Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Change theories and implications
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Change theories and implications

1,735
views

Published on

A review of main theories

A review of main theories

Published in: Business

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,735
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
210
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Transcript

    • 1. Understanding Change and Resistance
    • 2. Understanding Change and ResistanceA Seminar Presented by
    • 3. Understanding Change and ResistanceA Seminar Presented by Ada González
    • 4. Remember. . .
    • 5. Remember. . . Change is inevitable
    • 6. Remember. . . Change is inevitable We all want and fear change
    • 7. Remember. . . Change is inevitable We all want and fear change Changes in one person affect the whole system
    • 8. Remember. . . Change is inevitable We all want and fear change Changes in one person affect the whole system Changes in the system affect all individuals
    • 9. Remember. . . Change is inevitable We all want and fear change Changes in one person affect the whole system Changes in the system affect all individuals Anticipate and welcome expected changes
    • 10. Remember. . . Change is inevitable We all want and fear change Changes in one person affect the whole system Changes in the system affect all individuals Anticipate and welcome expected changes People tend to resist change
    • 11. WHY CHANGE? Fact of life Environmental factors – Government, university, company, social The Boss wants it Things could be better 3
    • 12. What is to be changed? Strategies, positions, policies, programs, ploys, patterns – Performances: competitiveness, added values, responsiveness, productivities, results, innovations – Alliances, sustainabilitys, movement – Structures and groupings – Processes, work arrangements – Resource allocations, savings 4
    • 13. What is to be changed? People – individual and groups – Behaviors: performances, conformities, creativity – Competencies: mastery in performance – Attitudes, Values, Beliefs Distributions of opportunity Orientations to externalities 5
    • 14. How is change best implemented? Strategies – With a knife, quickly, cleanly, clear up the mess afterwards – systematically, efficiently in planned, controlled ways – Evolutionary, stepped – Radical, revolution – With TLC – Let it all hang out, it will all come together in the wash – Politics, networking, positioning, coalitions and influences 6
    • 15. How is change best implemented? Tactics, programs Methods, techniques Roles and skills Interventionist style: directive, non-directive Technologies to be applied 7
    • 16. Model for PlannedOrganizational Change 8
    • 17. Theories and their importance A theory is a set of assumptions or principles that have been repeatedly tested to explain or predict facts or phenomena Theories: – Provide a conceptual framework – Provide a common vocabulary – Guides action – Assists comprehension or judgment – Challenge practice wisdom 9
    • 18. Fundamentals & fads Critical evaluation Guiding ideas Domains of action (organizational Innovations architectures andin infrastructure processes) Theory, methods, toolsDo they improve? Do they work? Adapted from Senge: Fifth Dimension Fieldbook 10
    • 19. Mainstream theoretical perspectives Structural functionalism Scientific management Classical and administrative organization theory Human relations and Behavioral Systems and Contingency theory Strategic choice Action research and learning 11
    • 20. Structural Functionalism Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), central figure at Harvard University. Structural functionalism occupies an intermediate position between classical and contemporary theories. Argues that we need to look at both structure (how the parts of a society fit together to make the whole) and function (what each part does, how it contributes to society). 12
    • 21. SF Two emphasis Application of the scientific method to the objective social world Use of an analogy between human organisms and organizations. 13
    • 22. Scientific Management Frederick Taylor (1856 – 1916) – Systematically analyzed human behavior at work – Goal was to improve performance – Followers used scientific methods and experiments to find best ways to perform a task (Example, automatization, Henry Ford) – Science of rewards and incentives – Work measurements 14
    • 23. Administrative Management Strategic planning – Formulating plans or strategies to pursue major objectives for change Acceptance of theory of authority – Employees allow authority figures to dictate change 15
    • 24. Behavioral Movement• Classical theory ignored employee motivation and behavior• Classical approach did not achieve production efficiency or workplace harmony• Managers needed help with the “people side” of their organizations• Hawthorne Effect: - Studies conducted from 1924 to 1933 demonstrated the important influence of human factors on worker production - Bias that occurs when people know they are being studied 16
    • 25. Human Relations Concerned with Motivation: – From Latin movere – “to move” – Anything causing a person to change behavior – Motive is an incentive to act – Need to convince workers to improve behavior and productivity 17
    • 26. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Five levels of needs Satisfy lower level needs before upper level needs Top three levels are biggest leadership challenge Employees move up and down the pyramid 18
    • 27. Maslow’s Pyramid 19
