Black & White
  Photography
       By: Janella Datu
Overview
• Powerpoint
  –   History of Photography
  –   Components of a camera
  –   Black and white Fundamentals
  –   B...
Personal Relevance




Personal
Audience
Relevance
        4
Thesis:
After understanding the mechanics of a camera and
  the fundamentals of black and white photography,
  not only wi...
How it all   6
Photograp
hy
Photograp
 hy
phōtó
s
Photograp
 hy
phōtó
s
of
light
Photograp
 hy +
phōtó
s
of
light
Photograp
 hy +graphi
phōtó
s       a
of
light
Photograp
 hy +graphi
phōtó
s       a
of      drawin
light   g
Photograp
 hy +graphi
phōtó
s    a
     drawin
     g
     of
     light
Photograp
 hy +graphi
phōtó
s     a

drawinof
g     light
“The camera obscura was a building
block in the development of the camera.
             (Ang, Tom 74)”
World’s First
World’s First
Daguerreotype    10
Calotype that allowed for multiple copies
Calotype that allowed for multiple copies


Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer
Calotype that allowed for multiple copies


  Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer



Collodion (wet) Process red...
Calotype that allowed for multiple copies


  Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer



Collodion (wet) Process red...
Calotype that allowed for multiple copies


  Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer



Collodion (wet) Process red...
George
Eastman
Compone
nts
of the
The body




Compone
nts
of the
The body
           The len



Compone
nts
of the
The body
            The len
          The shutter


Compone
nts
of the
The Body
The
Body
The Camera Body
• A light-tight container
• Designed to…
  – Hold the film
  – Provide a system of viewing and focusing.
The Camera Body:
  Viewing & Focusing Systems
• Common viewing and focusing
  systems:
  – Viewfinder
  – Rangefinder
  – Si...
Viewing and Focusing Systems:
          Viewfinder




http://                             http://www.stsite.com/camera/
ma...
Viewing and Focusing Systems:
          Rangefinder
• Contains two
  mirrors
• Unlike viewfinder,
  focusing is
  necessary ...
Viewing and Focusing Systems:
    Single Lens Reflex (SLR)
• Complex mechanism
  used to allow for
  through-the-lens
  vie...
Viewing and Focusing Systems:
     Twin Lens Reflex (TLR)
• TLR cameras have
  two lenses.
  – Top lens- viewing
    lens
 ...
Viewing and Focusing Systems:
        View and Press
• Produce more detail
  and sharpness by
  using large film
  formats
...
The
-
      Focus

The
-
  - Amount of
       Focus
        Light
The
-
   - Amount of
          Focus
- Depth of Light
           Field
The
NOT
 in

  in
focus
Effect of Light



Not           Too
                    24
Effect of Light



Not           Too
                    24
•     Aperture: an
    adjustable hole
    that allows light
        through.




     Name used to
      indicate the
   ...
• Depth of field: the zone form the point
 closest to the camera to the point farthest that is


                          ...
• Depth of field: the zone form the point
 closest to the camera to the point farthest that is


                          ...
• Depth of field: the zone form the point
 closest to the camera to the point farthest that is


                          ...
• Depth of field: the zone form the point
 closest to the camera to the point farthest that is


                          ...
Depth of Field:




  f 1.4            f 22
Focal length:   Focal length:
   50mm            50mm
Depth of Field:




      f5                   f5
Focal length: 50mm   Focal length: 50mm
Wide
  Angle
 Focal length:
    10mm
 Normal
 Focal length:
    17mm


Telephoto
 Focal length:
    70mm
The Shutte
The Shutte
The Shutte
Black and
  White
“It creates a
   grayscale
     map of
   brightness
 distribution
of the subject,
 losing color
information in
  the proc...
“Many photographers still choose to work
     in black and white because they
  appreciate its abstract qualities and the
...
Black and White




                  35
Black and White
• Shoot in low




                          35
Black and White
• Shoot in low




                          35
Black and White
                 • Find
• Shoot in low




                          35
Black and White
                 • Find
• Shoot in low




                          35
Black and White
                 • Find
• Shoot in low




                          • Frame
                            t...
Black and White
                 • Find
• Shoot in low




