Gender Differences in Information Search: Implications for Retailing                     Barber, Nelson, Dodd, Tim H., & K...
Practical implications       Consumers bring to the buying decision different types of experiences and expectations.Unders...
INTRODUCTION       Consumers are faced with purchase decisions and not all of these decisions are acted uponequally. Some ...
In general, men are likely to make decisions based on the evaluation of relevant cues in theenvironment, while women are m...
type of information needed when making choices (Engel et al, 2000; Dodd et al., 2005). Aknowledge gap is defined by Engel ...
empirical investigations of consumer information search behavior occurred over fifty years ago(Katona and Mueller, 1954), ...
the internet has become a topic of recent research into search behavior (Peterson and Merino,2003).         Consumers will...
consumer purchase confidence is a collection of prior market experiences; it will vary acrossproduct categories and can be...
Recent studies (e.g. Barber, Ismail and Dodd, 2007; Dodd et al., 2005) investigated thecombined effects of situation and i...
Certain personality traits are associated with masculinity and femininity (Laroche, Saad,Cleveland and Browne, 2000; Palan...
Along these lines it has been put forth that males are strongly guided by tendencies towardself-assertion, self-efficacy, ...
purchasing decisions maybe based on external sources of information, such as friends and family,journalists, and descripti...
Therefore, wine is an appropriate product category because the consumption of wineprovides a variety of drinking situation...
sources of information constructs were: two personal sources of information (recommendationsfrom a clerk/salesperson and/o...
deviation from the mean.Data Analysis       Statistical analysis of the data was computed by using the Windows versions of...
Anderson, Tatham and Black, 1998).       First, an analysis of the dependent variates was performed to determine which dep...
When respondents were asked about their subjective wine knowledge, males (M = 4.3,SD = 1.1) were significantly more likely...
Table 1. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Situational Use                                            ...
In Table 3, significant differences were found among low and high purchase confidenceon the dependent measures, (Wilkss Λ ...
Table 4. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Subjective Knowledge                                       ...
Table 5. Pairwise Comparisons for Situational Use, Subjective Knowledge Gender, and Purchase Confidence Independent Variab...
Post hoc analysis of the interaction results, indicated that when presented with thesituation of purchasing wine for a din...
emerge given different purchase situations, it is because males are more likely to askfamily/friend or for retail assistan...
MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS       This research study’s major contribution is to focus on the role of gender ...
Future studies should consider expanding this research to focus on gender identity asdiscussed by Palan (2001) and persona...
REFERENCESBarber, N. (2005). Wine label design, information and bottle packaging: Influence on wine     buying behaviors. ...
Flynn, L., Goldsmith, R. and Eastman, J. (1996). Opinion leaders and opinion seekers: Two new     measurement scales. Jour...
Consumer Behavior, ed. Lincoln Clark (New York: New York University Press, pp. 30-        87.Laroche, M., Saad, G., Clevel...
Park, C., Mothersbaugh, D. and Feick, L. (1994). Consumer knowledge assessment. Journal of       Consumer Research, 21(1),...
Wells, W. and Prensky, D. (1996). Consumer Behavior. New York: Wiley.Williams, A. (2002). Understanding the Hospitality Co...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2.makale gender differences in_information_search_implications_for_retailing

293

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
293
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2.makale gender differences in_information_search_implications_for_retailing

  1. 1. Gender Differences in Information Search: Implications for Retailing Barber, Nelson, Dodd, Tim H., & Kolyesnikova, Natalia Published in the Journal of Consumer Marketing, 2009, 26(6), 415 – 426 ABSTRACTPurpose The purpose of this study was to examine the influence on search behavior of gender,purchase confidence, and internal knowledge during different purchase situations. It is expectedthat there will be gender differences on search behavior, particularly given different purchasesituations.Design/methodology/approach Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects ofthe independent categorical variables on multiple dependent interval variables. An on-line surveywas distributed to employees in different geographic locations in the U.S.Findings The results of situational use indicate sources of information are perceived differently bymales and females depending on their levels of purchase confidence and internal knowledge,suggesting when consumers consider sources of information, such as retail clerk, family/friendsor themselves, the purchase situation influences that decision.Research limitations/implications The measure of the situational influence through brief descriptions of hypotheticalconsumption situations was required. Such descriptions could not include every possible featureof a natural setting resulting in subjective interpretation by respondents of what are sociallyacceptable, possibly confounding results. Page 1 of 30
  2. 2. Practical implications Consumers bring to the buying decision different types of experiences and expectations.Understanding how males and females seek varied sources of external information is relevant tothe service industry in designing promotional plans whether the product of choice is a restaurant,vacation resort, and hotel or tourism destination such as a winery.Originality/value The contribution of this research is to broaden the understanding of search behavior andthe role gender plays, particularly during different purchase situations.Keywords: purchase confidence, consumer behavior, search behaviorPaper Type: research paper Page 2 of 30
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Consumers are faced with purchase decisions and not all of these decisions are acted uponequally. Some decisions are more complex and thus entail greater effort, while other decisions arefairly routine and require little or no effort. Marketers have determined consumers are diverse inthe amount and type of effort they exert when purchasing products. The significance formarketers and retailers is that the amount expended by a market segment and the type of searcheffort serves as an important determinant for an appropriate marketing strategy. Althoughpersonal and situational variables affecting consumer information search have been welldocumented (for example, involvement, experience, time pressure, and purchase situation), lessis known about the determinants of information search for different purchase situations. Thus, consumer behavior toward information search is an important and criticalcomponent of consumer decision making models. Focusing on the information consumers chooseto reach a purchase decision, an understanding of how consumers reduce uncertainty and increasepurchase confidence can be tested (Engel, Blackwell and Miniaard, 2000; Urbany, Dickson andWilkie, 1989). Research on self confidence has sought to understand product-specific uncertainty and itsinfluence on purchase search behavior (Wells and Prensky, 1996). Several risk reductionstrategies may be adopted by consumers depending on their level of purchase confidence. Onestrategy is the search for additional information, whereby the level of perceived risk will defineconsumers information needs with consumers seeking sources, types, and amounts ofinformation that seem most likely to satisfy their particular needs. Although an individual’s perception of risk is ‘subjective’, the manner in which it isperceived and information evaluated is related to gender (Meyers-Levy and Maheswaran, 1991). Page 3 of 30