    • 28. ERG Model Three Levels of Need Reduced Maslow’s five levels to three People often on two or more levels simultaneously Shift quickly from one to another 20
    • 29. X and Y Theories Douglas McGregor (1906 – 1964) – Grouped Maslow’s hierarchy into “lower order” (X) and “higher order” (Y) – Suggested either could motivate employees – Captured core of how people treat each other in workplace 21
    • 30. Theory X Average person prefers to be directed, has little ambition, dislikes responsibilities, and desires security above all else Authoritarian style based on threat of punishment Must control and threaten people to get them to work and change 22
    • 31. Theory Y Assumes people are ambitious, self- motivated, anxious to accept responsibility, exercise self-control and self-direction Remove barriers so workers can fully actualize their potential Work is play that offers satisfaction 23
    • 32. Theory Z (Japanese management style) Large amount of freedom and trust in workers Assumes worker loyalty and interest in team work and the organization Places more reliance on attitude and responsibility of workers 24
    • 33. Managerial/Leadership Grid Illustrates the concern for people and the concern for production Compares nine intersections between production and human relationships 25
    • 34. Motivation-Hygiene Model Motivators cause job satisfaction – Satisfiers Hygiene factors cause job dissatisfaction – Dissatisfiers Job should challenge the employee Give more responsibility as appropriate If a job does not use full ability of employee, automate it or replace with lower skill level employee 26
    • 35.  David C. McClelland (1917 – 1998) – Internal drivers, or social motives – Achievement – Affiliation – Power  Personalized  Socialized 27
    • 36.  Behavioral approach did not always increase productivity Employees want: – Meaningful work – To contribute – To participate in decision-making and leadership functions 28
    • 37. Systems Theory Integrates management theories Systems analysis and quantitative approaches Traditional organizational chart is confining Emphasizes dynamic and interrelated nature of organizations 29
    • 38. Systems Theory Systems are elements in interaction Systems thinking vs. traditional thinking 30
    • 39. Systems Concepts: Equilibrium Systems tend toward a state of non-change called homeostasis or equilibrium Thus, we should assume that no system will change unless it receives new inputs Systems that are most amenable to change are those that are failing (survival is threatened) and successful and can take risks without threatening survival 31
    • 40. Systems Concepts: Synergy Systems working well experience synergy where the total system output are greater than the sum of all inputs. For synergy to occur, subsystems must not optimize, but cooperate for the good of the overall system, e.g., Teamwork. 32
    • 41. ‘New’ Systems Thinking It is more important to do the right job than to do the job right Innovation is more importation than optimization To discover the unknown, must abandon the successful known Things more plentiful are more valuable (fax machine) Wealth follows things that are free (shareware, open systems) 33
    • 42. Contingency View Also called the situational approach Questions universal management practices Advocates using traditional, behavioral, or system viewpoints independently or in combination 34
    • 43. Emerging “Newer” Trends Many new theories since 1900 Often overlapped or contradicted previous theories Several paradigms have emerged since the behavioral school 35
    • 44. W. Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993)Total Quality Visited Japan in 1950 – Use sampling methods to test for quality control – Lower production costs by quality improvement Father of Japanese post-war industrial revival 36
    • 45. Dr. Deming’s System of Profound Knowledge 37
    • 46. Organizational Quality Planning Process Process improvement includes: – Take a “picture of the process” – Analyze the “picture” – Make improvements and monitor results 38
    • 47. 39
    • 48. Kurt Lewin’s Change Model
    • 49. Force-Field Analysis
    • 50. Building Critical Mass Tendency For Change40%30%20%10%0% Immediate Acceptors Adopters Skeptics Early Wait and See Core Resistors Hard
    • 51. Minimizing Resistance to Change Minimizing Resistance to Change
    • 52. Minimizing Resistance to Change CommunicationCollaboration Training Minimizing Resistance to Change EmployeeNegotiation Involvement Stress Management
    • 53. Why People Resist Change 44
    • 54. Types of Resistance to Change -1
    • 55. Types of Resistance to Change -1
    • 56. Types of Resistance to Change -1 Logical, rational objections – Time is required to adjust – Extra effort to relearn – Possibility of less desirable conditions – Economic costs of change – Questioned technical feasibility
    • 57. Types of Resistance to Change -2
    • 58. Types of Resistance to Change -2 Psychological, emotional attitudes: – Fear of the unknown – Low tolerance for change – Dislike of management or other change agent – Lack of trust in others – Need for security – Desire for status quo
    • 59. Types of Resistance to Change -3
    • 60. Types of Resistance to Change -3 Sociological factors, group interests: – Political coalitions – Opposing group values – Parochial thinking – Narrow outlook – Vested interests – Desire to retain existing friendships
    • 61. Questions Objectives Layers of Resistance Situation assessment, 1) Lack of agreement on theWhat to description of “current problemchange? reality,” and identification of the core problem or conflict and assumptions that sustain it. Diagnosis, systemic root cause analysis.