                          • Frame
                            t...
Film Photography
Preparing the
Fast forward of the
• video
Making prints
• video
Sun Print Paper
• Step 1- Layout your design (not on the
  paper)
• Step 2- Open the plates and lay your
  objects on the ...
Work Cited
•   http://digital-photography-school.com/5-black-and-white-photography-tips
•   http://dictionary.reference.co...
Work Cited
•   http://www3.telus.net/drkrm/filmdev.htm
•   http://caughtinamoment.net/album/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/DSC4...
Work Cited
•   http://enginova.com/B_W%20Photography.htm
•   http://www.ilfordphoto.com/home.asp
•   http://www.cambridgei...
Work Cited
•   http://www.livingroom.org.au/photolog/tips/
    night_and_low_light_digital_photography_tips.php
•   http:/...
SPG B&W Photography
SPG B&W Photography
SPG B&W Photography
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  • Photo: (http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1015/693204745_5067bccd3d_o.jpg)

    -Dad’s hobby
    -Grew up with it
    -Brother’s ‘eye’

    My FATHER had always had a liking to photography. He loves going to events and I believe it’s because it’s just another reason for his to pull out his big bulky camera and snap away. Seeing my father’s admiration for this little ‘hobby’ of his while I was GROWING UP also made me fond of photography. Not necessarily of taking photographs but of looking through photos and on occasion, being the one photographed. I was young and naïve to the art form behind capturing photographs. Also, my BROTHER takes such creative photos and my father always raved about how my brother has the ‘eye’ for photography, so out of the slightest bit of jealousy, I wanted to explore the world of photography, its past and present, in hopes of maybe uncovering this so called ‘eye’ of my own.
  • (http://caughtinamoment.net/album/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/DSC4849.jpg)
    -Around every one of use
    -Owe photography
    -Understand = better pics

    I’m sure that, nowadays, when people flip through magazines, sure, they may take some time and admire the photograph but are they the least bit familiar with the world of photography and how it came about? Imagine what our world would be like today had the invention of photography not come around. Now, I also believe that capturing an appealing photograph is a learned talent that first requires a solid understanding of the basics of the actual camera and other fundamentals.
  • -Color not same in b&w
    -State thesis

    Viewing our color-filled world in black and white is a difficult thing to do. What looks good in color does not always translate well to black and white. After understanding the mechanics of the components of a camera and the fundamentals of black and white photography, not only will an appreciation for monochromatic be built, but also overall appealing photos will be resulted.

  • Tiphaigne de la Roche

    -Gilphantie
    -Died 1778. Decades before first photograph

    Way before photography was possible, Roche wrote a story where it was possible to capture images from nature on a canvas which had been coated with a sticky substance. This substance, so the tale goes, would not only provide a mirror image on the sticky canvas but would retain it. After it dries, the image would be permanent.
    Roche died a few decades before he could have witnessed his story turn from fiction to reality.


  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_%28detail%29.jpg)

    Sir John Herschel

    Term first used in 1839
    Derived from Greek words for (PHOTOS) light and (GRAPHIA) drawing

    The word photography was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839.
    He also coined the terms “positive” and “negative” in this context and “snap-shot”
  • (http://courses.essex.ac.uk/lt/lt204/camera_obscura.gif)

    Two Important Discoveries
    Two scientific processes that allowed photography to be possible
    Optical
    Camera Obscura by da Vinci
    Chemical
    Some colors/chemicals are bleached in the sun
    Camera Obscura- the light from the image on one side of a wall with tiny hole will be flipped on the other side

    Camera Obscura
    (Latin for dark chamber). It is a dark room or a box with a small hole in one wall. An inverted image from outside the hole would appear on the opposite wall. This device would be used to aid drawing by tracing the outline of the image on a canvas hung on the wall and was considered quite significant in the development of proto-photography. (http://www.docstoc.com/docs/679539/The-Wonderful-World-of-Early-Photography)

    Chemical reaction discoveries


    Chemical reaction observed:
    Robert Boyle (1500’s)- silver chloride turned dark under exposure, though he believed it was due to air rather than to the light
    Angelo Sala (1600’s)- powdered nitrate of silver is blackened by the sun
    Johann Heinrich Schulze (1700’s)- discovered that certain liquids change color when exposed to light
    Thomas Wedgwood (1800’s)- while experimenting, he captured the first image, but had no way of making it permanent.

  • (http://media.ebaumsworld.com/mediaFiles/picture/684679/80668577.jpg)

    Taken by JOSEPH NIEPCE in 1827.
    Named ‘View from the Window at Le Gras”
    Took 8 HOURS to expose

    -1827 Niepce produced the first successful picture using material that hardened on exposure to light. This picture required an exposure of 8 hours.
    -1829 Niepce and Louis Daguerre form a partnership
    -1831 4 years from the start of their partnership, Niepce dies. Daguerre continued to experiment.


