page 48 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  49. 49. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExercise No. 2(A) Translate the following phrases into English: ( 4) (3) (2) ( 1) (9) ( 8) (7) (6) ( 5) (12) (11) (10) (16) (15) (14) (13) (18) (17) (21) (20) (19)(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:(1) the strong place (2) the small house (3) a beautiful flower(4) the ugly man (5) the broad street (6) a pious man (7) thesweet milk (8) the just king (9) the great palace (10) the easylesson (11) a beautiful horse (12) a sweet fruit (13) the smallplace (14) the good horse (15) the wide house (16) the goodbread or the good milk (17) a pious boy and a transgressingboy (18) the large musjid and the small garden. Page 49 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  50. 50. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 4 Gender1. Arabic words are of two types with regards to gender: (1)( ) – masculine and(2) ( ) – feminine, e.g. ( ) – son is masculine and ( )–daughter is feminine.2. When a tā ta’nīth10 ( ) is appended to the end of amasculine noun, it becomes feminine, e.g. ( ) changes to( ). Similarly ( ) changes to ( ) and ( - king)changes to ( - queen) etc. This rule applies more toadjectives ( ) and sometimes to ( ).3. In some words, the alif maqsūrah ( ) or the alifmamdūdah ( ) is a sign of the word being feminine, e.g.( ) – a beautiful lady; ( ) – radiant.10 The round tā which is a sign of feminine words. Page 50 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  51. 51. Arabic Tutor – Volume One4. Some nouns are feminine without any sign of beingfeminine. They are known as ( ) – as heard fromthe Arabs. The details are as follows: (a) any word referring to a woman, e.g. ( ) – mother; ( ) – bride; ( ) – a woman’s name, or India. (b) the names of countries, e.g. ( ) – Egypt, ( )– Syria, ( ) – The Roman Empire. (c) parts of the body in pairs, e.g. ( ) – hand, ( )– foot, ( ) – ear, ( ) – eye. (d) Besides the above-mentioned nouns, there are other nouns which are used as feminine by the Arabs. Some of them are: earth war wine house wind Page 51 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  52. 52. Arabic Tutor – Volume One market sun fire soul Although some words have a ( ) at the end, they are masculine in usage because they refer to males, e.g. ( ) – name of a poet, ( ) – the leader of the Muslims, ( ) – a very learned scholar.116. Just as an adjective corresponds to its noun in beingdefinite or indefinite, so does it correspond in gender.Vocabulary List No. 3 Word Meaning city wise severe11 This word is used for females as well. Page 52 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  53. 53. Arabic Tutor – Volume One truthful rising tall, long setting obligatory name of a woman the Qur’ān short heart peaceful ignited riverExercise No. 3(A) Translate these phrases into English (4) (3) (2) ( 1) Page 53 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  54. 54. Arabic Tutor – Volume One (8) (7) ( 6) ( 5)(12) (11) (10) ( 9) (14) (13) (17) (16) (15) (18)(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:(1) a beautiful girl (2) the pious caliph (3) the wise man (4)the obligatory zakāh (5) an obligatory salāh (6) a short night(7) the big day (8) the good thing (9) the ugly bride (10) thesetting sun and the rising moon (11) the severe wind (12)the long river (13) the long war (14) the short hand (15) thepeaceful heart (16) Muhammad, the pious (17) the verylearned Fātimah. Page 54 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  55. 55. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 5 Singular and Plural1. In Arabic, words are of three categories with regards tonumber: singular ( ), indicating one, e.g. ( ) – oneman. dual ( ), indicating two, e.g. ( ) – two men. plural ( ), indicating more than two, e.g. ( ) – morethan two men.2. The dual12 is formed by adding ( ) to ( ) - thenominative case13 or ( ) to ( ) - theaccusative or genitive cases14.Examples:( ) – one king, ( ) or ( ) – two kings12 Although the author has referred the student to a future lesson, at thispoint, it will be sufficient for him to remember that there are two forms of thedual: one is with alif and nūn and the second with yā and nūn. Lesson 10 willexplain where to use which one.13 – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.14 – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2. Page 55 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  56. 