  4. 4. In general, men are likely to make decisions based on the evaluation of relevant cues in theenvironment, while women are more likely to make decisions based on the thorough processingof all available information (Darley and Smith, 1995) Thus, when considering purchase confidence, women are less likely than men to takerisks, and when risk is perceived as being present women’s decisions tend to be moreconservative than those of their male counterparts (Rahman, 2000). Meyers-Levy (1994)suggested that gender-based differences in risk-taking proclivity are a result of social rolesand/or biological sources. This study examines the relationship between internal knowledge, search behavior,purchase confidence, and gender differences as they relate to search behavior. The study’sobjectives are to determine the impact of internal knowledge and the purchase confidencedimensions on consumers’ likelihood of choosing a source of information given differentpurchase situations, and develop recommendations regarding gender-based segmentationstrategies for service-oriented organizations. BACKGROUNDInternal Knowledge There are three distinct but related ways in which consumer knowledge is conceptualizedand measured: past product experience, objective knowledge, and subjective knowledge (Brucks,1985). Objective and subjective knowledge are categorized as the two elements of knowledge,while past product experience determines both (Dodd, Laverie, Wilcox, and Duhan, 2005; Park,Mothersbaugh, and Feick, 1994; Raju, Lonial and Mangold, 1995). This internal search of past experience strongly affects future expectations for the sameconsumption experience, particularly if a knowledge gap exists, by adjusting the amount and Page 4 of 30
  5. 5. type of information needed when making choices (Engel et al, 2000; Dodd et al., 2005). Aknowledge gap is defined by Engel et al. (2000) as the absence of knowledge in memory. Forexample, the more information in memory, the greater the potential for internal search, andconversely, the less the need for external information. Mattila and Wirtz (2001, 2002) and Park and Lessig (1981) identified two majorapproaches for measuring product knowledge: one measuring how much a person actually knowsabout the product (objective knowledge) and the other measuring how much a person thinkshe/she knows about a product, or self-assessed knowledge (subjective knowledge). Research by Park et al., 1994 and Dodd et al. (2005) on past experience found that aproduct was more soundly related to subjective than to objective knowledge. It was also foundthat subjective knowledge was a better predictor of search behavior than objective knowledge(Raju et al, 1995). Differentiation between objective and subjective knowledge occurs when consumers donot precisely recognize how much or how little they actually know; and what consumers’ findimportant is not what is provided by the information source, but rather how the information isperceived and how it affects the consumer, particularly during purchase situations. This currentresearch will follow the works of Park et al. (1994) and Dodd et al. (2005) and thus it is expectedconsumer self-assessed knowledge about the product will have a greater impact on consumersearch behavior than objective knowledge.Search Behavior Consumer information search behavior, precedes all purchasing and choice behavior, andhas been a recurrent topic of research. Thus, the literature on consumer information searchbehavior is large and possesses a rich history. For example, one of the most widely cited Page 5 of 30
  6. 6. empirical investigations of consumer information search behavior occurred over fifty years ago(Katona and Mueller, 1954), and a surfeit of research on information search behavior hasfollowed in the past decades. Further, virtually all contemporary consumer behavior textbooks(e.g., Engel, et al., 2000; Williams, 2002) contain extensive discussions of consumer informationsearch behavior. Therefore, the present discussion presents reflective insights to asset thegroundwork to the topic of this article, consumer information search behavior. Consumer information search behavior encompasses what is termed internal and externalinformation search (Brucks, 1985; Williams, 2002).Internal information search involvesmemory, or internal knowledge, and occurs prior to external information search. Externalinformation search refers to everything but memory when searching for information. Althoughinternal and external information search behaviors are conceptually distinct, they are relatedbecause external information search is dependent on memory. Research on external information search has focused on consumers conscious efforts toacquire information for specific purchases, with the general purpose being to reduce uncertaintyand risk (Urbany, et al., 1989). On the other hand, several researchers have suggested that certainconditions actually reduce search behavior such as product familiarity or product attributes (Bettmanand Park, 1980; Williams, 2002). Thus, the sources of information consumers choose to assist in apurchase decision are varied and have been studied in several usage situations (Dodd et al., 2005)and displayed in information search behavior models (Dodd et al., 2005; Vogt and Fesenmaier, 1998;Urbany et al., 1989; Willams, 2000). Included among the information sources typically studied are (Furse, Punj, and Stewart,1984; Dodd, et al, 2005; Williams, 2002): impersonal (magazines, newspaper, television, radio);personal (friends, salespeople, experts); personal hands-on experience (usage experience). Even Page 6 of 30