  • (http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/first-daguerreotype-791116.jpg)

    -Plates
    -8hrs turns to half hour
    -French gov’t buys rights to DAGUERREOTYPE
    -Very expensive
    -One copy


    -1837 He discovered a way of developing photographis plates which reduced exposure time from 8 hours to half an hour. He also found a way to make the image permanent by immersing it in salt. He referred to it as the method of being able to capture a picture without the need of an artist.
    -1839 The French government bought the rights to Daguerre’s ‘invention’. He named is Daguerreotype. The problem with it was that it was very expensive and only made one copy


  • -William Henry Fox Talbot invented Calotype which allowed for multiple copies of a photo.

    -Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a glass plate with different solution that created finer details and higher qualities in photos, but it was still too slow for portraits.

    -1851 Fredrick Scott Archer introduced the collodion process with reduced the exposure time to 2-3 seconds from half an hour. First there was wet collodion but a problem arose with drying out.

    -1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instead of glass as a bases for the photographic plate, leading to Dry Plate Process. *Turning point for convenience sake

    -1860’s Manufacturing of a very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material begin

  • -William Henry Fox Talbot invented Calotype which allowed for multiple copies of a photo.

    -Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a glass plate with different solution that created finer details and higher qualities in photos, but it was still too slow for portraits.

    -1851 Fredrick Scott Archer introduced the collodion process with reduced the exposure time to 2-3 seconds from half an hour. First there was wet collodion but a problem arose with drying out.

    -1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instead of glass as a bases for the photographic plate, leading to Dry Plate Process. *Turning point for convenience sake

    -1860’s Manufacturing of a very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material begin

  • -William Henry Fox Talbot invented Calotype which allowed for multiple copies of a photo.

    -Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a glass plate with different solution that created finer details and higher qualities in photos, but it was still too slow for portraits.

    -1851 Fredrick Scott Archer introduced the collodion process with reduced the exposure time to 2-3 seconds from half an hour. First there was wet collodion but a problem arose with drying out.

    -1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instead of glass as a bases for the photographic plate, leading to Dry Plate Process. *Turning point for convenience sake

    -1860’s Manufacturing of a very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material begin

  • -William Henry Fox Talbot invented Calotype which allowed for multiple copies of a photo.

    -Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a glass plate with different solution that created finer details and higher qualities in photos, but it was still too slow for portraits.

    -1851 Fredrick Scott Archer introduced the collodion process with reduced the exposure time to 2-3 seconds from half an hour. First there was wet collodion but a problem arose with drying out.

    -1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instead of glass as a bases for the photographic plate, leading to Dry Plate Process. *Turning point for convenience sake

    -1860’s Manufacturing of a very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material begin

  • -William Henry Fox Talbot invented Calotype which allowed for multiple copies of a photo.

    -Abel Niepce de Saint-Victor coated a glass plate with different solution that created finer details and higher qualities in photos, but it was still too slow for portraits.

    -1851 Fredrick Scott Archer introduced the collodion process with reduced the exposure time to 2-3 seconds from half an hour. First there was wet collodion but a problem arose with drying out.

    -1871 Dr. Richard Maddox discovered a way of using gelatin instead of glass as a bases for the photographic plate, leading to Dry Plate Process. *Turning point for convenience sake

    -1860’s Manufacturing of a very thin celluloid as a backing for sensitive material begin
  • (http://z.about.com/d/inventors/1/0/e/4/kodak_camera.jpg)

    George Eastman changed the world of photography. Not only did he make it more convenient with the introduction of flexible film, up until this point, photos were taken with the portable dark tents that the photographer stuck their heads in to snap a photograph. He introduced the box camera that no longer required the dark tents. He changed his company to Kodak after the introduction of the box camera because every photograph snapped with the box camera made a ‘koh-dak’ sound.
    (http://www.kodak.com/global/en/corp/historyOfKodak/1878.jhtml?pq-path=2699)

    Owned a dry plate company
    1884
    Introduced flexible film
    1888
    Introduced the box camera
    Kodak was born