56. Arabic Tutor – Volume One( ) – one queen, ( ) or ( ) – two queens.Note 1: In the prevalent books of Arabic Grammar andMorphology, the terms ( _) and ( _) are not written.Instead, these terms are expressed in detail as ( ) and ( ). Wehave chosen the former method for the sake of brevity.Note 2: To pronounce ( _) and ( _), one can read thefathah with the sound of an alif and say ( ) and ( ). Suchsigns will come frequently later on. Pronounce them in thismanner wherever one comes across them.3. Plurals are of two types:(a) ( ) – the sound plural(b) ( ) – the broken pluralThe sound plural is one in which the singular form of theword remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end.It is of two types:(i) Masculine ( ) – in which ( ) in ( ) - the Page 56 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  57. 57. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onenominative case15 or ( ) in the accusative and genitivecases are appended, e.g. ( ) – one Muslim, ( ) or( ) – many Muslims.(ii) Feminine ( ) – in which ( ) in the nominativecase or ( ) in the accusative and genitive cases areappended, e.g. ( ) – one (female) Muslim, ( ) or( ) – many (female) Muslims.The broken plural is one in which the form of the singularword is broken, that is, changed. It has no fixed rule formaking it. Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted andsometimes there is merely a change in the harakāt16.Examples:( ) ( ), ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ),( ) ( ). The broken plural will be discussed indetail in Lesson 12.Note 3: The ( ) - sound plural of some feminine15 This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.16 Fathah, dammah, kasrah, etc. Page 57 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  58. 58. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onewords is like the masculine plurals, e.g. the plural of ( )–year, is ( ) or ( ) and sometimes ( ).Note 4: The ( ) that appears at the end of the ( ) - dualform and the ( ) - sound masculine plural iscalled ( )17. See Lesson 10.4. Some nouns are singular in form but refer to a wholegroup. There is no singular for them as well because theyare not plurals in reality. Such nouns are called ( ).Examples:( ) – a nation, ( ) – a group.These words are generally used like plurals in sentences,e.g. ( ) – a pious nation.5. You have learnt in lessons 3 and 4 that the adjectivecorresponds with its noun in ( ), being definite orindefinite and in gender. Now remember that the adjectivehas to correspond with its noun in number as well.17 Since the word ( ) is feminine in Arabic, the adjective also has to befeminine, namely ( ). Page 58 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  59. 59. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneHowever, when the noun being described is ( )–the plural of an unintelligent being18, whether masculine orfeminine, the adjective is generally singular feminine ( ), although it is sometimes plural. One can say ( ) as well as ( ).Vocabulary List No. 4 Word Meaning future sign, verse of the Qur’ān clear, manifest current (present) past quarter, section of a city servant baker18Intelligent beings are humans, angels and jinn. All other creations fall in thecategory of unintelligent beings ( ). Page 59 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  60. 60. Arabic Tutor – Volume One tailor, seamstress tired, exhausted displeased month lazy playing shining cheerful diligent supported busy, preoccupied dark teacher bright carpenter Page 60Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  61. 61. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExercise No. 4(A) Translate these phrases into English (3) (2) ( 1) (7) (6) ( 5) ( 4) (10) ( 9) ( 8)(14) (13) (12) (11)(17) (16) (15) (19) (18) 19 (21) (20) (23) (22)(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic(1) a shining eye (2) the two diligent men (3) thepreoccupied baker (4) the two tired carpenters (5) the brightday (6) the beautiful seamstresses (7) the tired servants (8)the lazy tailor (9) the flowing rivers (10) the large animals(11) the current year (12) the past month (13) the past years19 This is the name Àmr. The ( ) differentiates it from ( ). Page 61 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  62. 62. Arabic Tutor – Volume One(14) the cheerful servantTest No. 2(1) What is a ( )?(2) How many types of compounds are there? Define eachone and provide examples.(3) What is ( )? What is each part of it called?(4) In which aspects does the adjective have to correspondwith the noun? What are the exceptions? Explain withexamples.(5) What are the signs of feminine words?(6) Which words are regarded as feminine without anysigns?(7) In spite of having the signs of being feminine, whichwords are masculine?(8) What is the rule for making the dual and soundmasculine plural forms?(9) What is ( ) and what is the rule for forming it?(10) What are the broken plurals of ( ), ( ) and ( )?(11) What is the plural of ( )?