  7. 7. the internet has become a topic of recent research into search behavior (Peterson and Merino,2003). Consumers will seek external information when making need-satisfying purchase,particularly if they feel uncertain about the product and if internal knowledge is low (Flynn,Goldsmith and Eastman, 1996; Punj and Staelin, 1983). In these cases, they may actively seekinformation from friends, salespeople and/or sales material. These various external sources have their advantages. One advantage of personal sources ofinformation is they are considered credible sources and consumers respect their opinions, byproviding advice that may be suited to the particular purchase decision. The benefit of impersonalsources of information, such as critics, is they are often likely to have greater expertise about theproduct under consideration than individuals with whom the decision-maker comes into directcontact. Though consumer decision models identify information search as an important aspect ofthe purchase decision process, the literature has a critical gap in terms of examining purchaseconfidence, and its association with information sources.Purchase Confidence Self-confidence has been separated into personal and purchase confidence. Personalconfidence relates to a person’s ability to feel confident in typical social situations, where aspurchase confidence is concerned with a consumer’s product knowledge or any type of uncertaintywith purchasing decisions (Veale and Quester, 2007). Bearden, Hardesty and Rose (2001) suggest that consumer purchase confidence is theextent to which a consumer feels capable and assured with respect to marketplace decisions andbehaviors. As such, purchase confidence reflects consumers’ subjective evaluations of their abilityto generate positive experiences in the marketplace. Although Bearden et al. (2001) proposed that Page 7 of 30
  8. 8. consumer purchase confidence is a collection of prior market experiences; it will vary acrossproduct categories and can be differentiated among individuals within product-decision categoriesand purchase situations, resulting in different risk reduction strategies. Therefore, the depth of search, types of sources, types of risk, and personality factors caninfluence search behavior (Dodd et al., 2005: Raju et al., 1995). Depending on the level of internalknowledge, how capable and assured consumers are about their purchase decisions and theimportance of the purchase situation, consumers may use an impersonal source, personal sourceand/or a self determined experience as a risk reduction strategy.Situational Use Most research in consumer behavior has been based on the argument that consumercharacteristics are useful to explain behavior. However, there has been recognition that consumercharacteristics of demographics, life-style and personality have limitations and that situationaldeterminants need to be considered in conjunction with consumer characteristics (Quester andSmart, 1998; Quester, Hall and Lockshin, 1999). Situations in which consumers find themselvescan strongly affect their purchase decision, and because not all situations are controllableconsumers may not follow their normal process for making a purchase decision. Studies have examined the social influence of situational factors in consumer behaviorsuch as gift-giving versus personal usage (Oliver and Bearden, 1985), single versus multipleproduct purchase tasks (Stoltman , Gentry, Anglin and Burns, 1990), and at home versus awayfrom home usage (Gehrt and Pinto, 1991). The research has also examined situational influenceamong various product categories including apparel (Stoltman et al. 1990), leisure travelers(Fodness and Murray, 1999), wine (Barber, 2005; Dodd et al., 2005), and snack foods (Gehrt andShim, 2003). Page 8 of 30
  9. 9. Recent studies (e.g. Barber, Ismail and Dodd, 2007; Dodd et al., 2005) investigated thecombined effects of situation and individual factors on consumer behavior, confirming thatconsumer choice and sources of information sought are likely to vary with the consumptionsituation. Therefore, if usage situation is to be considered in the purchase decision process, it isimportant to understand the nature of the situational variables. There are three relevant types ofsituations – the consumption situation, the purchase situation and the communication situation,with the consumption situation considered by most researchers to be the most influential (Chow,Celsi and Abel, 1990; Engel, et al., 2000). The consumption situation represents the anticipated usage situation, such as whenconsumers use a different brand of coffee for dinner guests than for their own personalconsumption. The purchase situation represents product availability, change in price and ease ofshopping, while communication situation is concerned with exposure and attention to aparticular product advertisement.Consumer Behavior and Gender Research has suggested consumption is more closely associated with women than withmen (Grazia and Furlough, 1996). Further studies have investigated the processes underlyingmales’ and females’ judgment regarding consumption ( Firat, 1994), gender strategies relating toinformation processing (Darley and Smith, 1995) and decision making (Mitchell and Walsh,2004).These studies have focused on biological sex differences in various buying andconsuming activities, and determined that gender-related behavior may be based not only onbiological differences, but also on gender trait differences. Page 9 of 30
  10. 10. Certain personality traits are associated with masculinity and femininity (Laroche, Saad,Cleveland and Browne, 2000; Palan, 2001). For example, masculinity is typically associated withassertiveness, independence, and rationality, while femininity is associated with relational andinterdependent aspects such as considerateness, sensitivity, responsibility and caring (Palan,2001). Thus, the concept of gender identity has been introduced in consumer behavior research. New concepts covering gender differences have led to a number of gender relatedresearch articles, which found that gender identity may be a predictor of specific consumerattitudes (Chang, 2006; Gould and Weil, 1991). Yet there have been challenges to thecontribution gender identity has made to the understanding of consumer behavior. Palan (2001) suggested gender identity results in consumer research are scarce, and theinfluence of either biological sex and gender identity was found to be in favor of biological sexas a far greater predictor of attitudes than gender identity (Gould and Weil, 1991). Thus,biological sex is much more realistic as a segmentation of gender (Palan, 2001), and for thatreason, this study used this segmentation to compare search behavior. Research suggests that males and females often differ in how they process information(Meyers-Levy 1989), with females often engaging in more detailed analysis of specific messagecontent (Meyrs-Lvey and Maheswaran, 1991). Accordingly, females sometimes are found toexhibit greater sensitivity to the particulars of information when forming judgments than malesare (Meyers-Levy and Sternthal, 1991). It has been suggested that females are more likely to be influenced by culture andstereotyping, as such will conform to social pressures. These differences in conformity may beattributable to gender socialization processes: while men are taught to be independent thinkersand to assert themselves, women generally are not similarly encouraged (Laroche et al., 2000). Page 10 of 30