  • (http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=camera+b%26w&edit=yes&page=1)
    -The body is the light-tight container designed to hold film and to provide a system of view and focusing.
    -The lens serves three basic function. It provides a way to control the components that vary a photograph: the focus, depth of field, and the amount of light
    -The shutter protects the film from being constantly exposed to light. It acts as the barrier.
  • (http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=camera+b%26w&edit=yes&page=1)
    -The body is the light-tight container designed to hold film and to provide a system of view and focusing.
    -The lens serves three basic function. It provides a way to control the components that vary a photograph: the focus, depth of field, and the amount of light
    -The shutter protects the film from being constantly exposed to light. It acts as the barrier.
  • (http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=camera+b%26w&edit=yes&page=1)
    -The body is the light-tight container designed to hold film and to provide a system of view and focusing.
    -The lens serves three basic function. It provides a way to control the components that vary a photograph: the focus, depth of field, and the amount of light
    -The shutter protects the film from being constantly exposed to light. It acts as the barrier.

  • The container MUST be light-tight of the light that seeps through will expose the film before it is actually used, which will in turn ruin the photographs on the role of film. The body is basically the house that holds the film and allows for a system of viewing and focusing. The film will be where the photos are documented and the system of viewing and focusing will allow for more control over the actual photographs.

    The film that the camera holds is different depending on the camera. It also sometimes classifies the camera according to the film they use. The films vary in type and size, film format, and the number of exposures. The film format refers to the size of the actual negative and the number of exposures refers to the number of photographs one package of film can take. (Hornstein, 11)
  • A viewing system provides a means of seeing what the film will record. In other words, it will show the photographer what the picture will look like. A focusing system provides a method of creating a sharp and clear image on the film.







  • Viewfinder cameras have a simple viewer and no focusing system. The viewer indicates approximately what the final picture will look like. The focusing is generally fixed and cannot be adjusted. This camera is very simple and generally inexpensive. Because of it’s limited control, this type of camera offered little or no control of exposure. Because the viewfinder and the actual lens are not in the same location, what is seen through the viewfinder will not be what is transferred to the film.


  • Rangefinder-The images in a rangefinder camera is viewed through a glass viewer, generally located on the top of the camera and to the left of the lens. In the viewer, there is a white rectangle that shows what the lens sees. Unlike the viewfinder camera, in a rangefinder, there are two mirrors that reflect the image seen through the lens up to the viewer. The image enters in two places; the first mirror turns on a pivot as the lens is focused. The image form the first mirror reflects off the second mirror and through the viewer. The image is superimposed (laid over top one another) over a second image that enters directly through the viewer. As the lens is focused the mirror turns in such a way that the two images overlap perfectly and become one.

  • SLR-Single lens reflex cameras (also known as SLR cameras) have a more direct system of viewing and focusing. The subject is viewed in the viewer directly through the lens, showing exactly what the lens see which is how it differs from viewfinder and rangefinder cameras. When the picture is taken, the mirror between the lens and film swings upward, allowing the film to be exposed. The image enters through the lens, is reflected off a mirror, and moves upward to a ground glass. By turning the lens, the image becomes focused onto the ground glass. The image is seen by looking through the viewer to a mirror that leads down to the ground glass.
  • TRL-Twin lens reflex cameras have two separate lens; one on top of each other. The top lens is the viewing lens and the bottom lens is the lens that takes the photograph. It is the lens responsible for developing the film, The camera body is comprised of two main chambers, one lens in each. Light enters through the top lens and is reflects up by a fixed mirror to a viewing screen. The image will appear to be flipped. At the same time, the image is viewed through the bottom lens and directly exposes the film.
  • View and Press- View and press cameras are generally only used by serious amateurs and working professionals. These cameras produce sharper, more detailed because larger negatives produce more detail and sharpness than small negatives and these cameras use a larger film format, meaning the size of the negatives are large. A tripod is a necessity, making it impossible for candid and fast-action photography.
  • Photo: (http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/images/camera%20lens%20up%20close.JPG)

    The camera lens is a necessary part of a camera that allows the photographer to have more control over various components that make up a photograph. 3 basic function
    Controlling the focus
    Controlling the amount of light
    Controlling the depth of field

    The focus on a photograph is important to showcase what part of the photo the viewer should focus their attention on. Being able to control the light is another important aspect of capturing photographs, as well as the depth of field (or the amount of the photograph is in clear focus)
    (Hornstein, 21)
  • Photo: (http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/images/camera%20lens%20up%20close.JPG)