(12) What is the difference between ( ) and ( )? Page 62 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  63. 63. Arabic Tutor – Volume One(13) Form as many ( ) as possible from thefollowing nouns and adjectives: 20 21 22 2320 honey21 milk22 grapes23 round Page 63 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  64. 64. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 6 Sentences with a Noun - ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬1. You have read that a complete statement is called asentence ( ). See 3.2. Remember that sentences are of twotypes: ( ) and ( ).A( ) is one in which the first part is a noun ( ), e.g.( ) – Zaid is handsome.A( ) is one in which the first part is a verb ( ), e.g.( ) – Zaid became handsome.Hereunder follow some rules of ( ) while the ( ) will be discussed in Lesson 14.The first part of a ( ) is generally definite ( ) whilethe second part is indefinite ( ). In the above example,the word ( ) is definite while ( ) is indefinite. Page 64 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  65. 65. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneNote 1: The difference between ( ) and ( ) is that in the latter, both the parts are the same inbeing definite or indefinite while in the former, the first partis definite and the second part is indefinite. Consequently,in the above-mentioned example, if an indefinite noun takesthe place of the word ( ) and you say ( ), or yourender the second word ( ) definite by adding ( ) to it,and say ( ), both these will become adjectivalphrases ( ).However, when the second part of a ( ) is not a wordthat can become an adjective of a noun24, it is permissiblefor the second part also to be definite, e.g.( ) – I am Yūsuf.It is also permissible to insert a separating pronoun ( )between the subject ( ) and the predicate ( ).Examples:( ) – The man is pious.( ) – The men are pious.24 For example, it is ( ), ( ) or ( ). Page 65 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  66. 66. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneIf the pronoun is removed from here, these sentences willbecome adjectival phrases ( ).Note 2: In Arabic, there is no word for ‘is’ as in English.This word is understood from the sentence. Therefore( ) means ‘Zaid is learned’ although the word ‘is’ isnot there.253. The first part of a ( ) is called ( ) - the subject26,while the second part is called the ( ) - the predicate27.4. Generally the ( ) and the ( ) are in ( )28 - thenominative case.5. The predicate conforms to the subject in number andgender, as in the case of the adjective. However when thesubject is ( ) - the plural of a non-intelligentbeing, the predicate is generally singular feminine.25 However, the verb ( ) can provide the meaning of ‘is’.26 In English, the subject of a sentence is a word or phrase that refers to theperson or thing that performs an action.27 In English, the predicate refers to the word or words that say somethingabout the subject but are not part of it.28 A detailed discussion on cases follows in Lesson 10. Page 66 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  67. 67. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExamples: Sentence Meaning Type of Subject The man is singular, truthful. masculine, intelligent The two men dual, masculine, are truthful. intelligent The men are plural, truthful. masculine, intelligent The woman is singular, truthful. feminine, intelligent The two women dual, feminine, are truthful. intelligent The women are plural, feminine, truthful. intelligent The wind is singular, severe. feminine, non- intelligent The two winds dual, feminine, are severe. non-intelligent The winds are plural, feminine, severe. non-intelligentNote 3: In these examples, if the definite article ( ) is added Page 67 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  68. 68. Arabic Tutor – Volume Oneto the second part, or it is removed from the first part, allthese examples will become ( ) - adjectivalphrases.6. If there are two subjects and they are of different types,that is, one is masculine and one feminine, the predicatewill be masculine, e.g. ( ) – The son and thedaughter are beautiful.7. The subject and predicate are sometimes singular andsometimes they are compounds ( ). The examples ofsingular have passed. Hereunder follow the examples of( ): Sentence Meaning Analysis The good man is The subject is present. ( ). Zaid is a good The predicate is man. ( ).8. By adding ( ) or ( ) to a ( ), it changes frompositive to negative. Most often a ( ) is added to the Page 68 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  69. 69. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onepredicate which changes the case to the genitive ( ),e.g. ( ) – Zaid is not learned; ( )–Zaid is not a bad person.9. Very often the word ( ) is prefixed to a ( ). As aresult, the subject changes to ( ) - the accusativecase while the predicate remains unchanged, e.g.