  11. 11. Along these lines it has been put forth that males are strongly guided by tendencies towardself-assertion, self-efficacy, and mastery. Accordingly, males tend to pursue goals having personalconsequences. Females, on the other hand, are guided by interpersonal affiliation, a desire to be atone with others, and the fostering of amicable relationships. Thus, the male sex role ischaracterized as being relatively self-focused, whereas the female sex role entails sensitivity to theconcerns of both self and other (Meyers-Levy, 1988). When considering gender and product attributes, specific gender traits can be projected toproducts where they are deemed gender specific, with individuals having strong feminine ormasculine identities often associating with products that appeal to that gender (Barber, Almanza andDonovan, 2006; Hall, Shaw, Lascheit, and Robertson; 2000; Spawton, 1991). Self image andsocial acceptance factors are also gender specific. In the study by Hall et al. (2000) they found malesrate factors of social and psychological value higher than females in relation to the perceivedvalue of purchasing and consuming a product; and that males have a stronger motivating trait toimpress others than do females. These differing gender traits can influence the sources of information sought during apurchase situation. The argument presented in this paper is that understanding about the ways inwhich men and women search for information in relation to purchase confidence could be usefulfor researchers and practitioners.Wine as a product For this study the product of choice is wine. Wine is an experiential consumer product andlike others it is difficult for a consumer to know exactly what they are getting just by looking at theproduct. The purchase of wine has been previously researched because the use of informationsearch can be dependent upon the situational use of the wine. In such situations, consumers’ Page 11 of 30
  12. 12. purchasing decisions maybe based on external sources of information, such as friends and family,journalists, and descriptions from the products labels. During the past fifteen years, wine has increasingly become a beverage most oftenconsumed by those Americans that drink alcoholic beverages (Jones , 2006, 2007; Saad, 2005;Wine Institute, 2006). The U.S. is currently the 3rd largest nation in total wine consumption and maytop the list in the next few years (Hussain, Cholette and Sastaldi, 2007). In fact, the Wine Market Council (2006) found that between 2000 and 2005 the winedrinking population in the U.S. increased by 31% among adults in households with an incomegreater than $35,000, while the number of adults drinking beer and/or spirits decreased by 25%.Wine is increasingly being chosen as an accompaniment to meals in casual chain restaurants, and athome when all the family dines together (Jones, 2006, 2007; Saad, 2005). Today’s wine consumers are causing the wine industry to rethink the traditional stereotypeof a wine drinker. Not only because wine drinkers are a younger cohort, but gender differences existas well which can bring a unique set of options and lifestyle changes (Barber, Almanza et al., 2006;Jones, 2007). According to Saad (2005), 47% of females prefer wine over other alcohol beverages while25% of males prefer wine, up from 16% nearly a decade ago. Indeed, a decline in the beer marketmay be due either to the fact that men are drinking less overall or that they have moved to morefeminine’ types of alcohol beverages. Researchers have suggested that certain products are perceivedto be gender specific and individuals with stronger feminine or masculine identities associate withproducts that appeal to that gender direction ( Hall et al.; 2000). According to Spawton (1991) winehas been generally perceived as a feminine beverage. Page 12 of 30
  13. 13. Therefore, wine is an appropriate product category because the consumption of wineprovides a variety of drinking situations, and can be influenced by gender perceptions of theproduct, thus allowing the testing of distinct situational scenarios while allowing for theexamination of the influence purchase confidence plays in the purchase decision process. METHODOLOGYDesign of the study The sample for this study, a self-selected non-probability, judgment sample, was drawnfrom employees in companies across diverse geographic locations in the United States. Thesecompanies were known to the researchers and thus it is understood that based upon this sampleselection, it is not representative of the general population. With agreement of the companies, 1,200 URL survey links were distributed in June 2007with a total of 602 questionnaires collected. After data screening, 59 surveys were eliminatedbecause the respondents did not consume wine. These 543 remaining surveys resulted in a 45%response rate. There were four situational use scenarios presented. The first was based upon retail purchasefor personal home consumption with all respondents given this scenario in the survey (N=543). Theother three were purchasing wine as a gift (n=135), purchasing wine for a dinner party awayfrom home with friends/family (n=144) and purchasing wine for a dinner party away from homewith a business associate/boss (n=146). These purchase situations were selected based uponprevious research by Dubow (1992) and Dodd et al. (2005).Measures Sources of information - Following the study by Dodd et al. (2005), this construct ofexternal search, measured respondents by asking them six 7-point scale items, anchored with “notvery important” and “very important”. The separate measured indicator variables to support the Page 13 of 30
  14. 14. sources of information constructs were: two personal sources of information (recommendationsfrom a clerk/salesperson and/or from a friend/family member, three impersonal sources ofinformation (recommendations provided by wine critics, point of sale material, and publishedmaterial) and oneself as a source of information (personal experiences). Purchase confidence - For this study, the purchase confidence construct variables were measuredby direct questions about perceived levels of purchase confidence following those used in the Bearden etal. (2001) study. Coefficient alpha in that study was reported at .89. The four item statements weremodified towards wine as a product. Subjective Knowledge – This construct was measured by asking respondents how they perceivetheir wine knowledge. The instrument construction followed subjective wine knowledge questionsdeveloped in previous wine studies by Dodd et al (2005) and general consumer products studiesby Park et al. (1994). Four questions were used in this study. Three were 7-point scale itemsanchored at either end with “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree” and a single 7-point scaleitem with “not at all knowledgeable” and “very knowledgeable”. Coefficient alphas of .90 and.91 were reported by Flynn and Goldsmith (1999) and Park et al. (1994), respectively A new variable for purchase confidence was created and represents respondents overalllevel of purchase confidence. This variable was categorized as “high purchase confidence”,“neutral” and “low purchase confidence”, with 163 (30%) reporting low purchase confidences,149 (28%) neutral, and 231 (42%) reporting high purchase confidence. The subjective knowledge variable was categorized as “high subjective knowledge”,“some subjective knowledge” and “low subjective knowledge”, with 133 (24%) reported lowwine knowledge, 129 (24%) some wine knowledge, and 281 (52%) high wine knowledge. Thesetwo variables were based on the mean for the characteristics evaluated and one standard Page 14 of 30