    The camera lens is a necessary part of a camera that allows the photographer to have more control over various components that make up a photograph. 3 basic function
    Controlling the focus
    Controlling the amount of light
    Controlling the depth of field

    The focus on a photograph is important to showcase what part of the photo the viewer should focus their attention on. Being able to control the light is another important aspect of capturing photographs, as well as the depth of field (or the amount of the photograph is in clear focus)
    (Hornstein, 21)
  • Photo: (http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/images/camera%20lens%20up%20close.JPG)

    The camera lens is a necessary part of a camera that allows the photographer to have more control over various components that make up a photograph. 3 basic function
    Controlling the focus
    Controlling the amount of light
    Controlling the depth of field

    The focus on a photograph is important to showcase what part of the photo the viewer should focus their attention on. Being able to control the light is another important aspect of capturing photographs, as well as the depth of field (or the amount of the photograph is in clear focus)
    (Hornstein, 21)
  • Lens controls focus.

    Focusing the camera requires a change in the distance from the lens to the film. The closer the subject is, the further the lens has to be from the film and when the subject is furthers, the lens must move closer to the film. In most 35mm cameras, the focus can simply be adjusted by turning a ring that moves the lens back and forth. In view and press cameras, the bellows of cotton separate the lens from the film. They can be adjusted, stretching and contracting to focus the image.
  • Lens- Controlling the Amount of Light
    -very important
    ----too much= washed out
    ----not enough= dark

    Being about to control the amount of light that reacts with the film is very important. Too much light will produce a washed out photo while not enough light will produce a very dark photo. In every lens, there is an aperture which allows for greater control over the amount of light that enters the lens.
    The lens controls the amount of light that hits the film by using the aperture.

    (Hornstein, 21)
  • Lens- Controlling the Amount of Light: Aperture
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aperures.jpg)
    (http://www.shortcourses.com/images/b4ch1/aperture.jpg)


    Every lens has an adjustable hole that allows light through called an aperture. There are several aperture choices: the aperture can be opened wide to let in more light or closed small to keep out light. This is extremely important since the amount of light traveling through to the film must be correct.

    (click)

    f-stop
    -larger number= smaller hole
    -‘set’ numbers. Setting doubles amount of light from prev.

    F-stop is the designation used to indicate the aperture opening of the lens. The larger the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture opening; the smaller the number, the larger the opening. A lens set at f 2 will allow much more light through than a lens set at f 16. These ‘set’ numbers are important because each f-stop setting doubles the amount of light let through the lens of the previous setting.

  • The depth of field is the amount of depth the photograph will focus on. Under some circumstances, it is more appropriate to have the whole frame in focus, while other circumstances will create a more appealing photograph if only a small amount of the photograph is in focus. The depth of field can be controlled by changing the f-stop, the actual distance from the subject and the focal length.
    (Hornstein, 23-7)
    Dependant on the…
    Aperture
    Distance
    Focal length
  • The depth of field is the amount of depth the photograph will focus on. Under some circumstances, it is more appropriate to have the whole frame in focus, while other circumstances will create a more appealing photograph if only a small amount of the photograph is in focus. The depth of field can be controlled by changing the f-stop, the actual distance from the subject and the focal length.
    (Hornstein, 23-7)
    Dependant on the…
    Aperture
    Distance
    Focal length
  • The depth of field is the amount of depth the photograph will focus on. Under some circumstances, it is more appropriate to have the whole frame in focus, while other circumstances will create a more appealing photograph if only a small amount of the photograph is in focus. The depth of field can be controlled by changing the f-stop, the actual distance from the subject and the focal length.
    (Hornstein, 23-7)
    Dependant on the…
    Aperture
    Distance
    Focal length
  • Left: small f-stop number= large aperture= small depth of field
    Right: large f-stop number= smaller aperture= larger depth of field
  • Left: taken about 2.5 feet away. Small depth of field
    Right: few yards further back resulted in a larger depth of field.

    The f-stop and focal length stayed consistent
  • The focal length refers to the distance of the lens to the film

    (draw range angle diagram on chalkboard)
    The further the lens gets, the smaller the angle range gets.
  • The main purpose of the shutter is to protect the film form constant exposure. It also controls the time and the movement of the photo. Controlling the time refers to the shutter speed. The numbers are all under one in a fraction format but on the dials only the denominator is show so, the larger the number on the dial, the faster the shutter opens and closes. If movement of the subject wants to be capture, the camera must stay still while the subject moves while the shutter is open. (click) If you want the subject to be clear with a blurred background, you’d have to focus on the moving subject and move the camera with the subject. (click)

    shutter speed: length of time the shutter is left open to expose film.