    • 62. Understanding Resistance To ChangeQuestions Objectives Layers of Resistance Situation assessment, 1) Lack of agreement on theWhat to description of “current problemchange? reality,” and identification of the core problem or conflict and assumptions that sustain it. Diagnosis, systemic root cause analysis.
    • 63. Questions Objectives Layers of Resistance Verbalization of vision/ 2) Lack of agreement on aTo what to solution, description of possible direction for a solutionchange strategy to attain the 3) Lack of agreement that the desired state, andto? avoidance of undesirable solution will truly address the problem side effects. 4) Concern that the solution Prescription, decision- will lead to new undesirable making, and solution side effects (“Yes, but…”) development.
    • 64. Understanding Resistance to ChangeQuestions Objectives Layers of Resistance Verbalization of vision/ 2) Lack of agreement on aTo what to solution, description of possible direction for a solutionchange strategy to attain the 3) Lack of agreement that the desired state, andto? avoidance of undesirable solution will truly address the problem side effects. 4) Concern that the solution Prescription, decision- will lead to new undesirable making, and solution side effects (“Yes, but…”) development.
    • 65. Questions Objectives Layers of Resistance Development of detailed 5) Lack of a clear path aroundHow to plans and tactics that obstacles blocking the solutionmake the will clarify what needs to 6) Lack of follow-through even happen. Synchronizationchange of the efforts of the after agreement to proceed with the solutionhappen? group in the (nonverbalized fear or implementation of the concerns) strategy. Planning, team-building, and leadership
    • 66. Understanding Resistance to ChangeQuestions Objectives Layers of Resistance Development of detailed 5) Lack of a clear path aroundHow to plans and tactics that obstacles blocking the solutionmake the will clarify what needs to 6) Lack of follow-through even happen. Synchronizationchange of the efforts of the after agreement to proceed with the solutionhappen? group in the (nonverbalized fear or implementation of the concerns) strategy. Planning, team-building, and leadership
    • 67. Managing Multiple Realities
    • 68. Managing Multiple Realities Same physical setting and time, does not guarantee similar experience
    • 69. Managing Multiple Realities Same physical setting and time, does not guarantee similar experience The world view of those driving the change may be different from that of the targets of change
    • 70. Managing Multiple Realities Same physical setting and time, does not guarantee similar experience The world view of those driving the change may be different from that of the targets of change Differences in reality are often seen by drivers of change as resistance. Drivers see their own reality as the “best” or “desired.” “Resisters” are seen as deviant and / or unmotivated.
    • 71. Managing Multiple Realities Same physical setting and time, does not guarantee similar experience The world view of those driving the change may be different from that of the targets of change Differences in reality are often seen by drivers of change as resistance. Drivers see their own reality as the “best” or “desired.” “Resisters” are seen as deviant and / or unmotivated. More helpful to look at resistance as the existence of multi-directional energies - multiple forces or desires, not all of which support each other, and many of which pull in different directions.
    • 72. Managing Multiple Realities Same physical setting and time, does not guarantee similar experience The world view of those driving the change may be different from that of the targets of change Differences in reality are often seen by drivers of change as resistance. Drivers see their own reality as the “best” or “desired.” “Resisters” are seen as deviant and / or unmotivated. More helpful to look at resistance as the existence of multi-directional energies - multiple forces or desires, not all of which support each other, and many of which pull in different directions. Perhaps resistance is the first reaction to the change, not the last.