  15. 15. deviation from the mean.Data Analysis Statistical analysis of the data was computed by using the Windows versions of StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0). In order to obtain an overall representation of thesample, descriptive statistics, were also employed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted todetermine the underlying structures of independent variables. Reliabilities of the scales wereevaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. To gain information about the data collection process, the questionnaire, and scaledevelopment, a pilot study was conducted (Churchill, 1994). The primary purpose was todetermine whether the instrument could be clearly understood by respondents and ensurereliability of the instrument. For the pilot test, a web link to the instrument was e-mailed to 25individuals in Lubbock, Texas, Boston, Massachusetts, Charlotte, North Carolina and WestLafayette, Indiana. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were used for the item scales with all reportingabove .80. The full factor analysis accounted for 69% of the total variance. A factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze howrespondents selected a source of information (the dependent variables) when making a winebuying decision using situational use (three levels), purchase confidence (three levels), andgender (two levels), and subjective knowledge (two Levels), collectively the independentvariables. If MANOVA is significant, follow-up tests are performed. In creating this factorial design assurance was made so that each group had sufficientsample size to (1) provide statistical power to assess the differences deemed practicallysignificant and (2) meet the minimum requirements of group sizes such that they exceed thenumber of dependent variables. In this study, the sample sizes per cell greatly exceeded thesuggested number of dependent variables of 5 in each cell, which is considered acceptable (Hair, Page 15 of 30
  16. 16. Anderson, Tatham and Black, 1998). First, an analysis of the dependent variates was performed to determine which dependentvariable(s) contributes to the overall differences. This was accomplished by conducting multipleANOVAs, one for each dependent variable controlling for type I error by using the Bonferroniinequality approach (Green and Salkind, 2005; Hair et al., 1998). Next, post hoc pairwise comparisons were performed if any of the ANOVAs weresignificant using the Scheffé method. The Scheffé method tends to give narrower confidencelimits and is therefore the preferred method and the most conservative with respect to type Ierrors (Hair et al., 1998). RESULTSDescriptive statistics Forty-five percent of the respondents were male (n=242) and 55% were female (n=301).The average age of respondents was 41 years and seventy-one percent were under 51 years ofage. Respondents had high levels of education with 80% of the sample having earned either anundergraduate or graduate degree. Females (82%) reported higher level of education than didmales (78%).Thirty-five percent reported annual household incomes exceeded $100,000. Therewere an equal number of males (35%) as there were females (36%) reporting over $100,000 ofincome. Overall, the socio-demographic background of all respondents (middle-aged, educated,with higher incomes) mirrored the profile of wine consumers in general (Motto, Kryla andFisher, 2000). For purchase confidence, 26% reported high confidence and 18% reported lowconfidence. When considering gender, males had a greater level of purchase confidence (30%)than did females (22%). Page 16 of 30
  17. 17. When respondents were asked about their subjective wine knowledge, males (M = 4.3,SD = 1.1) were significantly more likely t(424) = 4.22, p < .01 than females (M = 3.6, SD = 1.3)to feel very knowledgeable about wine. Compared to their friends, males (M = 4.1, SD = 1.0)were significantly more likely t(424) = 4.27, p < .01 than females (M = 3.1, SD = 1.2) to considerthemselves one of the experts on wine. Males reported a greater level of overall “high”subjective knowledge (59%) than did females (46%). The overall results of this analysis shows that males found impersonal sources of informationmost important (critics (M = 4.2) and published material (M = 4.1)) more than females, while femalesconsidered personal sources of information most important (friends/family (M = 5.5) and retail clerks(M = 4.3) more than males. When considering the purchase of wine as a gift, males foundrecommendations from friends/family and retail sales clerk most important, as did females. Femalesalso found retail clerks important when making a purchase for a dinner party with friends.Multivariate Analysis of Variance As a preliminary check, homogeneity of variance was tested across samples using Box’sM test (Hair et al., 1998). The result of Boxs M test showed that the equality of variance-covariance matrices assumption was satisfied, p=.284. Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 present the results of the first step, an analysis of the dependentvariates to assess which of the dependent variables contribute to the overall differences. In Table1, significant differences were found among, the three situational uses on the dependentmeasures, (Wilkss Λ = .916, F(12, 1034) = 3.84, p < .01). The ANOVA on the “Self” variablescores was significant, F(2, 522) = 7.55, p < .01, while the ANOVA on the “Retail Clerk” scoreswas also significant, F(2, 522) = 4.75, p < .01. The only other dependent variable that hadsignificance was “Friend”, with F(2, 522) = 4.34, p < .01. Page 17 of 30
  18. 18. Table 1. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Situational Use Degrees of Freedom Between Within Significance Test Name Value Approx F Group Group of F Multivariate Tests of Significance Pillai’s Criterion .085 3.84 12 1036 .00* Wilks’ Lambda .916 3.84 12 1034 .00* Hotelling’s Trace .089 3.84 12 1032 .00* Roy’s gcr .059 5.12 12 518 .00* Statistical Power of MANOVA Tests Effect Size η2 Power Pillai’s Criterion .04 .99 Wilks’ Lambda .04 .99 Hotelling’s Trace .04 .99 Roy’s gcr .06 .99 Univariate F Tests Between- Between- Within Groups Within Groups Groups Dependent Sum of Groups Sum Degrees of Mean Mean Variable Square of Squares Freedom Square Squares F Statistic Significance Self 17.46 603.48 2 8.73 1.16 7.55 .01* Retail Clerk 21.31 1170.76 2 10.66 2.24 4.75 .01* Friend 16.30 979.22 2 8.15 1.88 4.34 .01* * = p < .01. In Table 2, significant differences were found among gender on the dependent measures,(Wilkss Λ = .963, F(6, 517) = 3.34, p < .01). Only two variable scores were significant on theANOVA; “Friend” F(1, 522) = 7.66, p < .01 and “Retail clerk” F(1, 522) = 6.97, p < .01. Table 2. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Gender Degrees of Freedom Between Within Significance Test Name Value Approx F Group Group of F Multivariate Tests of Significance Pillai’s Criterion .037 3.34 6 517 .00* Wilks’ Lambda .963 3.34 6 517 .00* Hotelling’s Trace .039 3.34 6 517 .00* Roy’s gcr .039 3.34 6 517 .00* Statistical Power of MANOVA Tests 2 Effect Size η Power Pillai’s Criterion .04 .94 Wilks’ Lambda .04 .94 Hotelling’s Trace .04 .94 Roy’s gcr .04 .94 Univariate F Tests Between- Between- Within Groups Within Groups Groups Dependent Sum of Groups Sum Degrees of Mean Mean Variable Square of Squares Freedom Square Squares F Statistic Significance Friend 17.18 1170.76 1 17.18 2.24 7.66 .01* Retail clerk 15.05 1069.30 1 15.05 2.15 6.97 .01* * = p < .01 Page 18 of 30