  • The main purpose of the shutter is to protect the film form constant exposure. It also controls the time and the movement of the photo. Controlling the time refers to the shutter speed. The numbers are all under one in a fraction format but on the dials only the denominator is show so, the larger the number on the dial, the faster the shutter opens and closes. If movement of the subject wants to be capture, the camera must stay still while the subject moves while the shutter is open. (click) If you want the subject to be clear with a blurred background, you’d have to focus on the moving subject and move the camera with the subject. (click)

    shutter speed: length of time the shutter is left open to expose film.





  • There are two different kinds of shutters
    -leaf shutter
    older cameras had this until an uneven exposure was noticed. The center would be exposed longer than the sides.
    -focal plane shutter
    consists of two layers of shutters to ensure an even exposure

  • What is Black & White Photography?
    “It creates a grayscale map of brightness distribution of the subject, losing color information in the process (Ang, Tom 202)”

    -See reflected light
    -Focus on texture (varying shades of grey rather than color)

    -Instead of seeing the colors, you are seeing the amount of light that is reflected from the surface of that object. Light colors reflecting more light. Dark colors absorbing more light.
    -Black and white photographs capture the different textures of objects.
    That becomes the focus rather then colors
  • Appeal of Black & White

    -Contrast/depth is the focus
    -Textures distinct

    Rather than focusing on the colors, contrast and depth become the focus. Textures that are often overpowered by colors become more distinct in black and white. Also, we all see the world in full color so black and white photographs, though sounding arbitrary since those colors can sometimes be described as plain and boring.

    Other factors that make black & white appealing:
    -Black and white film is cheaper
    -Can tolerates more exposure/lighting errors than color film
    -can shoot in a wide range of lighting conditions.

  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • Low lighting. The low lighting means less exposure which ends with low contrast

    look for textures. Because the print will be monochromatic, the more texture you capture, the more captivating the photograph will be.
  • (http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=35mm%20film%20negatives&page=2&edit=yes&com=no)
    Developing the film to create a negative that is then placed into an enlarger, projecting the image on the negative on to special photographic paper. The paper is then put through the developing process.
  • -Use can opener to open the flat end of the film canister.
    -pull out roll of film. CAREFUL not to touch emulsion
    -wind on reel
    -place on post
    -drop into tank with wider end towards the bottom
    -place lid. point end down like a funnel.

  • Solution= 10mL/roll

    68 degrees D76
    Depending on film (read chart with film purchase)
    Tri-X 400 (10mL D76)
    Plus-X 125 (5mL D76 + 5mL water)
    8 minutes (agitate and tap every minute)

    water change 3x

    Fixer (reusable)
    3 minutes (agitate and tap every 30 secs)

    (REMOVE LIGHT-TIGHT LID)

    5 min water bath (change water every minute)

    Perma Wash solution (1/4 cap full + 32 fl oz water)
    30 sec (continuous agitation)

    Distilled water+ one drop of LFN
    30 sec (swish around)

    gently pull film off reel
    squeegee water off film
    hang to dry
  • Make test strip

    Developer 1 min
    Stop bath 5 sec
    Fixer 2 mins
    Water 2.5 mins

    Make print with proper time exposure
    Repeat development process
  • -Coated with light-sensitive chemicals
    -Water acts as fixer

    The nature print paper is coated with light-sensitive chemicals, which react to light waves and particles when exposed to light. When you place objects on the paper, they block the light and turn white while the paper around them remains blue. Water stops the process and fixes your images on the paper. Learn about the nature of sunlight and how light-sensitive chemicals work. From here, launch a discussion about how color photos are developed, as each layer of chemicals on the film react to photons of different color.