    • 73. Guidelines for Working with Resistance
    • 74. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Believe that the intended change is both possible and desirable
    • 75. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Believe that the intended change is both possible and desirable Create sufficient dissatisfaction with the status quo
    • 76. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Believe that the intended change is both possible and desirable Create sufficient dissatisfaction with the status quo View resistance as something of interest and of potential value
    • 77. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Believe that the intended change is both possible and desirable Create sufficient dissatisfaction with the status quo View resistance as something of interest and of potential value See resistance as a manifestation of an individuals interest and energy
    • 78. Guidelines for Working with Resistance
    • 79. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Become curious - how is it that others see things differently than I do? How is it that some people do not accept an apparently desirable goal or procedure?
    • 80. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Become curious - how is it that others see things differently than I do? How is it that some people do not accept an apparently desirable goal or procedure? Leave room for the positive to rise. Nevis’ second law of change is: All resistance is composed of ambivalence - It can help if you make room for inputs from the resisters in shaping the design and implementation of the change.
    • 81. Guidelines for Working with Resistance
    • 82. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Develop a clear and mutually agreed vision of the way things could be.
    • 83. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Develop a clear and mutually agreed vision of the way things could be. It’s impossible to include all the realities that individuals hold in any given change effort. Get them out, and use means of influence that can shape a new reality for people. Different leverage points are required to deal with different objections or resistance.
    • 84. Guidelines for Working with Resistance Develop a clear and mutually agreed vision of the way things could be. It’s impossible to include all the realities that individuals hold in any given change effort. Get them out, and use means of influence that can shape a new reality for people. Different leverage points are required to deal with different objections or resistance. Start, create a few easy to implement steps. Use the success as leverage.
    • 85. Leading Change: John Kotter 19961.Transforming Organizations: Why Firms Fail2. Successful Change and the Force That Drives It3. Establishing a Sense of Urgency4. Creating the Guiding Coalition5. Developing a Vision and Strategy6. Communicating the Change Vision7. Empowering Employees for Broad-Based Action8. Generating Short-Term Wins9. Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change10. Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture11. The Organization of the Future12. Leadership and Lifelong Learning 55
    • 86. John Kotter: Why Change Projects Fail Eight common reasons: 1.too much complacency. No sense of urgency early on 2.Failing to create a strong guiding coalition One person with energy/commitment is seldom enough. A coalition of corporate leaders capable of overcoming inertia/opposition. 3.Underestimating the power of vision to direct, align and inspire 4.Undercommunicating the vision by a power of 10 (or 100, or 1,000) People will commit to benefits & achievables. 56
    • 87. John Kotter: Why Change Projects Fail4. Permitting Obstacles to block the new vision If not anticipated or removed - reasons to slip back into comfort zones.5. Failing to create short term wins Many transformations take years. People become dispirited if they do not see some concrete signs of progress.6. Declaring Victory too soon. Major changes take time to bed down. Teething problems occur – declaring victor loses credibility7. Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture temptation to dust hands and walk away. Old habits & processes return.8. Neglecting to anchor changes firmly in the corporate culture temptation to dust hands and walk away. Old habits & processes return. 57
    • 88. Wilson (1992): Approaches to organizational change The process Implementation of change of change 1 2 LogicalPlanned Reducing resistance incrementalism, change to change (e.g. force evolution, need, field analysis, commitment & participation) shared models 3 4Emergent Contextualism: Strategic decisions; Change implementation as a messy management; political process function of models antecedent factors & processes 58
    • 89. Strategic Choice Alternative Strategies Derive From: 59
    • 90. Strategic Choice Alternative Strategies Derive From:• Vision• Mission• Objectives• External audit• Internal audit• Past successful strategies 59
    • 91. Strategy-Formulation Framework 60
    • 92. Strategy-Formulation Framework Stage 1: The Input Stage Stage 2: Stage 3:The Matching Stage The Decision Stage 60