  19. 19. In Table 3, significant differences were found among low and high purchase confidenceon the dependent measures, (Wilkss Λ = .942, F(6, 517) = 3.77, p < .01). The ANOVA on the“Friend” variable scores was significant, F(1, 522) = 8.01, p < .01 as was “Self” F(1, 522) =8.63, p < .01. Table 3. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Purchase Confidence Degrees of Freedom Between Within Significance Test Name Value Approx F Group Group of F Multivariate Tests of Significance Pillai’s Criterion .073 3.77 6 517 .00* Wilks’ Lambda .942 3.77 6 517 .00* Hotelling’s Trace .061 3.77 6 517 .00* Roy’s gcr .041 3.77 6 517 .00* Statistical Power of MANOVA Tests Effect Size η2 Power Pillai’s Criterion .04 .97 Wilks’ Lambda .04 .97 Hotelling’s Trace .04 .97 Roy’s gcr .05 .97 Univariate F Tests Between- Between- Within Groups Within Groups Groups Dependent Sum of Groups Sum Degrees of Mean Mean Variable Square of Squares Freedom Square Squares F Statistic Significance Friend 18.35 1197.56 1 18.35 2.29 8.01 .01* Self 20.12 1218.34 1 20.12 2.33 8.63 .01* * = p < .01. In Table 4, significant differences were found among the two levels of subjectiveknowledge on the dependent measures, (Wilkss Λ = .930, F(6, 1034) = 3.17, p < .01). TheANOVA on the “Published” variable scores was significant, F(2, 522) = 9.88, p < .01, while theANOVA on the “Critic” scores was significant, F(2,522) = 5.52, p < .01. Page 19 of 30
  20. 20. Table 4. Factorial Design MANOVA Summary Table: Main Effect of Subjective Knowledge Degrees of Freedom Between Within Significance Test Name Value Approx F Group Group of F Multivariate Tests of Significance Pillai’s Criterion .070 3.15 12 374 .00* Wilks’ Lambda .930 3.17 12 374 .00* Hotelling’s Trace .074 3.19 12 374 .00* Roy’s gcr .061 5.30 6 374 .00* Statistical Power of MANOVA Tests Effect Size η2 Power Pillai’s Criterion .04 .99 Wilks’ Lambda .04 .99 Hotelling’s Trace .04 .99 Roy’s gcr .06 .99 Univariate F Tests Between- Between- Within Groups Within Groups Groups Dependent Sum of Groups Sum Degrees of Mean Mean Variable Square of Squares Freedom Square Squares F Statistic Significance Published 45.51 1201.67 2 22.75 2.30 9.88 .01* Critic 30.92 1461.61 2 15.46 2.80 5.52 .01* * = p < .01. Post hoc analyses to the univariate ANOVA for the “Self”, “Retail Clerk”, “Friend”,“Published”, and “Critic” scores consisted of conducting pairwise comparisons to find whichindependent variable, situational use, gender, purchase confidence and subjective knowledge,most strongly impacted the selection of an information source. Each pairwise comparison wastested using the Scheffé method. The post hoc testing results are reflected in Table 5. Situational Experiences - For the independent variable situational experiences, the resultsof Table 5 indicate that for the sources of information “Self”, there is a significant differencebetween wine selected for a dinner party away from home with business associate/boss and winefor dinner party away from home with friends, where respondents would more likely choosethemselves when selecting a bottle of wine for a dinner party with friends, with the meandifference = -.512, p = .000. Yet for a dinner party away from home with a business associate,the “Retail Clerk” was selected as a source, with a mean difference = .721, p=.000. Page 20 of 30
  21. 21. Table 5. Pairwise Comparisons for Situational Use, Subjective Knowledge Gender, and Purchase Confidence Independent Variables Dependent Variable Self Retail Clerk Friend Published CriticSituational Use M SD M SD M SD M SD M SDWine for dinner party away from homewith business associate/boss 5.82b 1.16 4.77a 1.30 5.50a 0.98Wine for dinner party away from homewith friends 6.33a .917 4.05b 1.69 5.21 1.60Wine as a gift 6.14 1.14 4.17 1.53 4.98b 1.38Subjective KnowledgeLow Subjective Knowledge 3.61b 1.63 3.72b 1.69High Subjective Knowledge 4.27a 1.35 4.20a 1.56GenderMale 5.31b 1.07 4.43a 1.46Female 5.62 a 1.10 4.16b 1.63Purchase ConfidenceLow purchase confidence 5.95b 1.02 5.98a 1.27High purchase confidence 6.19a 1.07 4.98b 1.33Note: =mean values on a 7 point scale with 7 = very important and 1= not very important.Means with different letters are significant at p<.05. Subjective knowledge - For the information source “Published”, there is a significant difference between low and high subjective knowledge. Respondents with high subjective knowledge reported they are more likely to use published information and critics as important sources of information, compared to those respondents with low subjective knowledge. Gender - Females were significantly more likely to rely on the personal source “Friends” (M = 5.6, SD = 1.1) than males would (M = 5.3, SD = 1.1), while males would rely on published material (M = 4.4, SD = 1.5) more than females would (M = 4.2, SD = 1.6, with mean differences = -.310, p < .01 and .270, p < .01, respectively. Purchase Confidence - There were differences between those respondents with low and high levels of purchase confidence. When confronted with a purchase situation, those consumers with high levels of purchase confidence were significantly more likely to select themselves as a source of information, with a mean difference of = -.241. Selecting a “Friend” as a source of information was significantly more likely by those with low purchase confidence, with a mean difference = 1.00 Page 21 of 30
  22. 22. Post hoc analysis of the interaction results, indicated that when presented with thesituation of purchasing wine for a dinner party away from home with friends, males with lowpurchase confidence and low subjective knowledge indicated that selecting a friend (M = 5.9, SD= 1.2) and a retail clerk (M = 5.0, SD =1.3) as sources of information was more important tothem than it was to females (M = 5.1, SD = 1.0 and M = 3.4, SD = 1.1). Given the same situation,females with high purchase confidence and high subjective knowledge (M = 4.5, SD =1.2)indicated that selecting the retail clerk was more important to them as a source of informationthan males (M = 3. 9, SD = 1.3). DISCUSSION The impact on search behavior from purchase confidence, self assessed knowledge,situational use and gender differences were all important findings from this research. The rolethat gender plays in search behavior was particularly important and is similar to that found byMeyers-Levy (1988). In that study it was noted despite the availability of information, genderdifferences on accessing and using information varied. Three key findings emerge from this research. First, the data overall support previouslyestablished findings that females search behavior often entails interpersonal affiliations, wheretheir preference is to reach out to friends, family or other personal sources of information and areaccepting of others opinions. For males, they found impersonal or published material, mostimportant in information search confirming the belief that males are less comfortable withpersonal interaction in making life decisions. Second, the findings suggest, however, that these gender differences in search behaviorare likely to change when consideration is given to different purchase situations. The findingsoffer insight into how males search for information. It appears that, when gender differences Page 22 of 30