  • SPG B&W Photography

    1. 1. Black & White Photography By: Janella Datu
    2. 2. Overview • Powerpoint – History of Photography – Components of a camera – Black and white Fundamentals – B&W film photography • Portfolio – Print – http:// janelladatu.carbonmade.com • Sun Printing – Inside: Layout – Outside: Expose and Fix • Conclusion
    3. 3. Personal Relevance Personal
    4. 4. Audience Relevance 4
    5. 5. Thesis: After understanding the mechanics of a camera and the fundamentals of black and white photography, not only will an appreciation for monochromatic be created, but also, appealing photos will a result.
    6. 6. How it all 6
    7. 7. Photograp hy
    8. 8. Photograp hy phōtó s
    9. 9. Photograp hy phōtó s of light
    10. 10. Photograp hy + phōtó s of light
    11. 11. Photograp hy +graphi phōtó s a of light
    12. 12. Photograp hy +graphi phōtó s a of drawin light g
    13. 13. Photograp hy +graphi phōtó s a drawin g of light
    14. 14. Photograp hy +graphi phōtó s a drawinof g light
    15. 15. “The camera obscura was a building block in the development of the camera. (Ang, Tom 74)”
    16. 16. World’s First
    17. 17. World’s First Daguerreotype 10
    18. 18. Calotype that allowed for multiple copies
    19. 19. Calotype that allowed for multiple copies Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer
    20. 20. Calotype that allowed for multiple copies Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer Collodion (wet) Process reduced exposure time to
    21. 21. Calotype that allowed for multiple copies Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer Collodion (wet) Process reduced exposure time to Dry Plate Process increased convenience.
    22. 22. Calotype that allowed for multiple copies Glass plate with smoother coating for clearer Collodion (wet) Process reduced exposure time to Dry Plate Process increased convenience. Mass manufacturing of very thin celluliod as a
    23. 23. George Eastman
    24. 24. Compone nts of the
    25. 25. The body Compone nts of the
    26. 26. The body The len Compone nts of the
    27. 27. The body The len The shutter Compone nts of the
    28. 28. The Body The Body
    29. 29. The Camera Body • A light-tight container • Designed to… – Hold the film – Provide a system of viewing and focusing.
    30. 30. The Camera Body: Viewing & Focusing Systems • Common viewing and focusing systems: – Viewfinder – Rangefinder – Single lens reflex (SLR) – Twin lens reflex (TLR) – View and press camera (Hornstein, 13)
    31. 31. Viewing and Focusing Systems: Viewfinder http:// http://www.stsite.com/camera/ magnetiquemtl.files.wordpress.com/ images/parallex.gif 2008/08/polaroid-camera.jpg
    32. 32. Viewing and Focusing Systems: Rangefinder • Contains two mirrors • Unlike viewfinder, focusing is necessary http://images.trustedreviews.com/images/article/inline/ 2102-1.jpg (Hornstein, 11)
    33. 33. Viewing and Focusing Systems: Single Lens Reflex (SLR) • Complex mechanism used to allow for through-the-lens viewing. http://www.vintagephoto.tv/saletradeimages/canonfx1.j (Ang, 94)
    34. 34. Viewing and Focusing Systems: Twin Lens Reflex (TLR) • TLR cameras have two lenses. – Top lens- viewing lens – Bottom lens- taking lens http://www.freestylephoto.biz/images/prod/ 30131.jpg (Ang, 94)
    35. 35. Viewing and Focusing Systems: View and Press • Produce more detail and sharpness by using large film formats • Drawback: http://www.electricedge.com/gordon.coale/ extremely bulky photography/equipment/lfh/images/ speed_graphic-350.jpg (http://www.ted.photographer.org.uk/camera_types.htm)
    36. 36. The
    37. 37. - Focus The
    38. 38. - - Amount of Focus Light The
    39. 39. - - Amount of Focus - Depth of Light Field The
    40. 40. NOT in in focus
    41. 41. Effect of Light Not Too 24
    42. 42. Effect of Light Not Too 24
    43. 43. • Aperture: an adjustable hole that allows light through. Name used to indicate the aperture size opening (Hornstein, 22)
    44. 44. • Depth of field: the zone form the point closest to the camera to the point farthest that is SMALL DEPTH OF LARGE DEPTH OF
    45. 45. • Depth of field: the zone form the point closest to the camera to the point farthest that is SMALL DEPTH OF - Aperture LARGE DEPTH OF
    46. 46. • Depth of field: the zone form the point closest to the camera to the point farthest that is SMALL DEPTH OF - - Aperture Distance LARGE DEPTH OF
    47. 47. • Depth of field: the zone form the point closest to the camera to the point farthest that is SMALL DEPTH OF - - Aperture -Focal Distance LARGE length DEPTH OF
    48. 48. Depth of Field: f 1.4 f 22 Focal length: Focal length: 50mm 50mm
    49. 49. Depth of Field: f5 f5 Focal length: 50mm Focal length: 50mm
    50. 50. Wide Angle Focal length: 10mm Normal Focal length: 17mm Telephoto Focal length: 70mm
    51. 51. The Shutte
    52. 52. The Shutte
    53. 53. The Shutte