( ) – Undoubtedly the earth is round.Note 4: To create the meaning of interrogation in a sentence,( ) or ( ) is added to the beginning, e.g.( ) – Is Zaid learned?;( ) – Is the man learned?Vocabulary List No. 5 Word Meaning or (in a question) cow certainly, why not Page 69 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  70. 70. Arabic Tutor – Volume One new very sitting guard, sentry sheep elephant standing old dog famous believer yes thick Page 70Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  71. 71. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneThe Nominative Detached Pronouns( ) Third Person singular he , it Masculine dual they plural they singular she, it Feminine dual they plural they Page 71 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  72. 72. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Second Person singular you Masculine dual you plural you singular you Feminine dual you plural you First Person (Speaker) I WeNote 5: These pronouns are most often the subject of asentence. Hence they are regarded as ( ) – in thenominative case. See 6.4. They are called ( ) becausethey are pronounced independently. Page 72 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  73. 73. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneNote 6: Also remember that ( ) is always pronounced ( )without the alif.Exercise No. 5Note 7: When speaking, pause (waqf) at the end of sentencesas mentioned in Exercise No. 1. However, initially, continuewriting all the harakāt. (A) Translate the following into English(4) (3) (2) ( 1) (5) (7) (6) ( 8) ( 9) (11) (10) (12) (14) (13) Page 73 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  74. 74. Arabic Tutor – Volume One 29 (16) (15) 30(B) Fill in the blanks which represent a subject or predicatewith suitable words that you have studied. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)29 See 5.2.30 See 5.2. Page 74 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  75. 75. Arabic Tutor – Volume One (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) Page 75Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  76. 76. Arabic Tutor – Volume One(C) Translate into Arabic (1) Is the boy standing? No, he is sitting. (2) Is the girl sitting? No, she is standing. (3) Are the two boys present? Yes, they are present. (4) Are the two girls honest? Yes, they are honest. (5) Are the women truthful? Yes, they are truthful. (6) Is the teacher absent? No, the teacher is present. (7) Are they carpenters? No, they are tailors. (8) Is that Yūsuf? Yes, that is Yūsuf. (9) Are you Mahmūd? No, I am Hāmid. (10) Is the house old? No, the house is new. (11) Are they (plural feminine) seamstresses? No, they are teachers. (12) Are you (pl. m.) learned or ignorant? We are not ignorant. (13) Is not the elephant a great animal? Why not, the elephant is a great animal. (14) Is the dog standing or sitting? The dog is not standing but it is sitting. Page 76 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  77. 77. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 7 The Genitive of Possession ( )1. The compound in which both parts are nouns and thefirst noun is related to the second noun is called ( ). Examples:( ) – the book of Zaid or Zaid’s book( ) – the ring of silver( ) – the water of the river.2. Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as( ).3. The first part of ( ) is called ( ) while thesecond part is called ( ).4. Neither does the definite article ( ) precede the ( )nor is the tanwīn appended to it. Look at the aboveexamples. Page 77 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  78. 78. Arabic Tutor – Volume One5. The ( ) is always ( ) - in the genitive case.6. The ( ) always precedes the ( ).7. The ( ), like ( )31, is not a completesentence but is part of a sentence, e.g. ( ) – Thewater of the river is sweet. In this sentence, ( ) is thesubject while ( ) is the predicate.8. Sometimes there are several ( ) in oneconstruction, e.g. ( ) – the door of the house ofthe leader; ( ) - the door of the house of theminister’s son.The middle ( ) becomes the ( ) of thesucceeding words. Therefore ( ) cannot precede it nor canthe tanwīn be appended to it.9. You have learnt in the first lesson that when an indefinite31 See 3.8. Page 78 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  79. 79. Arabic Tutor – Volume Onenoun is related to a definite noun, it also becomes definite,e.g. ( ) – the slave of Zaid;( ) the slave of the man. The word ( ) – slave –has become definite in these sentences.10. In Arabic, because the ( ) precedes the ( )and no word can interpose between them, the adjective ofthe ( ) has to succeed the ( ), e.g.