  23. 23. emerge given different purchase situations, it is because males are more likely to askfamily/friend or for retail assistance, despite their overall higher subjective knowledge and levelof purchase confidence. This runs counter to previous studies (Meyers-Levy, 1988; Venkatesh and Morris, 2000)that males have a tendency towards high self-efficacy and are generally unwilling to ask for helpwhen experiencing problems in life. As an example, in this study males consideredfriends/family most important when purchasing a wine as a gift. Although this study did not testfor this, it is possible that as Gould and Weil (1991) pointed out, the recipient of the gift mayhave an impact on the behavior of males. Males are thought to be culturally prohibited fromintimacy and expressive affectivity with same-sex friends while women are not. Thus if the giftis for a female verse a male, then the selection of an information source may become importantto them. Finally, the findings suggest that when knowledge and confidence are considered, alongwith gender, then the differences are remarkably different and unexpected. For males with lowsubjective knowledge and purchase confidence, they would search out a retail clerk forassistance only when buying wine for a dinner party away from home with friends. This suggeststhat without the high confidence and self-assessed knowledge, which both may indicate highself-efficacy, males are more willing to engage in interpersonal interaction. Overall, the present research demonstrates that gender is likely to bring differentstrategies to bear in searching for information only when the demands of the situation and howconfident and knowledgeable the consumer feels support the use of a particular strategy. Theresults add weight to the notion that gender differences influence how purchase confidence andself assessed product knowledge impact search behavior and how they impact purchasing. Page 23 of 30
  24. 24. MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This research study’s major contribution is to focus on the role of gender in decisionmaking research. This study provides marketing professionals with a new approach todeveloping better strategies. They need to be conscious that along with objective productattributes, customers purchasing decisions may be motivated by less obvious factors, such asthose investigated in this study - self-assessed knowledge, purchase confidence, and the purchasesituation. This understanding will lead to a more critical look at marketing strategies aimed atestablishing relationships, particularly with male customers; particularly given they are anuntapped and potentially large market. It is apparent from this study that males view and react to the purchase decisiondifferently than females and despite their higher level of self-assessed wine knowledge ,theygenerally avoid interaction with personal sources of information, such as retail store clerks orfriends. However, if they feel uncertain about the purchase and have assessed their productknowledge to be low, they will search out and interact with others to aid in their purchasedecision. Therefore, in order to capture the male wine consuming market, increase market share,and establish a loyal following from male consumers, wine producers, retailers, hoteliers, andrestaurants must consider educating their staff to better handle male customers’ needs. This could be accomplished through staff engagement of male consumers in opendiscussion, creating an environment where it is acceptable to ask questions and exchange ideasand comments about wine. Possibly more important to wine producers is the creation ofpromotional material directed at attracting males as a potential wine consuming group andthereby creating brand loyalty and expanding the overall wine market. This could beaccomplished by creating a “masculine” image for wine. Page 24 of 30
  25. 25. Future studies should consider expanding this research to focus on gender identity asdiscussed by Palan (2001) and personal self-confidence as discussed by Veale and Quester(2007), particularly given the suggestion above that wine as a product should create a“masculine” image. Page 25 of 30
  26. 26. REFERENCESBarber, N. (2005). Wine label design, information and bottle packaging: Influence on wine buying behaviors. Published, master’s thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.Barber, N., Almanza, B. and Donovan, J. (2006). Motivational factors of gender, income and age on selecting a bottle of wine. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 18(3), 218-232.Barber, N., Ismail, J. and Dodd, T. (2007). Purchase attributes of wine consumers with low involvement. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 14(1), 69-86.Bearden, W, Hardesty, D, and Rose, R. (2001, June). Consumer self-confidence: Refinements in conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 121-134.Bettman, J. and Park, C. (1980). Effects of prior knowledge and experience and phase of the choice process on consumer decision processes: A protocol analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 7, 234-248.Brucks, M. (1985). The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(1), 1-16.Chang, C. (2006), "The influence of masculinity and femininity in different advertising processing contexts: An accessibility perspective", Sex Roles, 55( 5), 345-356.Chow, S., Celsi, R. and Abel, R. (1990). The effects of situational and intrinsic sources of personal relevance on brand choice decisions. Advances in Consumer Research, 17, 755- 759.Churchill, G. A. (2004), Basic marketing research, (5th ed.). OH: South-Western, Mason.Darley, W. K. and Smith, R. E. (1995) ‘Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response’, Journal of Advertising, 24(1), 41–57.Dodd, T., Laverie, D., Wilcox, J., and Duhan, D. (2005). Differential effects of experience, subjective knowledge, and objective knowledge on sources of information used in consumer wine purchasing. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 29(1), 3-19.Dubow, J. (1982). Occasion based vs. user based segmentation. Journal of Advertising Research, 2, 11-18.Engel, J., Blackwell, R. and Miniard, P. (2000). Consumer Behaviour. New York: The Dryden Press.Firat, A.F (1994) "Gender and Consumption: Transcending the Feminine", in Costa (Ed) Gender and Consumer Behaviour, Sage publications. Page 26 of 30