    • 93. Strategy-Formulation Framework Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)Basic input information for thematching & decision stagematrices Requires strategists to quantify subjectivity early in External Factor Evaluation the process Matrix (EFE)Good intuitive judgment always 61needed
    • 94. Strategy-Formulation Framework Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) Stage 1: The Input Stage Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)Basic input information for thematching & decision stagematrices Requires strategists to quantify subjectivity early in External Factor Evaluation the process Matrix (EFE)Good intuitive judgment always 61needed
    • 95. Strategy-Formulation Framework SWOT Matrix BCG Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix 62
    • 96. Strategy-Formulation Framework SWOT Matrix Stage 2: BCG MatrixThe Matching Stage Grand Strategy Matrix 62
    • 97. Stage 2: SWOT Matrix Four Types of Strategies: Strengths-Opportunities (SO): – Use a firm’s internal strengths to take advantage of external opportunities Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO): – Improving internal weaknesses by taking advantage of external opportunities Strengths-Threats (ST): – Use a firm’s strengths to avoid or reduce the impact of external threats. Weaknesses-Threats (WT): – Defensive tactics aimed at reducing internal weaknesses and avoiding external threats 63
    • 98. SWOT Matrix Strengths – S Weaknesses – W Leave Blank List Strengths List WeaknessesOpportunities – SO Strategies WO Strategies O Use strengths to take Overcoming advantage of weaknesses by taking opportunities advantage ofList Opportunities opportunities Threats – T ST Strategies WT Strategies Use strengths to avoid Minimize weaknesses List Threats threats and avoid threats 64
    • 99. Strategy-Formulation Framework Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) Technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions 65
    • 100. Strategy-Formulation Framework Stage 3: Quantitative Strategic The Decision Stage Planning Matrix (QSPM) Technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions 65
    • 101. Steps to Develop a QSPM1. Make a list of the firm’s key external opportunities/threats and internal strengths/ weaknesses in the left column2. Assign weights to each key external and internal factor3. Examine the Stage 2 (matching) matrices, and identify alternative strategies that the organization should consider implementing4. Determine the Attractiveness Scores (A.S)5. Compare the Total Attractiveness Scores6. Compute the Sum Total Attractiveness Score 66
    • 102. Action Research and Learning Kurt Lewin was the first to coin the term 67
    • 103. Action Research A change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate. 68
    • 104. Action Research Process
    • 105. Action Research Process Establish Client- Consultant RelationsDiagnose Evaluate/ IntroduceNeed for Stabilize Change Change Change Disengage Consultant’s Services
    • 106. What is Appreciative Inquiry? Courtesy of Amanda Trotsen-Bloom
    • 107. What is Appreciative Inquiry? Directsthe group’s attention away from its own problems and focuses participants on the group’s potential and positive elements. Reframes relationships Courtesy of Amanda Trotsen-Bloom around the positive rather than being problem oriented
    • 108. Appreciative Inquiry Process
    • 109. Appreciative Inquiry Process Discovery Dreaming Designing Delivering Forming Engaging in DevelopingDiscovering ideas about dialogue objectivesthe best of “what might about “what about “what “what is” be” should be” will be”
    • 110. Business Excellence Framework 72
    • 111. ADRIImprovement Approach learning and thinking and adapting planning Results monitoring Deployment implementing and evaluating and doingIATUL June 04
    • 112. ADRIImprovement Approach learning and thinking and adapting planning Adjust environment feedback Define the current state and rewards Define the future state Determine key sponsors Review progress against And implementers metrics Results Deployment monitoring implementing and evaluating and doingIATUL June 04
    • 113. Transformational Change A change in the way a person sees the world Transformative approaches seek to trigger personal development of participants along one or more developmental lines towards more inclusive structures Builds the developmental capacity to take more perspectives 75
    • 114. Fostering transformative learning Core elements (Taylor 2009) Individual experience – Prior life experience – source of dilemmas – “Classroom” experiences – value-laden content, intense experiential activities Promotion of critical reflection Engagement in dialogue with the self and others – Build trust and empathy – Equal opportunities for participation – Identify ‘edge of meaning’ 76
    • 115. Fostering transformative learning Core elements -2- Holistic orientation to teaching that encourages engagement with other ways of knowing, including the affective and relational Awareness of context – Personal, sociocultural factors – Physical surroundings – Prior experience – Time Establishing authentic relationships built on trust and openness 77
    • 116. So if you do all that,implementing change should be a breeze……. 78
    • 117. …perhaps not all the time 79