( ) – the pious slave of the lady. In thisexample, the word ( ) is the adjective of the word( ). Therefore it is ( ),32 singular, masculine anddefinite.Hereunder are more examples. Understand the differencesproperly. The pious son of the man Adjective of the ( )32 in the nominative case. See Lesson 10. Page 79 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  80. 80. Arabic Tutor – Volume One The son of the pious man Adjective of the ( ) The pious daughter of the man Adjective of the ( ) The daughter of the pious woman Adjective of the ( )Note: More rules of ( ) are discussed in Lesson 11.Vocabulary List No. 6 Word Meaning lion obedience Page 80 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  81. 81. Arabic Tutor – Volume One I seek refuge listen, beware wisdom praise going head very beneficent very merciful rejected one husband wife anger king, overpowering sky to seek fragrance shadow Page 81Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  82. 82. Arabic Tutor – Volume One very powerful every, each everything meat ( ) whatever fear mirror salt, salty to forget parents goat calamity forgetfulness just east west Page 82Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  83. 83. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneHereunder are some ( ) which appear beforenouns and convert them to ( ) - the genitive case. Word Meaning Example Meaning Example Meaning with, with a with in man the pen in in a in the house garden on on a on the mountain throne from from from Zaid the musjid to, till to a city till Kufah for, to for Zaid I said to Zaid like, like a similar similar man to the lion from from Zaid Page 83 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  84. 84. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExercise No. 6(A) Translate the following into English: ( 5) ( 4) ( 3) (2) ( 1)(9) (8) ( 7) (6)(13) (12) (11) (10)(16) (15) (14) (18) (17) (20) (19)(23) (22) (21) (24) (26) (25) (28) (27) (29) (31) (30) (33) (32) . (34) Page 84 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  85. 85. Arabic Tutor – Volume One(B) Translate the following into Arabic (1) the goat’s milk (2) the cow’s head (3) the obedience of the mother (4) Zaid’s wealth (5) the elephant’s ear (6) the light of the moon (7) in the house (8) till the market (9) for Allāh and the Messenger (10) on the head and the eye (11) The boy’s name is Hāmid. (12) They are going home. (13) We are sitting in the musjid. (14) The goat’s milk is for the girl. (15) The obedience of Allāh is in the obedience of the Messenger. (16) Āishah , the daughter of Abū Bakr is the wife of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allāh . (17) He is the son of the leader. (18) The anger of Allāh is on the oppressive king. (19) The ignorant one is not like the learned one. (20) The fragrance is not for the boy. (21) She is the daughter of Hāmid’s son. Page 85 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  86. 86. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneTest No. 3 (1) What is the difference between ( ) and ( )? (2) What is the difference between ( ) and ( )? (3) How many parts does a ( ) have? What is each part called? (4) What is the ( )33 of the subject and the predicate? (5) What is the Arabic term for the attaching word? (6) In how many factors does the predicate correspond to the subject? (7) If there are two subjects of different kinds in a sentence, which one is considered for the predicate? (8) What effect does the word ( ) have on the subject? (9) Attach ( ) to a dual word and a sound masculine and feminine plural word and read it. (10) How is a negative meaning and one of interrogation created in a ( )? (11) What is the paradigm34 of the detached nominative33 desinential inflection – that is, inflection of the final radical. Page 86 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  87. 87. Arabic Tutor – Volume One pronouns? (12) In the paradigm of the pronoun, which words are similar? (13) How do you pronounce the word ( )? (14) Construct ten different kinds of ( ). (15) Define ( ) and ( ). (16) What cannot enter on the ( )? (17) What is the ( ) at the end of ( )? (18) What effect do the ( ) have on the noun? In grammar, a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (e.g. write,34writes, wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model for all otherwords of the same type. Page 87 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  88. 88. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 8 The Scales of Words1. In Arabic, the original letters of nouns and verbs are notless than three. The maximum number of letters in a noun isfive, and four in a verb. Together with the original letters,extra letters can also be attached. At such a time, the nounand the verb can have more than five letters.Note 1: The original letter or root letter is the one thatremains in all the forms and derivations. Only in someexceptions is it deleted or changed to another letter.The extra letter is the one that is found in one word-formbut not in another, e.g. in the word ( ), all three lettersare root letters while in ( ), the alif and in ( ), thefirst ( ) and the ( ) are extra letters.2. Words having three root-letters are called ( ), e.g.( ) and ( ).If they have four root-letters, they are called ( ), e.g.( ) and ( ). Page 88 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  89. 89. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneIf they have five root-letters, they are called ( ), e.g.( ).Words made up of only root-letters are called ( ) whilethose having extra letters as well are called ( ), e.g.( ) is ( ) – three root-letters without any extraletters.( ) is ( ) - three root-letters with extra lettersbecause the ( ) and ( ) are extra.Note 2 : To distinguish whether verbs ( ), derived nouns( )35 and verbal nouns ( )36 are ( ) or ( ), the ( ) word-form of the perfect tense( ) has to be examined. If that word-form is free of extraletters, then its derivatives and verbal noun will also beregarded as ( ), e.g. ( ) is ( ). Hence, the35 These are nouns that are derived from the verb, e.g. ( ) and ( ) arederived from the verb ( ).36 Plural of ( ), the infinitive. Page 89 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  90. 90. Arabic Tutor – Volume Oneimperfect tense ( ) which is ( ), the ( )- ,the ( )- and the verbal noun ( ) will alsobe regarded as ( ) although these forms have extraletters.Similarly, in a paradigm, extra letters appear in a ( )word which will still remain ( ). For example, the word( ) is ( ). Therefore, ( ) and ( ) will also be( ).However, ( ) and ( ) are ( ). The former hasone extra ( ) while the latter has an extra alif.3. In order to determine the scales of words and todistinguish the root letters from the extra letters, the scale( ) of ( ) is used. In triliteral words (words with 3root letters), the ( ) represents the first radical (letter) ofthe word, the ( ) represents the second radical of the wordand the ( ) represents the third radical of the word. Page 90 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  91. 91. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExamples:The letter that corresponds to the ( ) of the ( ) is calledthe (ِ ), like the ( ) of ( ), that which corresponds tothe ( ) is called the (ِ ), like the ( ) of ( ) while theletter corresponding to the ( ) is called the (ِ ), likethe ( ) of ( ).When intending to determine the scale of ( ) -quadriliteral (four letter) words, add two lāms instead ofone after ( ) and ( ). In words with five root letters, addthree lāms.Examples: Page 91 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  92. 92. Arabic Tutor – Volume One4. At the time of determining the scale, the alphabets ( ),( ) and ( ) will take the place of the original letters whilethe other extra letters will remain as they are in their places.Examples:However, when a letter is increased by repeating the (ِ ) or the (ِ ), the ( ) or the ( ) is repeated in thescale. For example, in the word ( = ), the first( ) is the (ِ ) while the second one is extra.According to the rule, the scale should have been ( ).Instead its scale is ( ). Similarly, in the word ( ), thefinal ( ) is extra. Its scale will be regarded as ( ).5. A great benefit of recognizing the scales of words is thatby knowing the meaning of the root letters of a word, itbecomes very easy to recognize the meanings of all itsparadigms and derivatives. Page 92 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  93. 93. Arabic Tutor – Volume OneExercise No. 7What are the scales of the following words: (3 ) (2 ) (1 ) (6 ) (5 ) (4 ) (9 ) (8 ) (7 ) (12) (11) (10) (15) (14) (13) (18) (17) (16) (21) (20) (19) (24) (23) (22) Page 93 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  94. 94. Arabic Tutor – Volume One Lesson 9 The Broken Plural1. It was mentioned previously that there is no rule toconstruct the broken plural ( ). It is totally basedon hearing the plural from the people of the language.Hereunder we list some of the scales of the broken pluralwhich are used most often: ( ) : () ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 94 Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/
  95. 95. Arabic Tutor – Volume One ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : () ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Page 95Madrassah Inaamiyyah Camperdown - http://www.al-inaam.com/

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