  27. 27. Flynn, L., Goldsmith, R. and Eastman, J. (1996). Opinion leaders and opinion seekers: Two new measurement scales. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(2), 137 – 147Fodness, D. and Murray, B. (1999, fall). A model of tourist information search behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 37(3), 220 – 230.Furse, D. H., Punj, G. N., and Stewart, D. W. (1984). A typology of individual search strategies among purchasers of new automobiles. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 417-431.Gehrt, K. and Pinto, M. (1991). The prospect of situational-based segmentation in the health care market: percentage of variance explained by situational contingencies”. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 11, 41-52.Gehrt, K. and Shim, S. (2003). Situational segmentation in the international marketplace: the Japanese snack market. International Marketing Review, 20(2), 180 – 194.Gould, S. J. and Weil, C. E. (1991), "Gift-giving roles and gender self-concepts", Sex Roles, 24(9), 617-637.Grazia and Furlough (1996). The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective, Berkeley, University of California Press.Green, S and Salkind, N. (2005). Using SPSS for windows and wacintosh: Analyzing and understanding data. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle Ridge, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R. and Black, W. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Hall, J, Shaw, M., Lascheit, J., and Robertson, N. (2000). Gender differences in a modified perceived value construct for intangible products. ANZMAC 2000 Visionary Marketing for the 21st Century: Facing the Challenge. Retrieved October 11, 2007. ANZMAC2000/CDsite/papers/h/Hall2.PHussain, M., Cholette, S. and Castaldi, R. (2007). Determinants of wine consumption of US consumers: An econometric analysis. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 19(1), 49-62.Jones, J. (2006). U.S. drinkers consuming alcohol more regularly. Retrieved June 5, 2008 from: http://www.gallup.com/search/default.aspx?q=beverage+survey+gallop&s=&b=SEARCHJones, J. (2007). Beer again edge out wine as Americans drink of choice. Retrieved July 1, 2008 from: http://www.gallup.com/search/default.aspx?q=beverage+survey+gallop&s=&b=SEARCHKatona, G. and Mueller, E. (1954). A Study of Purchase Decisions in Consumer Behavior, in Page 27 of 30
  28. 28. Consumer Behavior, ed. Lincoln Clark (New York: New York University Press, pp. 30- 87.Laroche, M., Saad, G., Cleveland, M. and Browne, E. (2000). Gender; Shopping; Marketing information; Consumer behaviour. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(6), 500-522.Mattila, A. and Wirtz, J. (2001). The moderating role of expertise in consumer evaluations of credence goods. International Quarterly Journal of Marketing, 1(4), 281-292.Mattila, A. and Wirtz, J. (2002). The impact of knowledge types on the consumer search process- An investigation in the context of credence services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13(3).Meyers-Levy, J. (March 1988). The Influence of Sex Roles on Judgment. Journal of consumer research, 14, 522 – 530.Meyers-Levy, J. (1989), "Gender Differences in Information Processing: A Selectivity Interpretation," in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Advertising, ed. Patricia Cafferata and Alice Tybout, Lexington, MA: Lexington.Meyers-Levy, J. (1994) ‘Gender differences in cortical organization: Social and biochemical antecedents and advertising consequences’, in Clark, E., Brock, T. and Stewart, D. (ed.) ‘Attention, attitude and affect in response to advertising’, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 107–122.Meyers-Levy, J. and Maheswaran, D. (June 1991) ‘Exploring differences in males’ and females’ processing strategy’, Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 63–70.Meyers-Levy, J and Sternthal, B (1991), Gender Differences in the Use of Message Cues and Judgments, Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (February), 84-96.Mitchell, V.-W. and Walsh, G. (2004), "Gender differences in German consumer decision- making styles", Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 3( 4), 331-346.Motto Kryla and Fisher, L. (2000), U.S. wine demographics report. St. Helena, CA: The Wine Business Center.Oliver, R. and Bearden, W. (1985, December). Crossover effects in the theory of reasoned action: A model of influence attempt. Journal of Consumer Research, 12, 324-340Palan, K. M. (2001), "Gender identity in consumer behavior research: A literature review and research agenda", Academy of Marketing Science Review, 10, 1-31.Park, C. and Lessig, P. (1981, September). Familiarity and its impacts on consumer decision biases and heuristics. Journal of Consumer Research, 144 – 151. Page 28 of 30
  29. 29. Park, C., Mothersbaugh, D. and Feick, L. (1994). Consumer knowledge assessment. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 71-82.Peterson, R. and Merino, M. (2003). Consumer information search behavior and the internet. Psychology and Marketing, 20(2), 99–121.Punj, G. and Staelin, R. (1983). A model of consumer information search for new automobiles. Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 336 – 380.Quester, P., Smart, J. (1998). The influence of consumption situation and product involvement over consumer’ use of product attributes. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(3), 220-238.Quester, P., Hall, J. and Lockshin, L. (1999). Investigating situational effects in wine consumption: A means-end approach. European Advances in Consumer Research, 4, 104 – 111.Raju, P, Lonial, S. and Mangold, W. (1995). Differential effects of subjective knowledge, objective knowledge and usage experience on decision making: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(2), 153-180Rahman, Q. (2000) ‘Gender differences, ‘‘risk-taking’’ and the need for empiricism’, Psychology, Evolution and Gender, 2(2), 151–155.Saad, L (2005), Wine gains momentum as Americans’ favorite adult beverage. The Gallup Poll Survey, July 18, 2005. Retrieved October 17, 2007 from: http://www.gallup.com/search/default.aspx?q=beverage+survey+gallop&s=&b=SEARCHSpawton, T. (1991). Of wine and live asses: An introduction to the wine economy and state of wine marketing. European Journal of marketing, 25(3), 19-31.Stoltman, J., Gentry, J., Anglin, K. and Burns, A. (1990). Situational influences on the consumer decision sequence. Journal of Business Research, 21, 195 – 207.Urbany, J., Dickson, P. and Wilkie, W. (1989, September) Buyer uncertainty and information search, Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 208-215.Veale, R. and Quester, P. (2007). Personal self-confidence: Towards the development of a reliable measurement scale. Presented at the 2007 ANZMAC conference. Retrieved July 16, 2008 from http://www.anzmac07.otago.ac.nz/anzmacCD/papers/Veale_2.pdfVenkatesh, V. and Morris, M. (2000). Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Quarterly, 24(1), 115 – 139.Vogt, C. and Fesenmaier, D. (1998). Expanding the functional information search model. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(3), 551 – 578 Page 29 of 30
  30. 30. Wells, W. and Prensky, D. (1996). Consumer Behavior. New York: Wiley.Williams, A. (2002). Understanding the Hospitality Consumer. Elsevier Butterworth- Heinemann, Jordan Hill, OxfordWine Market Council (2006) Wine Marketing 2006 market overview. Retrieved July 15, 2008 from http://www.wineevents-calendar.com/node/1512 .Wine Institute. (2006, April). 2005 California wine sales continue growth trend as wine Enters mainstream U.S. lifestyle. Wine Institute Retrieved April 3, 2006 from: http://www.wineinstitute.org/industry/statistics/2006/wine_sales.php Page 30 of 30

×