    54. 54. Black and White
    55. 55. “It creates a grayscale map of brightness distribution of the subject, losing color information in the process
    56. 56. “Many photographers still choose to work in black and white because they appreciate its abstract qualities and the way in which it removes the distractions
    57. 57. Black and White 35
    58. 58. Black and White • Shoot in low 35
    59. 59. Black and White • Shoot in low 35
    60. 60. Black and White • Find • Shoot in low 35
    61. 61. Black and White • Find • Shoot in low 35
    62. 62. Black and White • Find • Shoot in low • Frame to 35
    63. 63. Black and White • Find • Shoot in low • Frame to 35
    64. 64. Film Photography
    65. 65. Preparing the
    66. 66. Fast forward of the • video
    67. 67. Making prints • video
    68. 68. Sun Print Paper • Step 1- Layout your design (not on the paper) • Step 2- Open the plates and lay your objects on the blue side of the paper and then cover with the plate • Step 3- Let’s go outside! Expose the paper (take of the top cover plate) and allow it to sit in the sun for about 1-2 minutes or until you see that the paper has turned a bit lighter 40
    69. 69. Work Cited • http://digital-photography-school.com/5-black-and-white-photography-tips • http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/aperture • http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-lenses.htm • (http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/beginnin.htm) • (http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Richter-NotebooksOfLeonardo/section-2/images/0071- q75-644x596.jpg) • (http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/beginnin.htm) • http://digital-photography-school.com/5-black-and-white-photography-tips • http://www.luminous-landscape.com/columns/portfolio-8.shtml • http://www.docstoc.com/docs/679539/The-Wonderful-World-of-Early-Photography • http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/masteringapertureandshutterspeed.htm • http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/product/1354 • http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/beginnin.htm • http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2008/06/09/beautiful-black-and-white-photography/ • http://www.photogs.com/bwworld/bwfilmdev.html • http://www.darkroomsource.net/tech-bw-film.shtml
    70. 70. Work Cited • http://www3.telus.net/drkrm/filmdev.htm • http://caughtinamoment.net/album/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/DSC4849.jpg • http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1015/693204745_5067bccd3d_o.jpg • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_John_Herschel_with_Cap_by_Julia_Margaret_Cameron_ %28detail%29.jpg • http://courses.essex.ac.uk/lt/lt204/camera_obscura.gif • http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/history/beginnin.htm • http://media.ebaumsworld.com/mediaFiles/picture/684679/80668577.jpg • http://classes.design.ucla.edu/Spring07/9-1/uploaded_images/first-daguerreotype-791116.jpg • http://z.about.com/d/inventors/1/0/e/4/kodak_camera.jpg • http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=camera+b%26w&edit=yes&page=1 • http://magnetiquemtl.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/polaroid-camera.jpg http://www.stsite.com/camera/images/parallex.gif • http://images.trustedreviews.com/images/article/inline/2102-1.jpg • http://www.freestylephoto.biz/images/prod/30131.jpg • http://www.electricedge.com/gordon.coale/photography/equipment/lfh/images/speed_graphic-350.jpg • (http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/images/camera%20lens%20up%20close.JPG) • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aperures.jpg)
    71. 71. Work Cited • http://enginova.com/B_W%20Photography.htm • http://www.ilfordphoto.com/home.asp • http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/depth-of-field.htm • http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/camera-metering.htm • http://www.dofmaster.com/dofjs.html • http://www.digicamhelp.com/camera-features/advanced-settings/aperture/ • http://www.digitalphotographysecrets.com/flowerphotography.htm • http://digital-photography-school.com/photography-101-lenses-light-and- magnification • http://photo.net/learn/making-photographs/exposure • http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/camera.htm •
    72. 72. Work Cited • http://www.livingroom.org.au/photolog/tips/ night_and_low_light_digital_photography_tips.php • http://www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/studentwebs/session2/group60/sciencefilm %20development.htm • http://flickrcc.bluemountains.net/index.php?terms=35mm%20film %20negatives&page=2&edit=yes&com=no • http://www.ted.photographer.org.uk/camera_types.htm • http://www.kodak.com/global/en/corp/historyOfKodak/1878.jhtml?pq-path=2699 44
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